A BPR based Routing in Presence of Selfish Nodes for MANET

M. Kaveri , K.L.N College of Engineering; S. Ramesh ,K.L.N College of Engineering
MANETs, Selfish nodes, BPR, Opportunistic Routing, Routing Protocols-AODV
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) is self-configured and decentralized wireless network without any prior infrastructure. Every node in it acts as a router as well as end system and hence each node in MANET is allowed to move freely which makes routing difficult. Most of the MANET routing algorithms like AODV and DSR assume that every node will forward every packet it receives. In opportunistic routing, a node selects and prioritizes multiple nodes which can act as potential packet forwarders. Source node will relay packets to the destination node through the intermediate node. However, misbehavior of the selfish nodes is a common phenomenon in MANET. These nodes use the network and its services and do not provide any services to intermediate nodes in order to save energy such as battery, CPU Power and bandwidth for relaying data from other nodes and reserve for themselves. These selfish nodes will degrade the performances of wireless ad hoc networks. In this thesis, Using OR and BPR routing protocols to overcome the presence of selfish nodes and also BPR routing protocol used to avoid malicious nodes. These protocols used to avoid congestion and perform the simulation using Network Simulator.	
[1]	Ajmal, M. M., Madani, S. A., Maqsood, T., Bilal, K., Nazir, B., & Hayat, K. (2013). Coordinated opportunistic routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. Computers & Electrical Engineering, ISSN 0045–7906, 39(8), 2442–2453.
[2]	Biswas, S., & Morris, R. (2009). ExOR: Opportunistic multi-hop routing for wireless networks. In Proceedings of conference on applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications.(SIGCOMM ’05), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 133–144.
[3]	Bo, W., Chuanhe, H., Layuan, L., & Wenzhong, Y. (2011). Trust-based minimum cost opportunistic routing for ad hoc networks. Journal of Systems and Software, 84(12), 2107–2122, ISSN 0164-1212
[4]	Hsu, C.-J., Liu, H.-I., &Seah,W. K. G. (2011). Opportunistic routing: A review and the challenges ahead. Computer Networks, ISSN 1389–1286, 55(15), 3592–3603
[5]	http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
[6]	Li, X., Jia, Z., Zhang, P., Zhang, R., & Wang, H. (2010). Trust-based on-demand multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks. IET Information Security, 4(4), 212–232.
[7]	Li, F., & Jie,W. (2010). Uncertainty modeling and reduction in MANETs. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 9(7), 1035–1048.
[8]	Liu, H., Zhang, B., Mouftah, H. T., Shen, X., & Ma, J. (2009). Opportunistic routing for Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks: Present and future directions Myung, J., & Lee, W. (2012). Eliminating duplicate forwarding in wireless opportunistic routing. IEEE Communications Letters, 16(4), 510–513.
[9]	Myung, J., & Lee, W. (2012). Eliminating duplicate forwarding in wireless opportunistic routing.
[10]	Martin Schutte (2006). Detecting Selfish and Malicious Nodes In MANETs.
[11]	Naimah Yaakob, Ibrahim Khalil, Heshan Kumarage, Mohammed Atiquzzama, and Zahir Tari, IEEE(2015).By-Passing Infected Areas in Wireless Sensor Networks Using BPR. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 64, NO. 6.
[12]	Othmana, J. B., & Mokdadb, L. (2012). Enhancing data security in ad hoc networks based on multipath routing. Elsevier Journal of Parallel Distributed Computing, 70, 309–316.
[13]	Perkins, C.E., & Royer, E. M. (2013). Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In Proceedings of workshop mobile computing systems and applications.
[14]	Sun, Y., Han, Z., & Liu, K. J. R. (2008). Defense of trust management vulnerabilities in distributed networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 46(2), 112–119
[15]	Wang, Z., Chen, Y., & Li, C. (2012). CORMAN: A novel cooperative opportunistic routing scheme in mobile ad hoc networks.
[16]	Wang, Z., Chen, Y., & Li, C. (2014). PSR: A lightweight proactive source routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 63(2), 859–868.
[17]	Xia, H., Jia, Z., Ju, L., & Zhu, Y. (2011).Trust management model for mobile ad hoc network based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy theory. IET Wireless Sensor Systems, 1(4), 248-266.
[18]	Zhao, H., Yang, X., & Li, X. (2013). Trust management in cyclic mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 62(6), 2792–2806.
[19]	Zhizhong, J., Chuanhe, H., Liya, X., Bo, W., Xi, C., & Xiying, F. (2012, October). A trusted opportunistic routing algorithm for VANET. In Third International Conference on Networking and Distributed Computing (ICNDC), pp. 86–90.
Other Details
Paper ID: GRDCF002027
Published in: Conference : International Conference on Innovations in Engineering and Technology (ICIET - 2016)
Page(s): 110 - 117
Article Preview
Academia.edu is a social networking website for academics. It was launched in September 2008 and had over 21 million registered users as of April 2015.The platform can be used to share papers, monitor their impact, and follow the research in a particular field. Academia.edu was founded by Richard Price, who raised $600,000 from Spark Ventures, Brent Hoberman, and others.
Learn More
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online journals of Europe and America's largest scholarly publishers,plus scholarly books and other non-peer reviewed journals.
Learn More
Issuu is a free electronic publishing platform for magazines, catalogs, newspapers and more. As a digital newsstand with over 21 million publications and 85 million active readers
Learn More
ResearchBib is a free academic database that indexes and provides open access to peer-reviewed journals, full text papers, research conferences & positions.
Learn More
Scribd is a digital library and ebook, audiobook and comic book subscription service that includes one million titles. In addition, Scribd hosts 60 million documents on its open publishing platform.
Learn More