Advanced Ceramics find wide range of industrial applications. Cutting of advanced ceramic (SiC) is very difficult using conventional machining methods due to its low fracture toughness. In the past few years, researchers have claimed successful machining of ceramic composites using EDM process. Furthermore, increasing trend, necessity of miniaturization, micro components in MEMS and semiconductor industry, micro mould and dies, furnace, micro injection, stamping, fuel nozzles, micro probes, photo-masks and micro tools. etc, have demanded the development of micro-machining methods for advanced ceramics. Therefore, this research was focused on micro hole drilling-EDM of SiC. The optimization of micro drilling in electrical discharge machining process parameters of SiC to improve the multiple performance characteristics such as, high material removal rate, low electrode wear ,surface finish and accurate over cut was investigated and optimized by the Grey-Taguchi method. The influences of peak current, pulse on-time, pulse off-time and spark gap on electrode wear (EW), material removal rate (MRR), circularity(CIR), taper ratio(TR) and overcut (OC) in the micro drilling operation using EDM of SiC were analyzed. The experimental results show that high MRR, low TWR, accurate OC, better CIR, better TR under the micro drilling electrical discharge machining. Hence, it is clearly shown that multiple performance characteristics can be improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method.
Keywords : Sink EDM; electrode wear; material removal rate; over cut; CIR, TR, Grey-Taguchi method
 Bhaduri, D.; Kuar, A.S.; Sarkar, S.; Biswas, S.K.; Mitra, S. Electro discharge machining of titanium nitride-aluminium oxide composite for optimum process criteria yield. Materials and Manufacturing Process 2009, 24 (12), 1312-1320.  Ahmad, N.; Sueyoshi, H. Microstructure and mechanical properties of silicon nitride–titanium nitride composites prepared by spark plasma sintering. Material Research Bulletin 2011, 46 (3), 460-463.  Wei, C.; Zhao, L.; Hu, D.; Ni, J. Electrical discharge machining of ceramic matrix composites with ceramic fiber reinforcements. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 2013, 64 (1-4), 187-194.  Jiang, D.; Vleugels, J.; Van der Biest, O.; Liu, W.D.; Verheyen, R.; Lauwers, B. Electrically conductive and wear resistant Si3N4-based composites with TiC0. 5N0. 5 particles for electrical discharge machining. Material Science Forum 2005, 492, 27-32.  Ahmad, N.; Sueyoshi, H. Densification and Mechanical Properties of Electro conductive Si3N4 -Based Composites Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering. Sains Malaysiana 2012, 41, 1005-1009.  Sanchez, J.A.; Cabanes, I.; de Lacalle, L.L.; Lamikiz, A. Development of optimum electro discharge machining technology for advanced ceramics. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 2001, 18 (12), 897-905.  Puertas, I.; Luis, C.J. A study on the electrical discharge machining of conductive ceramics. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2004, 153, 1033-1038.  Ahmad, N; Sueyoshi, H. Properties of Si3N4–TiN composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering by using a mixture of Si3N4 and Ti powders. Ceramics International 2010, 36 (2), 491-496.  Drawin, S.; Justin, J.F. Advanced Lightweight Silicide and Nitride Based Materials for Turbo-Engine Applications. Onera—the French Aerospace Lab Journal 2011, 3, 1-13.  Muttamara, A.; Janmanee, P.; Fukuzawa, Y. A Study of Micro–EDM on Silicon Nitride Using Electrode Materials. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies 2010, 1 (1), 1-7.  Dey, S.; Roy, D.C. Experimental Study Using Different Tools/Electrodes EG Copper, Graphite on MRR of EDM Process and Selecting The Best One for Maximum MRR in Optimum Condition. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research 2013, 3 (3), 1263-1267.  Puertas, I.; Luis, C.J. Optimization of EDM conditions in the manufacturing process of B4C and WC-Co conductive ceramics. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 2012, 59 (5-8), 575-582.  Singh, P.N.; Raghukandan, K.; Pai, B.C. Optimization by Grey relational analysis of EDM parameters on machining Al–10% SiCP composites. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2004, 155, 1658-1661.  Chiabert, P.; Lombardi, F.; Orlando, M. Benefits of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 1998, 78(1), 29-35.  Arockia Jaswin, M.; Mohan Lal, D. Optimization of the cryogenic treatment process for En 52 valve steel using the Grey-Taguchi method. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 2010, 25 (8), 842-850.  Vijay Kumar, M.; Singh Azad, M. Grey relational analysis of micro-EDM machining of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 2012, 27, 973– 977.  Lin, Y.C.; Lee, H.S. Optimization of machining parameters using magnetic force-assisted EDM based on gray relational analysis. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 2009, 42 (11-12), 1052-1064.  Kumar, A.; Maheshwari, S.; Sharma, C.; Beri, N. A study of multi objective parametric optimization of silicon abrasive mixed electrical discharge machining of tool steel. Materials and Manufacturing processes 2010, 25(10), 1041-1047.  Baraskar, S.S.; Banwait, S.S.; Laroiya, S.C. Multi objective optimization of electrical discharge machining process using a hybrid method. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 2013, 28 (4), 348–354.  Muthuramalingam, T.; Mohan, B. Influence of discharge current pulse on machinability in electrical discharge machining. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 2013, 28 (4), 375–380.  Souza, C. C.; Arencibia, R. V.; Costa, H. L.; Piratelli Filho, A. A contribution to the measurement of circularity and cylindricity deviations. In ABCM Symposium Series in Mechatronics 2012, 5, 791.  Selvarajan, L.; Narayanan, C. S.; Jeyapaul, R. Optimization of Process Parameters to Improve Form and Orientation Tolerances in EDM of MoSi2-SiC Composites. Materials and Manufacturing Processes 2014, doi:10.1080/10426914.2014.962041.  Hyun-Kyu Yooa, Ji-HyeKoa, Kwang-Young Limb, WonTaeKwona,n, Young-Wook Kimb. Micro-electrical discharge machining characteristics of newly developed conductive SiC ceramic. Ceramics International41(2015)3490–3496  Mustafa Ay & Ulaş Çaydaş & Ahmet Hasçalık. Optimization of micro-EDM drilling of inconel 718 Super alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2013) 66:1015–1023.DOI 10.1007/s00170-012-4385-8.  Krishna Kumar Saxenaa,n, Anand Suman Srivastava b, SanjayAgarwal b , Experimental investigation into the micro-EDM characteristics of conductive SiC , Ceramics International ,http:/dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.09.11.
Now a days, Cloud computing is an emerging technology, which is a new society for providing remote computing resources through a network. Cloud providers have many problems like getting an energy-efficiency control and satisfying a performance guarantee in cloud. In this paper, we implement three power-saving policies in cloud systems in order to reduce server idle power. To get optimize operational cost within a performance guarantee; we study the challenges of controlling service rates and applying the N-policy. Here we develop a cost function that includes the costs of power consumption, server startups and system congestion. Here we explain the operating modes, incurred costs and the effect of energy-efficiency controls on response times. To minimize cost within a response time under varying arrival rate by finding the optimal service rate and mode-switching restriction is our objectives. We propose an algorithm called Efficient Green Control (EGC) algorithm which is developed for solving optimization problems and making costs or performances tradeoffs in systems with different power-saving policies. By applying the power-saving policies combined with the proposed algorithm, we get our result that the benefits of reducing operational costs and improving response time. Cloud Computing, Energy Efficient, Power Saving, Response Time
Keywords : Cloud Computing, Energy Efficient, Power Saving, Response Time
 G. Wang and T. E. Ng, “The impact of virtualization on network performance of amazon ec2 data center,” in Proc. IEEE Proc. INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 1–9.  R. Ranjan, L. Zhao, X. Wu, A. Liu, A. Quiroz, and M. Parashar, “Peer-to-peer cloud provisioning: Service discovery and load-balancing,”in Cloud Computing. London, U.K.: Springer, 2010, pp. 195–217.  R. N. Calheiros, R. Ranjan, and R. Buyya, “Virtual machine provisioning based on analytical performance and QoS in cloud computing environments,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Parallel Process., 2011, pp. 295–304.  Server virtualization has stalled, despite the hype [Online]. Available: http://www.infoworld.com/print/146901, 2010.  Y. C. Lee and A. Y. Zomaya, “Energy efficient utilization of resources in cloud computing systems,” J. Supercomput., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 268–280, 2012.  Beloglazov, R. Buyya, Y. C. Lee, and A. Zomaya, “A taxonomy and survey of energy-efficient data centers and cloud computing systems,” Adv. Comput., vol. 82, pp. 47–111, 2011.  R. Buyya, C. S. Yeo, S. Venugopal, J. Broberg, and I. Brandic, “Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility,” Future Generation Comput. Syst., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 599–616, 2009.  L. Wang, G. Von Laszewski, A. Younge, X. He, M. Kunze, J. Tao, and C. Fu, “Cloud computing: A perspective study,” New Generation Comput., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 137–146, 2010.  R. Ranjan, R. Buyya, and M. Parashar, “Special section on autonomic cloud computing: Technologies, services, and applications,” Concurrency Comput.: Practice Exp., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 935–937, 2012.  M. Yadin and P. Naor, “Queueing systems with a removable service station,” Operations Res., vol . 14, pp. 393–405, 1963.
