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With new technologies surfacing day-by-day, we can use them to make new products and even can modify the existing ones. In a practical implementation, it is possible to use electric motors to open and close a refrigerator door. This can be done by reversing the direction of motion of motor when required. Reversing the polarity of the starter winding will solve the purpose. There are many ways to operate a motor and control of motor from human voice is one of them. In this application, a microcontroller-based voice input electronic circuit is designed, which can be used to rotate the motor in the required direction and hence to open and close the refrigerator door. The motor is connected to the axis of the refrigerator door. The relays are connected to the electric circuits for straight and reversed polarity. The motor operates in a direction as commanded. Microswitch are used to send signal to the microcontroller, which further stops the power supply to the relay and ultimately stops the motor rotation.
Keywords : Voice Command Control, Microcontroller Circuit, Automated Control, Hands Free Operation, Reliable Modification
 Anurag Bhardwaj, Sanjeev Gupta, Vageesh Baigra, Deeshant Jasrotia, Mohit Sharma, “Foot Lever Operated Refrigerator Door Opener and Motor Operated Closure”, GRD Journals, Vol. 3, Issue 1, Feb.2018, Page 44-46.  Musaab Hassan, Hammam Mahjoub, Mohammed Obed, “Voice-Based Control of DC Servo Motor”, American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, Issue 1, 2012, Page 89-92.  Prabhu.S, Sakulh Ameed, Suresh Kumar, Arun.S, “Voice Enabled Speed Control of AC Motor”, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. Vol. 3, Issue 2, 2014.  Bruno Fuhge, “Apparatus for opening and/or closing a door”. 2015, March 17. US8981698 B2. https://www.google.co.in/patents/US8981698#forward-citations  J B Gupta, “Electronic Devices and Circuits”. 6th Edition. S K Kataria & Sons.  B L Theraja, A K Theraja, “A Textbook of Electrical Technology Volume 2”, 23rd Edition. S Chand Publications.
The demand for electricity has been rising at an exponential rate since Independence. Though the power generation has increased manifold over these years, but it has not been able to keep pace with the increasing demand. Keeping in mind the per capita income in the nation, the policymakers need to arrive at a sustainable energy model to integrate self-sufficiency with affordability. The Coal Linkage agreements between the power stations, the Indian Railways and the coal blocks which were established a long time back continue to exist till today. Even though the rail connectivity and the number of mines have improved over these years, no major changes have been made in the coal allocation model pan India. The study seeks to optimize coal transportation cost for 19 NTPC owned power plants using Linear Optimization techniques and seeks to evaluate the annual profitability of these power stations. The study does not suggest the adoption of this optimized model but aims to draw an insight of the dire need to reallocate the coal blocks to achieve higher levels of supply chain surplus which could be passed on to the customers as customer surplus.
Keywords : Transportation, NTPC, Linear Programming, Optimization, Coal Linkage, Power plants
 Ritu Mathur, Sharat Chand, Tetsuo Tezuka (2003, March). Optimal use of coal for power generation in India. Energy Policy. Volume 31, Issue 4. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421502000678  Shi Qiang Liu, Erhan Kozan (2011, June). Optimising a coal rail network under capacity constraints. Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal. Volume 23, Issue 2. Available: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10696-010-9069-9  Hamdy A. Taha, “Transportation models and its variants”, in Operations Research: An Introduction, 8th ed, New Jersey: Pearson, 2007, pp. 193-234  Hamdy A. Taha, “Goal Programming”, in Operations Research: An Introduction, 8th ed, New Jersey: Pearson, 2007, pp. 333-348  www.grdjournals.com  www.globalresearch.com  www.fois.indianrail.gov.in/foisweb/view/qry/TQ_FrgtCalcIN.jsp  www.ntpc.co.in  www.coalindia.in  www.coal.nic.in/sites/upload_files/coal/.../coalupload/Provisional1213_0.pdf  www.coalcontroller.gov.in/writereaddata/files/download/provisionalcoalstat/ProvisionalCoalStat2016-17.pdf  www.wikipedia.org  www.mahanadicoal.in  www.easterncoal.gov.in
The basic requirement of any Integrated Circuit is high speed and low power processing of the data signals to perform the desired execution. The minimization of feature size plays an important role in increasing the performance of integrated circuits. However, the minimization of ICs has affect on leakage current when compared to the total current requirement of the circuit. So in this work presents the design of single bit magnitude comparator & 3 input EXOR gate using conventional CMOS logic style as well as DCVSL style. Then, the comparison has been carried out for both the designs with some parameters. These parameters are power dissipation, delay and how much transistors have been used in the respective designs, and then concluded that which design yields best results accordingly. In CMOS circuits, as the technology scales down to nano scale, the sub-threshold leakage current increases with the decrease in the threshold voltage. So we need a technique to tackle the power dissipation problem in CMOS circuits do the analysis keeping parameters such as power consumption, delay, voltage & transistor count. First, there is the analysis between power consumption & delay, keeping the voltage constant at 5V. We here can see that circuit of the DCSVL structures produces better results in terms of power consumption by lowering its value. The circuit designed using DCVS Logic style is an attempt to further reduce the power dissipation with minimum delay.