Due to the rigorous environmental policy Organizations of several countries are facing difficulties and are forced to follow extended manufacturer task to diminish sources of waste and pollution throughout the Supply Chain (SC).This led to the conversion of traditional Supply Chain Management (SCM) in to Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) where the manufacturer takes the responsibility from birth of the product to the cradle. The decision makers of GSCM are facing tedious situation not only in Forward flow of products and information but also in Reverse flow of products and information in the form of uncertainties like supply, process and demand. Cloud Computing (CC) develops as an important tool in reducing this by providing services such as infrastructure, platform and software with the aid of Internet. In this paper the application of Cloud Computing for GSCM has been discussed in brief and also explains the benefit and demerit of using CC for GSCM.
Keywords : GSCM, CC, Forward and Reverse Flow
 Guide Jr, V. Daniel R., and Luk N. Van Wassenhove. (2006), Feature issue on Closed loop Supply Chains, Production Operations Management 15.3&15.4.  T. Davis (1993), Effective Supply Chain Management, Sloan Management Science, pp.35-46.  Galbraith J., (1973), Designing complex organizations. Addison- Wesley, Massachusetts.  Eirini Et al., (2013) Using Cloud Computing in Supply Chain Management. Application for evolving Business, pp.218- 232.  Cloud Computing Implementation, Management, and Security John W. Rittinghouse, James F. Ransome, CRC Press.  Armbrust M et al (2009). Above the clouds: a Berkeley view of cloud computing. UC Berkeley Technical Report  Harshala Bhoi (2014) Cloud Computing for SCM, IJIERT, Volume 1 Issue 2, 2014.  Tiwari, Animesh, and Megha Jain.(2013) "Analysis of Supply Chain Management in Cloud Computing." International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering 3.5 (2013): 152-155.  Thomas Schramm, Jonathan wright, Dirk Seng and Derk Jones “Six questions every supply chain executive should ask about Cloud Computing”, ACC10-2460/11-241, Available: http://www.accenture.com/.../10-2460-Supply_Chain_Cloud_PoV_vfinal.pdf
Digital image correlation and tracking (DIC) is an optical method that employs tracking and image registration techniques for accurate 2D and 3D measurements of changes in images. This is often used to measure deformation, displacement, strain. Intensity Integration Technique and Line summation method are one of DIC Techniques. The purpose of this research is to identify the similarities between the Intensity Integration Technique and Line Summation method for Cantilever beam under the given loading conditions where the slope and curvature is found out for mirror like reflective surfaces. In Intensity Integration Technique (IIT) for small deformation, it is assumed that total amount of light reflected by a designated area on the surface would be same before and after deformation when there is no change in illumination (conservation of the total quantity of reﬂected light). Line summation method is a grid method where the optical strain of grid lines is related to slope and curvature of the loaded beams (Theory of bending). The spacing between two grid lines is unaltered under no load condition and spacing changes when it is in loaded condition. Thus, the strain is related to slope and curvature. These findings may be useful in study of material deformation, nature of defect (inclusion and void) and crack propagation in real-world applications, as it has the potential to become a cheap, simple yet accurate solution.
Keywords : Correlation, IIT, optical strain, deformation, line, summation, slope, curvature, reflective
 G.Subramanian and R.Arunagiri, “Reﬂecting grid method for curvature and twist.” Journal of Strain (1981), 17(3), 87–88.  G.Subramanian and V.R.Jagannath, “Surface contouring of reﬂecting plates using intensity integration technique”. Journal of Experimental Mechanics (2001), 37(4), 159– 165.  Theocaris, P. S., “Moire fringes in strain analysis”, Pergamon Press, Oxford, (1969), 241  Chiang, F. P. and Bailangadi, M., “A method for direct determination of small curvatures”, Journal of App. Mech., 42(1), (1975), 29-31  Ligtenberg, F. K., “The Moire method-a new experimental method for the determination of moments in small slab models”, Proc. SESA, 12(II),(1954), 83-98
Composite plays a vital role in material science especially in the field of aerospace, marine, automobile, military and structural applications. It consists of two or more physically and chemically distinct phases. The composite has hybrid characteristics than those of individual components. Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) is those which are based on metals as matrix. Usually the reinforcing component is distributed in the continuous or matrix component. MMC focuses mainly on a relatively high strength and wear resistance applications. Aluminium Matrix Composites (AMC) is one in which Aluminium is the matrix and it has the property of high strength to weight ratio. The purpose of the work is to process and to determine the mechanical properties of AA2219-TiCp.Aluminum Matrix reinforced with TiCp composite was produced using modified stir casting process. Five different weight % of TiCp addition were performed without defects. The weight fractions used were 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%. The colour optical graphs, XRD, EDX analysis revealed the presence of TiC in the cast AMC. Tensile test, micro-hardness test shows the clear indication of considerable increase in Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS) when the percentage of TiCp addition was increased.
Keywords : Composite, Casting, Tensile Strength, Hardness, X ray Diffraction
 Ajay Singh, Love Kumar, Mohit Chaudhary, Om Narayan, PallavSharma, Piyush Singh, Bhaskar Chandra Kandpal, Som Ashutosh, (2013),Manufacturing of AMMCs using stir casting process and testing its mechanical properties, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology;vol. Iv,(No.iii),pp. 26-29.  Balasivanandha Prabu S , Karunamoorthy L , Kathiresan S ,Mohan B,(2006),Influence of stirring speed and stirring time on distribution of particles in cast metal matrix composite, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (No.171), pp.268-273.  Belete Sirahbizu Yigezu, D. Venkateswarlu, M.M. Mahapatra, P.K. Jha, N.R. Mandal, (2014), On friction stir butt welding of Al + 12Si/10 wt% TiC in situ composite, Materials & Design, Vol.54,pp.1019-1027.  Bharath V, Mahadev Nagaral, Auradi.V, (2012),Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of Al2O3 reinforced 6061Al particulate MMC’s, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology,(No. 1),pp.1-6.  Boon peng chang, Hazizan Md Akil, Ramdziah Bt Nasir,Abbas Khann , (2015),Optimization on wear performance of UHMWPE composites using response surface methodology , Tribology International,No. 88,pp. 252-262.  Gopalakrishnan S, Murugan N (2012),Production and wear characterization of AA6061 matrix titanium carbide particulate reinforced composite by enhanced stir casting method ,Composite part B; vo.l43,pp.302-308.  Malek Ali, Fadhel M.I, Alghoul M.A, Zaharim A, Sopian K,(2012),Synthesis and characterization of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with various ratio of TiC for light devices, International Journal of Models and Methods in Applied Science,pp.169-174.  Mallesh G, Manjunatha H. S, Pradeep Kumar V. G, Rakesh D. R,(2015),Mechanical and tribiological properties of aluminium A16061 alloy reinforced with SiCp, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Technology,vol. 5,pp.111-117.  Mohsen Barmouz, Mohammad Kazem Besharati Givi,(2011),Fabrication of in situ Cu/SiC composites using multi-pass friction stir processing: Evaluation of microstructural, porosity, mechanical and electrical behavior Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol.42(No.10),pp.1445- 1453.  Nami, H. Adgi, M. Sharifitabar, H. Shamabadi, (2011), Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al/Mg2Si metal matrix cast composite, Materials & Design, Vol.32(No. 2), pp.976-983.  Pardeep Sharma, Dinesh Khanduja, Satpal Sharma,(2015),Dry sliding wear investigation of Al6082/Gr metal matrix composites by response surface methodology ,Journal of Materials Research and Technology,  Rajeshkumar Gangaram Bhandare, Parshuram M. Sonawane,(2014),Preparation of aluminium matrix composite by using stir casting method and it’s characterization, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology; (no.3),pp.148-155.  Ramesh D, Swamy R.P , Chandrashekar T.k , (2010),Effect of weight percentage on mechanical properties of frit particulate reinforced Al6061 composite , Journal of Engineering And Applied Sciences;Vol.5(No.1),pp. 32-36.  Shubham Mathur, Alok Barnawal , (2013),Effect of process parameter of stir casting on metal matrix composites, International Journal of Science and Research; Vol.2,pp.395-398.  Siddesh Kumar N.G, Ravindranath V.M, Shiva Shankar G.S , (2014),Mechanical and wear behavior of aluminum metal matrix hybrid composite, Procedia Materials Science; Vol.5,pp. 908 -917.  Surya Sulaiman, Shamsuddin Sulaiman, Nur najmiyah Jaafar , Nor imrah Yusoff, (2014),Studies on tensile properties of titanium carbide (TiC) particulates composites Journal of Advanced Materials Research ; Vol.903,pp. 151-156.
Concentrating collectors are also known as focusing collectors. A parabolic trough is a type of concentrating collector in which the energy from the sunlight is reflected and focused on the absorber tube. This paper focused on the performance of parabolic trough collector which has a ceramic-Metal coating on the absorber tube. A comparison of performance has made between with and without coating on the receiver. Here the ceramic metal coating is a multilayer coating and the layers are molybdenum – alumina. The Parabolic Trough Collector is designed and modeled using Pro/E and SOLIDWORKS. The absorber tube’s performance was calculated theoretically without coating on it. A three-dimensional CFD-model was developed and analyzed using the ANSYS FLUENT15.0. Absorber tube made up of stainless steel is simulated with flow of water and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics software. At the end of the simulation, temperature distribution over the absorber tube was studied. A comparative simulation is made between with and without coating on absorber tube of the parabolic trough collector. Absorber tube with ceramic-metal coating has shown in its performance about 5.03% when the heat flux increasing gradually.
Keywords : Concentrating collectors, parabolic trough collector, Ceramic-Metal coating CFD analysis
 Saeed Iqbal, Umair Iqbal, Mubeen Umer Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Adeel waqas Design, fabrication and analysis of solar parabolic trough collector for steam engine (2014).  Mayur G Tayade, R E Thombre, Subroto Dutt Performance evaluation of parabolic trough. (2015)  Tadahmun Ahmed Yassen Experimental and Theoretical Study of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector. (2012)  Mohand Mosa Mohammad Design and heat transfer analysis of parabolic shaped solar dish collector. (2015)  S. Mathew, G. Visavale, V. Mali. CFD Analysis of a Heat Collector Element in a Solar Parabolic Trough Collector. (2010)  Harish C.Barshili Growth, characterization and performance evaluation of Ti/AlTiN/AlTiON/AlTiO high temperature spectrally selective coating for solar thermal power applications (2014).  Qi-Chu Zhang Development of SS-AlN Cermet Solar Collector tubes (2007).  Sukhatme SP Solar energy, McGraw–Hill, NY, 83-139, (1993)  G.d rai Non renewable energy sources 80-123.  Fernandez -Garcıa, E. Zarza a, L.Valenzuela a, M. Perez Parabolic-trough solar collectors and their applications.(2010)  Chengmu Xu , Ming Li Xu, Ji Fei Chen Study on the Collection Efficiency of parabolic trough soar collector. (2013)
A significant amount of heat is wasted in electricity general, manufacturing, chemical and industrial process. Recovery and reuse of this energy through storage can be useful in conservation of energy and meeting the peak demands of power. A shell and spiral type heat exchanger has been designed and fabricated for low temperature industrial waste heat recovery using phase change material. Paraffin wax (Melting Point 54 oC) was used as storage media due to its low cost and large-scale availability in Indian market. Experiments were performed for different mass flow rates and inlet temperature of heat transfer fluid for recovery and use of waste heat. The effect of mass flow rate on the performance of the system was studied. Calculations for overall heat transfer during charging (melting of PCM) and discharging (solidification of PCM) and heat discharging efficiency were also made.
Keywords : Phase Change Material; Paraffin Wax; Charging; Discharging
 Telkes M. Nucleation of super saturated inorganic salt solution. Indust EngChem 1952; 44:1308.  Beasley D.E, & Clark, J.A.(1984). Transient response of a packed bed for thermal energy storage. Int. J.Heat Mass Tranfer, 27(9), 1659-1669.  Dincer, I., Dost, S & Xianguo Li. (1997), Performance analysis of sensible heat storage systems for thermal applications. Int. J. Energy Research.  Reddy, K.S., Avanti, P. & Kaushika, N.D. (1999). Finite time thermalanalysis of ground integrated collector-storage solar water heater with transparent insulation cover. Int. J.Energy Research, 23, 925-940.  Fouda, A.E., Despault, G.J.G., Taylor, J.B. & Capes, C.E. (1984). Solar storage systems using salt hydrate latent heat and direct contact heat exchange-II Characteristics of pilot system operating with sodium sulphate solution. Solar Energy, 32(1), 57-65.  Saitoh, T. & Hirose, K. (1986), High performance phase-change thermal energy storage using spherical capsules. Chemical Engg. Commun., 41, 39-58.  Ananthanarayanan, V., Sahai, Y., Mobley, C.E. & Rapp, R.A. (1987). Modeling of fixed bed heat storage units utilizing phase-change materials. Metallurgical Transactions B, 18B, 339-346.  Beasley, D.E. & Ramanarayanan, C. (1989). Thermal response of a packed bed of spheres containing a phase change material. Int. J. Energy Research, 13, 253-265.  Esen, M., Durmu, A. & Durmu, A. (1998). Geometric design of solar-aided latent heat store depending on various parameters and phase change materials. Solar Energy, 62(1), 19-28.  Ismail, K.A.R. and Henriquez, J.R. (2002). Numerical and experimental study of spherical capsules packed bed latent heat storage system. Appl. Thermal Eng., 22, 1705-1716.  Mehling, H., Cabeza, L.F., Hippeli, S. & Hiebler, S. (2003). PCM – module to improve hot water heat stores with stratification. Renewable Energy, 28(5), 699-711.  Nallusamy, N., Lakshmi Narayana Rao, G., sampath, S. & Velraj, R. (2003). Effective utilization of solar energy for water heating applications using combined storage system. In Proc. of The International Conference on New Millennium-Alternative Energy Solution For Sustainable Development, Coimbatore, India, pp.103-108.
Incomplete burning of the fuel and high emission in the engine were the major problems in using the petrol as a fuel. In this Experimental study, the effects of Diethyl Ether, petrol fuel blend investigated on four stroke four cylinder SI engine for analyzing the performance and combustion characteristics. The tests were performed while running the engine at speeds of 1500&1000 rpm and at four different engine load conditions (0, 3, 6, 9 kW). The results obtained from the use of Diethyl Ether, petrol fuel blends are compared to those of sole petrol in SI engine. The results indicated that when Diethyl Ether, petrol fuel blends were used, the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption and exhaust emission are decreased. Exhaust gases namely, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured using AVL exhaust gas analyzer. Performance and exhausts emissions are compared with sole petrol, using Diethyl Ether, petrol fuel blends. This oxygenates shows significant improvement for exhaust emission and also fuel consumptions at different load conditions.
Keywords : Diethyl ether, blend with petrol, Pollution reduction, improved performance
 Agarwal, A.K., 2007. “Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines”,Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 33,pp233-271  Corsmeiera, U.; Imhofb, D.; Kohlera, M.; hlweinc, J. Ku¨ Kurtenbachd R., Atmos. Environ. 2005, 39, 5760 5775.  Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No EPA420 F 05 022, 2005, Durham, North Carolina  Gertler AW, Gillies JA, Pierson WR, Rogres CF, Sagebiel JC, Abu Allaban M, CoulombeW, Tarnay L and Cahill TA. 2002. Real World Particulate Matter and Gaseous Emissions from Motor Vehicles in a Highway Tunnel. HEI. No 107, pp:5, 56.  Heywood, J.B., 1988. “Internal Combustion Engines fundamentals”, McGrawHill, Newyork  Iranmanesh,M.,Subrahmanyam.J.P.,Babu,M.K.G., “Potential of Diethy ether as a supplementary fuel to improve combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine ”,SAE Paper 2008-28-0044  Pierson WR, Gertler AW, Robinson NF, Sagebiel JC, Zielinska B, Bishop G GA, Stedman DH, Zweidinger RB, Ray WD. 1996. Real- World automotive emissions: Summary of studies in the Fort McHenery and Tuscarora Mountain Tunnels., Atmos. Environ. 30, pp: 2233 2256.  Ristovskia, Z.; Morawskaa, L.; Ayokoa, G.A.; Johnsona, G.; Gilbert, D.,Sci. Total Environ., 2004, 323, 179,194.  Ramadhas, A.S., Jayaraj, S., Muraleedharan,C., 2008. “Experimental investigations on diethyl ether as fuel additive in biodiesel engine” International Journal of Global energy issues,Vol.29No.3, pp. 329-336
The PVD techniques range over a wide variety of applications from decorative, to high temperature superconducting films. The thickness of the deposits can vary from angstroms to millimeters. A very large number of inorganic materials—metals, alloys, compounds, and mixtures—as well as some organic materials can be deposited using Physical vapour Deposition (PVD) technologies. Traditionally, the term hard coatings refer to the property of high hardness in the mechanical sense with good tribological properties. The analysis of PVD coating on stainless steel has been carried out. The objectives of the coating are to check the properties and wear performance of coated and uncoated materials. For this project, we selected stainless steel discs as a substrate; among those three of them are coated with Ti based powder deposited by using PVD method. While after the coating process has been completed the roughness of each coated and uncoated material has been carried out. Ensure that the weight of the materials should be checked before the wear test is to be performed. Now the wear performance of the coated and uncoated materials should be carried out, in order to achieve the low co-efficient of friction in coated materials than the uncoated materials by using Pin-On-Disc apparatus having Tribological Data Acquisition System. Again the weight of the materials should be checked to determine the weight loss of each material.