Keywords : CMOS, DCVSL, Magnitude Comparator, EXOR Gate, VLSI, Tanner EDA
 C. Piguet, Low-Power CMOS Circuits, CRC Press, 2006.  L. Bisdounis,D. Gouvetas, andO. Koufopavlou, “A comparative study of CMOS circuit design styles for low-power high-speed VLSI circuits,” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 599–613, 1998.  R. Faghih Mirzaee, T. Nikoubin, K. Navi, and O. Hashemipour, “Differential Cascode Voltage Switch (DCVS) Strategies by CNTFET Technology for Standard Ternary Logic,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1238–1250, 2013.  Priyanka and A. K. Singh, “A low voltage high speed DCVSL based ring oscillator,” in Proceedings of the Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON ’15), pp. 1–5, New Delhi, India, December 2015.  D. W. Kang and Y.-B. Kim, “Design of enhanced differential cascode voltage switch logic (EDCVSL) circuits for high fan-in gate,” in Proceedings of the 15th Annual IEEE International ASIC/SOC Conference (ASIC/SOC ’02), pp. 309–313, September 2002.  N. Hanchate and N. Ranganathan, “LECTOR: a technique for leakage reduction in CMOS circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 196-205, 2004.  P. Lakshmikanthan and A. Nu˜nez, “A novel methodology to reduce leakage power in differential cascode voltage switch logic circuits,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, pp. 1–4, Veracruz, Mexico, September 2006.  W. Chen, W. Hwang, P. Kudva, G. D. Gristede, S. Kosonocky, and R. V. Joshi, “Mixed multi-threshold differential cascode voltage switch (MT-DCVS) circuit styles and strategies for low power VLSI design,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Low Electronics and Design (ISLPED ’01), pp. 263–266, August 2001.  John P. Uyemura, (2002) Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems, John Wiley & Sons.  H.T. Bui, Y. Wang and Y. Jiang, ―Design and analysis of low-power 10-transister full adders using XOR-XNOR gates, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Analog Digit. Signal Process, Vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 25- 30, Jan. 2002.  K. Navi, O. Kaehi, M. Rouholamini, A. Sahafi, S.Mehrabi, N. Dadkhahi, ―Low power and High performance 1-bit CMOS fill adder for nanometer design, IEEE computer Society Annual Symposium VLSI (ISVLSI), Montpellier fr, 2008, pp.  Subodh Wairya, Rajendra Kumar Nagaria and Sudarshan Tiwari, (2011) ―New Design Methodologies for High-Speed Low-Voltage 1 Bit CMOS Full Adder Circuits,‖ Journal of Computer Technology and Application, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 190-198.  Sumeer Goel, Mohammed A. Elgamel, Magdy A. Bayoumi, Yasser Hanafy, (2006) Design Methodologies for High-Performance Noise-Tolerant XOR-XNOR Circuits, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems- I, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 867-878.  Design of Energy efficient Full adder using hybrid CMOS logic style Mohammad Shamim Imtiaz, Md Abdul Aziz Suzon, Mahmudur Rahman, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.  Subodh Wairya , Garima Singh, Vishant, R. K. Nagaria and S. Tiwari (2011), ―Design Analysis of XOR (4T) based Low Voltage CMOS Full Adder Cell, In Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Current Trends In Technology (NUiCONE‘11), Ahmedabad, India pp. 1-7.  Subodh Wairya, Rajendra Kumar Nagaria and Sudarshan Tiwari Comparative Performance Analysis of XOR/XNOR Function Based High-Speed CMOS Full Adder Circuits For Low Voltage VLSI Design, International Journal of VLSI design & Communication Systems (VLSICS) Vol.3, No.2, April 2012.  Avireni Srinivasulu and Madugula Rajesh, “ULPD and CPTL Pull-Up Stages for Differential Cascode Voltage Switch Logic”, Hindwai Publishing Corporation, Journal of Engineering, Volume 2013, Article ID 595296, pp.1-5.  L. G. Heller and W. R. Griffin, “Cascode voltage switch logic: A differential CMOS logic family,” in ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers, 1984, pp. 16-17.  R. K. Montoye, “Testing scheme for differential cascode voltage switch circuits,” IBM Tech. Disc. Bull., vol. 27, pp. 6148-6152, 1985.