Keywords : Pin-on-Disc, PVD, Ti Based, Wear, COF
 G. Skordaris et al. (2014); ‘Brittleness and fatigue effect of mono- and multi-layer PVD films on the cutting performance of coated cemented carbide inserts’. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 63 (2014) 93–96.  A.I. Fernandez - Abia et al. (2013); ‘Behaviour of PVD coatings in the turning of austenitic stainless Steels’. Procedia Engineering 63 ( 2013 ) 133 – 141.  E.S Puchi-Cabrera et al.(2004), fatigue behavior of an AISI 316L stainless steel coated with a PVD Ti-N deposit, journal of Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 182, Issues 2–3, 22 April 2004, Pages 276–286.  L.A. Dobrza´nski, K. Lukaszkowicz, A. Križ, Properties of the multi-layer Ti-Cr-N and Ti/TiAlN coatings deposited with the PVD technique onto the brass substrate, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 143–144 (2003) 832–837.  C. Martini, L. Ceschini, A comparative study of the tribological behaviour of PVD coatings on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Tribology International 44 (2011) 297–308, November-2010.  R.F. A’Vila, R.D. Mancosu, A.R.Machado, S.D.Vecchio, J.M. Vieira, Comparative analysis of wear on PVD TiN coating in machining process, Wear 302 (2013) 1192-1200, February 2013.  Halil Calis Kan, Effect of test parameter on the micro-abrasion behavior of PVD CrN coatings, Measurement 55 (2014) 444-451, June 2014.  J. Olofsson, J. Gerth, H. Nyberg, U. Wiklund, S. Jacobson, On the influence from micro topography of PVD coatings on friction behaviour, material transfer and tribofilm formation, Wear 271 (2011) 2046– 2057, December 2010.  L.A. Dobrzan´ski, L.W. Z˙ ukowska, J. Mikuła, K. Gołombek, D. Pakuła, M. Pancielejko, Structure and mechanical properties of gradient PVD coatings, journal of materials processing technology 201(2008) 310–314.  Bujak J., Walkowicz J., Kusiński J., Influence of the nitrogen pressure on the structure and properties of (Ti, Al) N coatings deposited by cathodic vacuum arc PVD process, Surf. Coat. Technol. 180–181 (2004) 150–157.  Arndt, M. and T. Kacsich, 2003. Performance of new AlTiN coatings in dry and high speed cutting. Surf. Coat. Technol., 163-164: 674-680.  Navinsek, B., P. Panjan and I. Milosev, 1997. Industrial applications of CrN (PVD) coatings, deposited at high and low temperatures. Surf. Coat. Technol., 97: 182-191.  Ikeda, T., Satoh, H., High-temperature oxidation and wear resistance of Ti-Al-N hard coatings formed by PVD method, Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, Vol.57, No.8 (1993), pp. 919-925.  M. Ahlgren, H. Blomqvist, Influence of bias variation on residual stress and texture in TiAlN PVD coatings, Surface and Coatings Technology,Vol.200, No.1–4 (2005), pp.157–160.
The goal of this project is to performing assembly of mechanical joints based on tolerance. To obtain the proper functioning at the product the tolerance are important role. In this project the assembly of the component based on it tolerance. The required type of fit information gathered through form. This project is to reduce the time taken for assembly process while manual assembly, to improve the best assembly sequence. In this project to do the assembly of machine elements and its dimension with tolerance values are tabulated while reading the component through VB, and database to be created with the available components. Depends upon the user requirement or the application the appropriate components are identified and assembled in the modelling software. A mechanical assembly is a composition of interrelated parts. Assembly data base stores the geometric models of individual parts, the spatial positions and orientations of the parts in the assembly, and the relationships between parts. The manual assembly is a sophisticated tasks which consume time and requires skilled labour and cost. The work employs Visual Basic, SolidWorks and Excel to develop a database management system for standard components. The secondary development of SolidWorks has been performed by Visual Basic and the system is interconnected with SolidWorks. The outcomes were creating a application form to create a tolerance based assembly application which results in increase in speed of part assembly saving time and cost.
Keywords : SolidWorks, Visual Basic, Graphical User Interface, Ms-Excel database, Fits and Tolerances
 Holvorson, M. (2010). “Microsoft visual basic.” Microsoft press, 8..  spens, M. (2013). “Automating solidworks 2013 using macros.” SDC Publication.  Uday H Farhan, Simona O'Brien; (2012) ‘Solid Works Secondary Development with Visual Basic 6 for an Automated Modular Fixture Assembly Approach’ECU Publications.  Mike spens (2013), Automating Solid Works 2013 Using Macros, SDC Publication, on July 17, 2013.  M.T.Rad and U.H.Farhan (2011). “Design of modular fixtures using a 3d modelling approach.” ICMS, 4(1), 405–411.  Rao, C. (2010). “A novel method of using api to generate liason relationship from an assembly.” Software Engineering Application, 3, 167–175.  Zheng Y, J. M. and Tap, M. (2011). “Implementation of heuristic reasoning to recognize orthogonal and non-orthogonal inner loop features from boundary representation parts.” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 33, 01–14.
We theoretically investigate the tuning of Photonic band gaps in one dimensional photonic crystals based on Nano composite of silver nanoparticle embedded in SiO2 by applying electric field. In addition, the tuning can be done by considering the filling fraction and the radius of the nanoparticle. The evolution of these results to provide new possibilities of designing the desired photonic crystals.
Keywords : Nonlinear Composite Material, Photonic Crystals (PCs), PBG
 J.D. Joannopoulos , J.G. Johnson, J.N. Winn and R.D. Meade, Photonic crystals: Molding the flow of light, Princeton University, Princeton, 2008.  S.L. McCall, P.M. Platzman, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett 67, 2017 (1991).  A. Chelnokov, S. Rowson, J.M. Lourtioz, L. Duvillaret and J.L. Coutaz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1981 (1997).  H.Y. Lee and T. Yao, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 819-830 (2003).  P. Halevi and J.A. Reyes-Avendano, Phys. Rev E, 73, 040701 (2006).  C.Z. Fan, G. Wang and J.P. Huang, J. Appl. Phys, 103, 094107 (2008).  W. Park and J.B. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett . 85, 4845 (2004).  G. Wang, J.P. Huang and K.W. Yu, Opt. Lett 33, 2200 (2008).  J.P. Huang and K.W. Yu, Phys. Rep, 431, 87 (2006).  M. Born and E. Wolf, “Principles of Optics”, 6th ed(Peragamon, oxford, 1980).  G. Wang, J.P. Huand and K.W. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191117 (2007).  S.V. Gaponenko, “Introduction to Nanophotonics”, Cambridge University Press  A. labbani and A. Benghalla, Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar 20-23 (2011).
In Automobile manufacturing plant, it was noticed that 7 out of 1000 crankshafts are prone to failure. This work is concentrated to identify the cause of failure in the crankshaft and to improve the fatigue life of the crankshaft by performing parametric study. In parametric study, the crankshaft is designed and analyzed in ANSYS WORKBENCH by varying the fillet radius of journal bearing. The maximum equivalent alternating stress and cycles to failure were predicted in numerical analysis. The cycles to failure are increased by varying the parameter and hence the fatigue life of crankshaft is improved.
Keywords : Numerical Model, Dynamic Analysis, Torsion Test Analysis, Bending Test Analysis, Fatigue life
 “Failure Analysis of four cylinder diesel engine crankshaft made form nodular cast iron” by G.H.Fahrrahi, F.Hemmati, S.M.H-Gangaraj, M.Sakhaei, S.Abolhassani, Volume 22, February 2011, pp. 21-28.  Farzin H. Montazersadgh and Ali Fatemi, “Stress Analysis and Optimization of Crankshafts Subject to Dynamic Loading”,A Final Project Report Submitted to the FIERF and AISI  Mahesh L. Raotole, D. B. Sadaphale,J. R.Chaudhari, “Prediction of Fatigue Life of Crank Shaft using S-N Approach”,International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering,Volume 3, Issue 2, February 2013, pp. 447-454.  Anant Prakash Agrawal and S. K. Srivastava, “Fatigue Life Prediction Of Crankshaft Based On Strain Life Theories”,International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology ISSN: 2278-0181,Vol. 1 Issue 8, October 2012, pp. 1-5.  Seema S. Shinde, C. S. Pathak and Manoj Ukhande,”Fatigue Life assessment of crankshaft under Bending and Torsional Loading”,International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology Vol. 2 Issue 11, November – 2013, ISSN: 2278-0181, pp 2197-2201.  Kanwar J. S. Gill, Pali Rosha, Subhash Chander, R. S. Bharaj,”Durability Analysis of Lightweight Crankshafts Design Using Geometrically Restricted Finite Element Simulation Techniques for Camless Engines”,International Conference of Advance Research and Innovation-2014, ISBN 978-93-5156-328-0, pp 56-68.  Vijay kumar Khasnis, Manoj Ukhande, Girish Tilekar,Rajesh Mane, Girish Shegavi,”Crankshaft Design Optimization to improve Dynamic Balancing and Fatigue Strength”, International Journal of Automotive Engineering 20154060, pp. 59-66.  Ms.Shweta Ambadas Naik,”Failure Analysis of Crankshaft by Finite Element Method-A Review”,International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology – Volume 19 Number 5 – Jan 2015, pp. 233-239.  Amit Patil, Gajanan Datar and Amol Kolhe “Crankshaft Failure dude to fatigue”, IJMERR, ISSN 2278-0149, Volume 3, no 1, January 2014, 166-172.  Pratik Kakade, Manish D. Pasakar “ Analyzing and Identifying Various Approaches for Crankshaft Failure”, Journal of Multidisciplinary Enginnering and Technology, ISSN: 3159-0040, Volume 2, issue 2, February 2015, pp. 76-92.
Every year, more number of elder people those 65 and older fall. More than 95%of hip fractures in elderly are caused by falling. The elder people who fall and are unable to get up on their own, the period of time spent immobile often affects their health outcome. The principle behind this work is to determine the occurrence of the fall of the elder people using MEMS accelerometer and alert message is send to the caregivers via GSM. The ultimate aim of this project is to attain reliability and accuracy by reducing false alarm. The work also aims at protecting the elder people during fall which is done by opening the airbag. For comfort of elderly, this project senses the light intensity in the room & switch on the light using RF module. The controlling process is done by using Arduino.
Keywords : MEMS Acclerometer, GSM, RFmodule, Airbag
 Subha V.patel , Deepa , Ashalatha-‘Human fall detection using MEMS accelerometer’-International Journal of Emerging Technology & Advanced Engineering.-volume 4, May 2014.  Quoc T.Huynh,Uyen D.nguyen, Su V.Tran,Asfin Nabili,Binh Q.Tran-‘Fall detection system using combination Accelerometer & Gyroscope’-International conference on advances in electronic devices and circuits-EDC 2013.  Ning Jia-‘Detecting Human falls with 3 axis digital accelerometer’-Analog dialogue volume 43, July 2009.  Gan Chen, Yueyun Shen, Yihua Zhu- ‘Accelerometer based fall detection system for elderly’-IEEE-2012.  Dungha Lim, Chulho Park,Nam Ho Kim , Song-Hoon Kim and Yun Seop Yu-‘Fall detection algorithm using 3 axis acceleration combination with simple threshold & hidden markov model’-Journal of mathematics.17 September 2014.  L.K.Au, W.H.Wu, M.A.Batalin, D.H.McLntire and W.J.Kaiser.Microleap:energy-aware wireless sensor platform for biomedical sensing applications.In Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference,2007.BIOCAS2007.IEEE  M.Alwan,P.J.Rajendran,S.Kell,D.Mack,S.Dalal,M.Wolfe and R.Felder.A smart and passive floor vibration based fall detector for elderly In Information and communication Technologies,2006.ICTTA ’06.2nd,volume1  W.Wu, L.Au, B.Jordan, T.Stathopoulos, M.Batalin, W.Kaiser, A.Vahdatpour, M.Sarrafzadeh, M.Fang and J.Chodosh.The smart cane system: an assistive device for geriatrics, 2008  L.K.Au,W.H.Wu,M.A.Batalin and W.J.Kaiser.Active guidance towards proper cane usuage.IN BSN 2008
MANET is a network that consists of mobile autonomous nodes often composed of mobile devices. Here the nodes must cooperate with each other to establish communication. Each node in the MANET acts as a router by cooperating with each other’s to forward data packets. The presence of collaboration of malicious nodes may disrupt the routing processes and lead to network failures. The lack of infrastructure with dynamic topology may lead MANETs to be exposed to black hole attacks and gray hole attacks. If there are malicious nodes present in the MANET it may violate Security conditions and launch grey hole attacks and black hole attacks. This can be overcome by CBDS which is defined using DSR protocol which integrates both proactive and reactive defense architectures. CBDS uses the reverse tracing algorithm. A security algorithm is proposed to enhance security, increase and refine the throughput and increase the packet delivery ratio. The proposed security algorithm outperforms the CBDS scheme.
Keywords : Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme (CBDS), Black Hole Attacks, Gray Hole Attacks, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Security Algorithm, Encryption, Decryption
 P.-C. Tsou, J.-M. Chang, H.-C. Chao and J.-L. Chen, “CBDS: A coopera-tive bait detection scheme to prevent malicious node for MANET based on hybrid defense architecture,” in Proc. 2nd Intl. Conf. Wireless Commun., VITAE, Chenai, India, Feb. 28–Mar., 03, 2011, pp. 1–5.  S. Corson and J. Macker, RFC 2501, Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Consid-erations, Jan. 1999. (Last retrieved March 18, 2013). [Online]. Available: http://www.elook.org/computing/rfc/rfc2501.html  C. Chang, Y. Wang, and H. Chao, “An efficient Mesh-based core multicast routing protocol on MANETs,” J. Internet Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 229– 239, Apr. 2007.  D. Johnson and D. Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks,” Mobile Comput., pp. 153–181, 1996.  Rubin, A. Behzad, R. Zhang, H. Luo, and E. Caballero, “TBONE: A mobile-backbone protocol for ad hoc wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE Aerosp. Conf., 2002, vol. 6, pp.2727–2740.  Baadache and A. Belmehdi, “Avoiding blackhole and cooperative blackhole attacks in wireless ad hoc networks,” Intl. J. Comput. Sci. Inf. Security, vol. 7, no. 1, 2010.  S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, “Mitigating routing misbehav-ior in mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proc. 6th Annu. Intl. Conf. MobiCom, 2000, pp. 255–265.  K. Vishnu and A. J Paul, “Detection and removal of cooperative black/gray hole attack in mobile ad hoc networks,” Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 1, no. 22, pp. 28–32, 2010.  K. Liu, D. Pramod, K. Varshney, and K. Balakrishnan, “An Acknowledgement based approach for the detection of routing misbehavior in MANETs,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 536–550, May 2007.  H. Deng, W. Li, and D. Agrawal, “Routing security in wireless ad hoc network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 10, Oct. 2002.
The basic architecture of Wireless Sensor Networks is usually a hybrid type where it is a combination of infrastructure oriented and infrastructure less networks. The Communication from sensor to sensor head takes place through peer-to-peer architecture (infrastructure less) and the communication from Cluster Head to Base Station (BS) involves Broadcast Based (Infrastructure Oriented).This Hybrid architecture is to reduce the energy consumption of sensor nodes as it will be depleted soon when each sensor broadcasts sensed data to base station as and when it senses. Hence a cluster head will be elected for each cluster by considering the battery, memory and processing ability  . All the sensors will send their sensed data to the cluster head in a peer-to-peer manner. Cluster head recovers the data and generates the signature using elgammal. Base station sends request to cluster heads of high & heterogeneous clusters and can receive the recovered data from cluster head by verifying signature. The encrypted binary packets are accumulated in BS and it is fed to a database after verification of packets from clusters.
Keywords : Wireless Sensor Networks, Cluster Head, Base Station
 T. Palpanas, “Real-time data analytics in sensor networks”, I Managing and Mining Sensor Data, Aggarwal Ed. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2012.  H. Jiang, S. Jin, and C.Wang “Prediction or not? An energy efficient framework for clustering-based data collection in wireless sensor networks” IEEE Trans. Parallel Diatribe, Syst., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1064–1071, Jun 2011.  D. Tulane and S. Madden, “PAQ: Time series forecasting for approximate query answering in sensor networks” in Proc. Eur. Workshop Wireless Sen. Newt. , 2006, pp. 21–37.  R. A. F. Mini, M. D. V. Machado, A. A. F. Loureiro, and B. Nath, “Prediction-based energy map for wireless sensor networks” Ad Hoc Netw., vol. 3, pp. 235–253, 2005.  C. Luo, F. Wu, J. Sun, and C. W. Chen, “Efficient measurement generation and pervasive sparsity for compressive data gathering” IEEE Trans. Wireless Common., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 3728–3738, Dec. 2010.  J. Rousselot, A. El-Hoiydi, and J.-D. Decotignie, “Low power medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. Eur. Wireless Conf., Jun. 2008, pp. 1–5.  D. Chu, A. Deshpande, J. M. Hellerstein, and W. Hong, “Approximate data collection in sensor networks using probabilistic models” in 22nd Int. Conf. Data Eng., 2006, p. 48.  Silberstein, G. Filpus, K. Munagala, and J. Yang, “Data-driven processing in sensor networks” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Data Syst. Res., 2007, pp. 10–21.  M. Hassani, E. Mller, P. Spaus, A. Faqolli, T. Palpanas, and T.Seidl, “Self-organizing energy aware clustering of nodes in sensor networks using relevant attributes,” in Proc. 4th Int. Workshop Knowl. Discovery Sen. Data, 2010, pp. 87–96.  D. Tulone and S. Madden, “An energy-efficient querying framework in sensor networks for detecting node similarities,” in Proc.Int. Conf. Modeling, Anal. Simul. Wireless Mobile Syst., 2006, pp. 191–300.
A novel mechanism to simulate visual attention mechanisms for content-based image retrieval, based on saliency structure histogram method was proposed in this paper. In CBIR, images are indexed by their visual content, such as color, texture, shapes. A color volume with edge information together is used to detect saliency regions. The texture image features, such as energy, inverse difference moment, contrast are extracted. To simulate orientation-selective mechanism for image representation within CBIR framework, saliency structure histogram is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated based on two datasets. The proposed algorithm outperforms the standard BOW baseline and micro-structure descriptor.