Crowdsourcing is a good and efficient source model to obtain goods and services for individuals or organisation. This is very much advantageous over other methods as it helps to learn beyond the base of minds of the people. This model is widely used in various research fields like astronomy, ornithology, seismology, medicine etc., in the present medical world, crowd of patients with variety of illnesses are suffering to get data, past history, consultation, treatment, suggestions etc., and make research difficult in this area. To make this task easier and various methods are used in crowd sourcing technology and this paper deals with the application, methodologies adopted, advantages and disadvantages of the crowd sourcing method in the field of medical research.
Keywords : Crowd Sourcing, Citizen Science, PatientsLikeMe, 23andMe, Genomera, DIY Genomics, Quantified Self
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As the population of cities around the world is increasing at a rapid pace, cities have started addressing this problem by the implementation of significant sensing and actuation infrastructure and building services on this infrastructure. Potential for conflicts across Smart City services increases with the increasing density of sensing and actuation and growing complexities of services. These conflicts can cause unsafe situations and disrupt the benefits that the services that were originally intended to provide. The proposed system detects and analyses the runtime conflict in smart city transportation services using real-time data feed. We will prepare an architecture, which will focus on conflict that arises on these services. 1. Train 2.Tube 3.Bus our architecture solution identifies the conflict and provides broad perspective to decision making aspect of services.
Keywords : Cloud Computing, Data Mining, Web Mining, Container Virtualization, Machine Learning
 Ma; S. Masud Preum; W. Tarneberg; M. Ahmed; M. Ruiters; J. Stankovic., “Detection of Runtime Conflicts among Services in Smart Cities” DOI: 10.1109/SMARTCOMP.2016.7501688, 2016.  L.Sanchez, L.Mu˜noz, J. A.Galache, P.Sotres, J. R.Santana, V.Gutierrez,R.Ramdhany, A. Gluhak, S. Krco, E. Theodoridis et al., “Smart Santander: Iot experimentation over a smart city testbed,” Computer Networks ,vol. 61, pp. 217–238, 2014.  Perera, A. Zaslavsky, P. Christen, and D. Georgakopoulos, “Sensing as a service model for smart cities supported by internet of things, ”Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, vol. 25,no. 1, pp. 81–93,2014..  S. Zygiaris, “Smart city reference model: Assisting planners to conceptualize the building of smart city innovation ecosystems,” Journal of the Knowledge Economy, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 217–231, 2013.  Bask, K. Spens, G. Stefansson, and K. Lumsden, “Performance issues of smart transportation management systems,” International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 55–70, 2008.  J. Chinrungrueng, U. Sunantachaikul, and S. Triamlumlerd, “Smart parking: An application of optical wireless sensor network,”in SAINT Workshops 2007. International Symposium on Applications and the Internet Workshops, 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 66–66.M. I. Ali, F. Gao , and A. Mileo, “City bench: A configurable benchmark to evaluate rsp engines.