Keywords : Image retrieval, Visual attention, Saliency Structure Model
 Hubel, T.N. Wiesel, Receptive fields. Binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex, J. Physiol. 160 (1962) 106–154.  E.H. Adelson, J.R. Bergen., The plenoptic function and the elements of early vision, in: M. Landy, J. Movshon (Eds.), Computational Models of Visual Processing, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1991, pp. 3–20.  G.-H. liu, Z.-Y. Li, L. zhang, Y. Xu, Image retrieval based on micro-structure descriptor, Pattern Recognit. 44 (9) (2011) 2123–2133.  Treisman., A feature in integration theory of attention, Cogn. Psychol. 12 (1) (1980) 97–136.  J..Sivic, A. Zisserman, Video Google: A text retrieval approach to object matching in videos, in: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on In Computer Vision, 2003  L. Itti, C. Koch, E. Niebur, A model of saliency-based visual attention for rapid scene analysis, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20 (11) (1998) 1254–1259.  Borji, L. Itti. Exploiting local and global patch rarities for saliency detection, in: 2012 IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, 2012, pp. 478–485  Toet, Computational versus psychophysical bottom-up image saliency: a comparative evaluation study, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33 (11) (2011) 2131–2146.  R.M. Haralick, Dinstein Shangmugam, Textural feature for image classification, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-3 (6) (1973) 610–621.  C.j.van Rijsbergen, Informaton Retrieval, Butterworths, London,1979.  G. Hripcsak, A.S. Rothschild, Agreement: the f-measure, and reliability in information retrieval, j.Am.Med.Inf.Assoc,12(3) (2005) 296-298.
Cloud computing is a recent technology provides a flexible, on-demand and low cost feature of computing resources. The Main issue in Cloud Computing is user identity privacy and data content privacy. The User Privacy in Cloud Computing is achieved by various data access control Schemes. Existing Fully Anonymous Access control scheme with decentralized attribute authority provides data content privacy and also prevents full user identity leakage by using N-oblivious transfer and multi-authority ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption scheme. But user attribute revocation is not implemented for better security. Supporting user revocation over Anonymous Multi-authority Ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption (MA-CP ABE) is an important issue in the real application. We Propose a Revocable Anonymous Access Control with Multi-authority cloud storage system to enhance the security and to solve revocation problem, Here Each Individual Attribute Authority is able to issue the attributes and keys independently. Our Revocable Anonymous Access Control Scheme for Multi-Authority Ciphertext-Policy Attribute Based Encryption can achieve both forward and backward security. Our security analysis and performance analysis shows that our scheme is more secure and more efficient than previous work.
Keywords : CP-ABE, Anonymity, Multi-Authority, Cloud Storage, Access Control, Attribute Revocation
 Jun beom hur and dong kun Noh(2011),”Attribute-Based Access Control with Efficient Revocation in Data Outsourcing systems”, IEEE Transactions on parallel and Distribute systems, Vol:22 no.7 PP:1214-1221.  Kan Yang,Xiahoua jia,(2013),“Expressive, Efficient and Revocable Data Access Control for Multi-authority cloud storage”, IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distributed Systems Vol:25,Issue:7,PP:1735-11744.  Liu Zhenpeng, Zhu Xianchao, Zhang Shouhua (2014), “Multi authority attribute based encryption with attribute revocation”,IEEE 17th International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, DOI:10.1109/CSE.2014.343,PP:1872-1876.  S.Yu, C.Wang, K.Ren and W.Lou,”Attribute Based Data Sharing with Attribute Revocation” (2010), Proc.5th ACM Symp. Information, Computer and Comm. Security (ASIACCS’10), pp: 261-270.  Sushmita Ruj, Milos Stojmenovic, and Amiya Nayak (2014), “Decentralized Access Control with Anonymous authentication of Data Stored in Cloud”, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2014 VOL. 25, NO. 2, PP: 384-395.  S.J.Hur and D.K.Noh (2010), “Attribute – Based Access Control with Efficient Revocation in Data Outsourcing System”, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed System, DOI:10.1109/TPDS.2010.203 PP: 1045-1221.  S.Jahid, P.Mittal and N.Borisov (2013), “Scalable and Secure Sharing of Personal Health Records in Cloud Computing Using Attribute Based Encryption”, IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distributed Systems Vol:24,Issue:1,PP:131-143.  Tacho Jung, Xiang-Yang Li, Zhiguo Wan and Meng Wan. (2015). “Control Cloud Data Access Privilege and Anonymity with Fully Anonymous Attribute Based encryption”. IEEE Transaction on Information Forensics and Security, vol: 10 no.1, pp: 190-198.  Xingxing xie,Hua ma,jin li xiaofeng chen(2015), ”Multi-Authority Attribute Based Encryption scheme with revocation”, (ICCCN) 24th Internal Conference on computer communication and Networks,DOI:10.1109/ICCCN.2015.7288431,PP:1-5.  Yong cheng,Zhi ying wang Jun ma,Jiang-Jiang Wu,Song-zhu Mei(2013), “Efficient Revocation in cipher text- policy attribute based encryption based cryptographic cloud storage”, Journal of Zhejiang University-Science (Computers & Electronics), vol:14,No:2 PP:85-97.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) is self-configured and decentralized wireless network without any prior infrastructure. Every node in it acts as a router as well as end system and hence each node in MANET is allowed to move freely which makes routing difficult. Most of the MANET routing algorithms like AODV and DSR assume that every node will forward every packet it receives. In opportunistic routing, a node selects and prioritizes multiple nodes which can act as potential packet forwarders. Source node will relay packets to the destination node through the intermediate node. However, misbehavior of the selfish nodes is a common phenomenon in MANET. These nodes use the network and its services and do not provide any services to intermediate nodes in order to save energy such as battery, CPU Power and bandwidth for relaying data from other nodes and reserve for themselves. These selfish nodes will degrade the performances of wireless ad hoc networks. In this thesis, Using OR and BPR routing protocols to overcome the presence of selfish nodes and also BPR routing protocol used to avoid malicious nodes. These protocols used to avoid congestion and perform the simulation using Network Simulator.
Keywords : MANETs, Selfish nodes, BPR, Opportunistic Routing, Routing Protocols-AODV
 Ajmal, M. M., Madani, S. A., Maqsood, T., Bilal, K., Nazir, B., & Hayat, K. (2013). Coordinated opportunistic routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. Computers & Electrical Engineering, ISSN 0045–7906, 39(8), 2442–2453.  Biswas, S., & Morris, R. (2009). ExOR: Opportunistic multi-hop routing for wireless networks. In Proceedings of conference on applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications.(SIGCOMM ’05), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 133–144.  Bo, W., Chuanhe, H., Layuan, L., & Wenzhong, Y. (2011). Trust-based minimum cost opportunistic routing for ad hoc networks. Journal of Systems and Software, 84(12), 2107–2122, ISSN 0164-1212  Hsu, C.-J., Liu, H.-I., &Seah,W. K. G. (2011). Opportunistic routing: A review and the challenges ahead. Computer Networks, ISSN 1389–1286, 55(15), 3592–3603  http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.  Li, X., Jia, Z., Zhang, P., Zhang, R., & Wang, H. (2010). Trust-based on-demand multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks. IET Information Security, 4(4), 212–232.  Li, F., & Jie,W. (2010). Uncertainty modeling and reduction in MANETs. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 9(7), 1035–1048.  Liu, H., Zhang, B., Mouftah, H. T., Shen, X., & Ma, J. (2009). Opportunistic routing for Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks: Present and future directions Myung, J., & Lee, W. (2012). Eliminating duplicate forwarding in wireless opportunistic routing. IEEE Communications Letters, 16(4), 510–513.  Myung, J., & Lee, W. (2012). Eliminating duplicate forwarding in wireless opportunistic routing.  Martin Schutte (2006). Detecting Selfish and Malicious Nodes In MANETs.  Naimah Yaakob, Ibrahim Khalil, Heshan Kumarage, Mohammed Atiquzzama, and Zahir Tari, IEEE(2015).By-Passing Infected Areas in Wireless Sensor Networks Using BPR. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 64, NO. 6.  Othmana, J. B., & Mokdadb, L. (2012). Enhancing data security in ad hoc networks based on multipath routing. Elsevier Journal of Parallel Distributed Computing, 70, 309–316.  Perkins, C.E., & Royer, E. M. (2013). Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In Proceedings of workshop mobile computing systems and applications.  Sun, Y., Han, Z., & Liu, K. J. R. (2008). Defense of trust management vulnerabilities in distributed networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 46(2), 112–119  Wang, Z., Chen, Y., & Li, C. (2012). CORMAN: A novel cooperative opportunistic routing scheme in mobile ad hoc networks.  Wang, Z., Chen, Y., & Li, C. (2014). PSR: A lightweight proactive source routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 63(2), 859–868.  Xia, H., Jia, Z., Ju, L., & Zhu, Y. (2011).Trust management model for mobile ad hoc network based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy theory. IET Wireless Sensor Systems, 1(4), 248-266.  Zhao, H., Yang, X., & Li, X. (2013). Trust management in cyclic mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 62(6), 2792–2806.  Zhizhong, J., Chuanhe, H., Liya, X., Bo, W., Xi, C., & Xiying, F. (2012, October). A trusted opportunistic routing algorithm for VANET. In Third International Conference on Networking and Distributed Computing (ICNDC), pp. 86–90.
One of the common problems face by elderly people is Dementia, and the people affected by this Disease is escalating as compared to the past. People suffering from Dementia and Alzheimer’s face many challenges in their day to day routine and their families and caretakers face major difficulty to monitor them. The Dementia patient has symptoms like loss of memory, change in behavior, and change in character, forgets to do their everyday tasks, forgets their environment and they will not even respond to their name being called. This survey mainly focuses on the methods and techniques used for monitoring Dementia Patients. This paper includes a survey on how the different types of methods are used to monitor Dementia patients. This paper also includes the location tracking of the Dementia Patients if they are lost, and using different techniques like Bluetooth device, GPS, Hardware Devices using which the patients can be tracked, So that the patient can be tracked quickly and safely. There are many devices available to monitor the Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and this paper includes the different types of devices, algorithms and techniques used for monitoring the patients.
Keywords : Dementia Patient Monitoring, Location Tracking, GPS, Hardware devices
 Xiangyu Wang,Yi-Liang Zhao,Liqiang Nie,Yue Gao,Weizhi Nie,Zheng-Jun,and Tat-Seng Chua “Semantic-Based Location Recommendation With Multimodal Venue Semantics” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia,Vol.17,No.3,March 2015  Lars Meinel,Julia Richter,Rene Schmidt,Michel Findeisen,Gangolf Hirtz “OPDEMIVA:An Integrated Assistance and Information System For Elderly With Dementia”  Hendrik Knoche,Kasper Hald,Danny Tamsen,Lars Holm Jespersen “Tracking Rehabilitative Progres with Fitts and Starts”  Omar Alfandi,Suhail Ahamed,May El Barachi and Adil Khan “ Challenges of Leveraging Mobile Sensing Devices in Wireless HealthCare”  Rasika S.Ransing,Manita Rajput “Smart Home for Elderly Care,based on Wireless Sensor Network”  Ting Zhang,Jiang Lu,Fei Hu,Qi Hao “Bluetooth Low Energy for Wearable Sensor-based Healthcare Systems”  Zhe-Min Lin,Cheng-Hung Chang,Nai-Kuan Chou, and Yuan-Hsiang Lin “Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Based Blood Pressure Monitoring System”  Yasothaa Kalai Chelvam,Norshuhani Zamin “M3DITRACK3R:A Design of an Automated Patient Tracking and Medicine Dispensing Mobile Robot for Senior Citizens”  Alessandro Puiatti,Armando Rivero,Anna Forster,Andrea Bernaschina,Gian Carlo Dozio,Nicola Rizzo,Nunzio De Bitonti and Andrea Cavicchioli “Proxy-Care:A Novel Patient Care Tracking System with wireless Sensor Networks”  Helder Moreira and Renato Oliveira,Nuno Flores “STAIz:Remotely supporting the diagnosis,tracking and rehabilitation of Patients with Alzheimer’s”  Dennis Rodionov,George Kolev,Krill Bushminkin “A Hybrid Localization Technique for Patient Tracking”  Daniel Rosner,Razvan Tataroiu,Constantin Ilas,Andreea Livia-Beciu,Ovidiu-Marius Alexandru “Efficient Location Tracking System for Patient Monitoring”  Arnoldo Diaz-Ramirez,Fabin N. Murrieta,Jorge A. Atempa and Francisco A.Bonino “Non-Intrusive Tracking of Paients with Dementia Using a Wireless Sensor Network”  Zelai Saenz de Urturi Breton,Begona Garcia Zapirain and Amaia Mendez Zorrilla ”Kimentia:Kinect based tool to help Cognitive Stimulation for individuals with Dementia”  Wahee Kim and Sook-Jin Lee “Fast Bayesian Tracking For Location Estimation by Grid-based Method”  Hsin-Hung Chiang,Wei-Ming Chen,Chiou-shan Chou,Han-Chieh Chao “Realtime Patients Face Tracking based on Facial Feature Matching”  Shamma Alqassim,Madhumeta Ganesh,Shaheen Khoja,Meher Zaidi,Fadi Aloul,Assim Sagahyroon “Sleep Apnea Monitoring Using Mobile Phones”
Video Surveillance is very common in day-to-day life. In this paper we show how a video analytics takes place in a video surveillance, specifically aimed at efficient detection and recognition the traffic symbols that’s recorded by the video camera. We used a DVR installed in the train to track the symbols along the track. This is done in single frames using set of colour and shape-based criteria using OpenCV library.
Keywords : Computer Vision, Traffic Sign Recognition, OpenCV
 http://digi.physic.ut.ee/mw/index.php/Computer_vision_libraries  http://students.iitk.ac.in/eclub/assets/tutorials/OPENCV%20TUTORIAL.pdf  http://docs.opencv.org/modules/video/doc/video.html  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenCV  https://research.nvidia.com/sites/default/files/publications/OpenCV_CACM_p61-pulli.pdf
This paper proposes novice automatic salient region detection in an image which includes both the global and local features. The main motivation behind this approach is to construct a saliency map by utilizing a linear combination of colors in a high dimensional color space. In general, the human perception is highly complicated and non-linear and in response to that, the salient region consists of distinct colors compared to the background. The estimation of an optimal construction of a saliency map was done by agglomerating the low-dimensional colors to the high-dimensional feature vectors. Furthermore, a relative location and color contrast between super pixels are utilized to improve the performance. It was tested under three distinct datasets to evaluate the applicability and practicability of our proposed method.
Keywords : Salient Region Detection, super pixel, Trimap, random forest, color feature, high-dimensional color transform
 R. Achanta, A. Shaji, K. Smith, A. Lucchi, P. Fua, and S.Süsstrunk, “SLIC superpixels compared to state-of-the-art superpixel methods,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2274–2282,Nov. 2012.  J. Kim, D. Han, Y.-W. Tai, and J. Kim, “Salient region detection via high-dimensional color transform,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. (CVPR), Jun. 2014, pp. 883–890.  Borji, M.-M. Cheng, H. Jiang, and J. Li. (2015). “Salient object detection: A benchmark.” [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.02741  R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, “Frequency tuned salient region detection,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. PatternRecognit. (CVPR), Jun. 2009, pp. 1597–1604.  L. Breiman, “Random forests,” Mach. Learn., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 5–32, Oct. 2001.  J. Wang and M. F. Cohen, “Optimized color sampling for robust matting,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. (CVPR), Jun. 2007, pp. 1–8.  H. Jiang, J. Wang, Z. Yuan, Y. Wu, N. Zheng, and S. Li, “Salient object detection: A discriminative regional feature integration approach,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. (CVPR), Jun. 2013, pp. 2083–2090.  Borji, D. N. Sihite, and L. Itti, “Salient object detection: A benchmark,” in Proc. IEEE Eur. Conf. Comput. Vis. (ECCV), Oct. 2012, pp. 414–429.  W. Zhu, S. Liang, Y. Wei, and J. Sun, “Saliency optimization from robust background detection,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Vis. PatternRecognit. (CVPR), Jun. 2014, pp. 2814–2821.  Levin, A. Rav Acha, and D. Lischinski, “Spectral matting,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1699–1712, Oct. 2008.
Any Information retrieval from documents is done through text search. Now a day, efficient search is done through Mining techniques. Speech is recognized for searching a document. A group of Conversations are recorded using Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technique. The system changes speech to text using FISHER tool. Those conversations are stored in a database. Formulation of Implicit Queries is preceded in two stages as Extraction and Clustering. The domain of the conversations is structured through Topic Modeling. Extraction of Keywords from a topic is done with high probability. In this system, Ranking of documents is done using Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) technique. Clustering of keywords from a set covers all the topics recommended. The precise document recommendation for a topic is specified intensively. The Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) technique is to provide ranking over the searched documents with weighted keywords. This reduces noise while searching a topic. Enforcing both relevance and diversity ensures effective document retrieval. The text documents are converted to speech conversation using e-Speak tool. The final retrieved conversations are as required.
Keywords : Keyword Extraction, Topic Modeling, Word Frequency, PLSA, Document retrieval
This paper proposes a review on Partial reconfiguration using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). By downloading configuration bit files Partial Dynamic Reconfiguration (PDR) dynamically modifies the hardware portion of the device. Both FPGA and reconfigurable are used to speed up the performance of various applications. This makes the FPGA to be used in new dimension with an advantage of more flexibility. Literature surveys on various reconfigurable computing techniques were performed with the results and discussions. A more suitable method can be selected based on the applications. A main contribution of this review paper is that it summarizes the current research, key enabling techniques, applications, Research issues and challenges in Partial reconfiguration. All these application are described with its basic block and its implementation.
Keywords : Partial reconfiguration, FPGA, Static Reconfiguration, Dynamic Reconfiguration, Partial Dynamic Reconfiguration
 Abhishek Tiwari. A Partial Reconfiguration based Approach for Frequency Synthesis using FPGA. (2012) International Conference on Communication technology and system Design, Elsevier, procedia engineering,30, 234-241.  Alireza shoa, Shahram Shirani (2005). Run-Time Reconfigurable Systems for Digital Signal Processing Applications: A Survey, Journal of VLSI Signal Processing , , Springer, 39, 213–235.  Blodget, Brandon, et al.(2004), Partial and dynamically reconfiguration of Xilinx Virtex-II FPGAs, Field Programmable Logic and Application. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2004. 801-810.  Eto, Emi, (2007), Difference-Based Partial Reconfiguration. "XAPP290 (v2. 0), Xilinx, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA: 1-11.  Kessal.Lounis, R. Bourguiba, D. Demigny, N. Boudouani, Karabernou. M. (2002), Reconfigurable Architecture Using High Speed FPGA. SOC Design Methodologies, Springer US 75-86.  Lorenz, M. G., Mengibar, L., Valderas, M. G., & Entrena, L. (2004). Power consumption reduction through dynamic reconfiguration. Field Programmable Logic and Application, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 751-760,  Mateusz majer, Jurgen teach (2007),The Erlangen Slot Machine: A Dynamically Reconfigurable FPGA-based Computer. Journal of VLSI Signal Processing (47), 15–31.  Moraes, Fernando, Ney calazans, leandro moller, Eduardo Briao, Ewerson carvalho, (2005), Dynamic and partial reconfiguration in FPGA SoCs: requirements tools and a case study. New Algorithms, Architectures and Applications for Reconfigurable Computing. Springer US, 157-168.  Patrick Lysaght, Brandon Blodget, Jeff Mason , Jay Young, Brendan Bridgford .Enhanced architectures, design methodologies and CAD tools for dynamic reconfiguration of xilinx FPGAs.(2006),, Xilinx research lab paper  Pritha Banerjee, Megha sangtani, susmita sur-kolay (2009).Floorplanning for Partial Reconfiguration in FPGAs. 22nd International conference on VLSI Design, IEEE Explore  Sedcole, B. Blodget, T. Becker, J. Anderson and P. Lysaght (2006). Modular reconfiguration using FPGA. IEEE Proc.-Comput. Digit. Tech., 153(3), 157.  Sohanghpurwala, A, A, Athanas, P.Erangieh, T. wood. A. Open PR:An Open Source Partial Reconfiguration Toolkit for Xilinx FPGAs.(2011) IEEE International symposium on Partial and Distributed Processing Workshops.  Solomon Raju Kota, Ashutosh Gupta, shashikant nayak, sreekanth Varma. Module Based Implementaion of partial reconfiguration using VHDL on Xilinx FPGA (2009), Interntional Journal of recent Trends in Engineering, 2(7).  Tadigotla. V & L. Sliger Sesh Commuri (2007). Task-based Hardware Reconfiguration in Mobile Robots Using FPGAs. J Intell Robot System 49: Springer, 111–134,  Zaidi, I, Nabina, A. canagarajah, C. N, Nunez Yanez. J, Power/Area Analysis of a FPGA-Based Open-Source Processor using Partial Dynamic Reconfiguration, Digital System Design Architectures, Methods and Tools, 2008. DSD '08. 11th EUROMICRO Conference 2008,592-598
Cloud computing makes IT more efficient and cost effective in today’s world. Cloud computing act as a virtual server that the user can access via internet on a needed basis and this eliminates the need for the companies to host their own servers and purchase of expensive software. On the other hand there arise many new types of cyber theft. The main concerns in cloud computing are data integrity, security and enhancement of storage space in the cloud. This paper focuses on maintaining data integrity and security from a user’s perspective and also provides clear understanding of achievable security merits by using multiple distinct clouds simultaneously and enhancing storage space of public cloud by DE duplication from a cloud service provider’s perspective. Symmetric key encryption is used to prevent unauthorized user from accessing data. Convergent encryption is used to maintain data confidentiality.
Keywords : Data DE duplication, Data Confidentiality, Security, Data Integrity, Multi-Cloud
 Ahamed K.Elmagarmid, Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis, Vassilios S. Verykios. (2007), ‘Duplicate Record Detection: A Survey’, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp.1-16.  Anderson P and Zhang L. (2010), ‘Fast and secure laptop backups with encrypted de-duplication’, In Proc. of USENIX LISA.  Bellare M,Keelveedhi S, and Ristenpart T. (2013), ‘Dupless: Server Aided encryption for deduplicated storage’, In USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 179-194.  Bellare M,Keelveedhi S, and Ristenpart T. (2013), ‘Message-locked encryption and secure deduplication’, In EUROCRYPT, pp.296– 312.  Bellare M, Namprempre C, and Neven G. (2008),‘Security proofs for identity-based identification and signature schemes’, Journal of Cryptology, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 1–61.  Bugiel S, Nurnberger S, Sadeghi A, and Schneider T. (2011), ‘Twin clouds: An architecture for secure cloud computing’, In Workshop on Cryptography and Security in Clouds, pp. 32-44.  Chang Liu, Rajiv Ranjan, Chi Yang ,Xuyun Zhang.(2015),’MuR-DPA: Top-Down Levelled Multi-Replica Merkle Hash Tree Based Secure Public Auditing for Dynamic Big Data Storage on Cloud’,IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 64 , No 9, pp 2609 – 2622.  Cheng-Kang Chu, Sherman S.M. Chow, Wen-Guey Tzeng, Jianying Zhou, Robert H. Deng.(2014),’Key-Aggregatecryptosystem for Scalable Data Sharing in Cloud Storage’, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 25, No 2, pp. 468 – 477.  Douceur J R , Adya A, Bolosky W J, Simon D, and Theimer M. (2002), ‘Reclaiming space from duplicate files in a serverless distributed file system’, In ICDCS, pp 617–624.  Ferraiolo D and Kuhn R. (1992), ‘Role-based access controls’, In 15th NIST-NCSC National Computer Security Conf.,.  Halevi S,Harnik D,Pinkas B,Ra Shulman-peleg. (2011), ‘Proof of ownership in remote storage systems’, ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 491-500.  Huang, Ming Xian, Shaojing Fu, Jian Liu. (2014), ‘Securing the cloud storage audit service: defending against frame and collude attacks of third party auditor ‘, IET Communications, Vol. 8, No 12, pp. 2106 – 2113.  Jens-Matthias Bohli, Nils Gruschka, Meiko Jensen, Luigi Lo Iacono, and Ninja Marnau. (2013), ‘Security and Privacy – Enhancing Multicloud Architectures’, IEEE Transaction on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 212 – 224.  Jia Yu, Kui Ren, Cong Wang. (2016),’Enabling Cloud Storage Auditing with Verifiable Outsourcing of Key Updates’, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. PP , No 99, pp. 1.  JingweiLi, Xie, D.,Cai, Z. (2015), ‘Secure Auditing and Deduplicating data in Cloud’, IEEE Transaction on Computers, Vol. PP, No. 99, pp. 1.  Jin Li, Xiaofeng Chen, Fatos Xhafa, Leonard Barolli. (2015), ’Secure Deduplication storage systems supporting keyword search’, Journal of Computer and System Sciences-ACM, Vol. 81, No. 8, pp.1532- 1541.  Jin Li, Xiaofeng Chen, Mingqiang Li, Jingwei Li, Patrick P.C, Lee and Wenjing Lou.(2014). ‘Secure Deduplication with Efficient and Reliable Convergent Key Management’, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp.1615-1625.  Jin Li, Yan Kit Li, Xiaofeng Chen, Patrick P. C. Lee, Wenjing Lou. (2015), ‘A Hybrid Cloud Approach for Secure Authorized Deduplication’, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp.1206 – 1216.  Li J., Chen X., Huang X., Tang S., Xiang Y., Hassan M, Alelaiwi. (2015), ‘Secure Distributed Deduplication Systems with Improved Reliability’, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. PP, No. 99, pp.1.  Li Chaoling, Chen Yue, Zhou Yanzhou. (2014), ‘A Data assured deletion scheme in cloud storage’, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol.11, No.4, pp 98-110.  Seung-Hyun Seo, Mohamed Nabeel, Xiaoyu Ding, Elisa Bertino. (2014),’ An Efficient Certificate less Encryption for Secure Data Sharing in Public Clouds ‘,IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 9, pp 2107 – 2119.
Data hiding is also known as data encapsulation or information hiding, it reduces system complexity for increased robustness .Proposed approach provides optimal solution for performing data hiding. The goal of data hiding technique is to embed the secret data into the cover image with minimum changes in the pixel values. Here the secret data is generated and embedded into the cover image by random function of MATLAB and various chaotic map approaches. Then the embedded image is send to the Particle Swarm Optimization technique (PSO).In this technique, optimal solution is achieved which is calculated based on the maximal Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) value. So, the final stego image which is obtained has the minimal changes in the pixel values .In this Project, long running time will get reduce.
Keywords : Data hiding, information security, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Chaos, chaos map
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