The present study of ‘Analysis of Continuous Water Distribution System in Surat City using EPANET software: A Case study’ was carried out with a specific objective of effective planning, development of water distribution network and analysis using EPANET software. For this analysis the data for existing water distribution network was acquired from Surat Municipal Corporation and Multimedia Consultancy, Ahmedabad. The Google Earth Image of Surat City is downloaded and the elevation of node, length of pipe was recorded for nearly 214 junctions and 293 pipes. These data was used in EPANET software for analysis of pressure, head loss and elevation. This analysis resulted in pressure and elevation at various nodes and head loss at various pipes. Result of data analysis in software are compared with the actual data which will indicate that there is less head loss which is very essential for continuous pressure required for continuous water supply system in Surat City.
Keywords : Elevation, EPANET 2.0, Nodes, Pipe Network, Pressure, Water Supply
 Germanopoulos, G., Jowitt, P.W. and Lumbers, J.P. “Assessing the Reliability of Supply and Level of Service for Water Distribution Systems.” Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., Part 1, Water Engineering Group, (1986), 413-428.  Lansey, K.E., Duan, N. and Mays, L.W. “Water Distribution System Design under Uncertainties.” ASCE J. Water Resources Planning & Management, 115, No. 5 (1989), 630-644.  Calvin, R.S., Yacov, Y.H., Duan, L. and James, H.L. “Capacity Reliability of Water Distribution Networks and Optimum Rehabilitation Decision Making.” Water Resources Res., 32, No. 7 (1996), 2271-2278.  Cullinane, M.J., Lansey, K.E. and Mays, L.W. “Optimization Availability-based Design of Water Distribution Networks.” ASCE J. Hydraulic Eng., 118, No. 3 (1992), 420-441.  Rossmann LA “EPANET 2.0 User’s manual,” Water supply and water resources division, national risk management research laboratory, Cinchinnati, 2000.  Shinstine, D.S., Ahmed, I. and Lansey, K.E. “Reliability/Availability Analysis of Municipal Water Distribution Networks: Case Studies.” ASCE J. Water Resources Planning & Management, 128, No. 2 (2002), 140-151.  Ishani Gupta, Dr. R. K. Khitoliya, Dr. Shakti Kumar. “Study of Water Distribution Network using EPANET.” International Journal of Computational Engineering Research, 2013, Vol. 3(6), pp. 58-6.  Urmi Parikh, B. M. vadher, Dr. P. G. Agnihotry. “Study of Water Distribution Pipe Network using EPANET 2.0.” Global Journal for Research Analysis, 2014, Vol. 3(4), pp. 214-216.  Janki H. Vyas, Narendra J. Shrimali , Mukesh A. Modi. “Optimization of Dhrafad Regional Water supply scheme using EPANET.” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering & Technology, 2013, Vol. 2(10), pp. 5768-5773.
In the fast developing cities today, the land availability is scarce for allocating it as a park. One of a solution to this situation is to convert the left-over (vacant) spaces into a park. It will increase the physical as well as recreation activities in the urban settlement. One of the primary criteria for the parks is to have them within a walk able distance. Such parks can be of two kinds: playgrounds and community gardens. These also can be named as mini-parks and for developing such parks serving a common interest, an active support is required from within the Commonwealth and the Government. These small places or mini parks can serve a dual purpose such as recreation as well as the generation of economic activity to a smaller extent. The paper discusses over health aspects in an urban area for the citizens followed by basics of and some of the cases related to novel efforts in developing mini-parks. The cases discussed are of (A) Paley Park, NY-USA, (B) Mini-park in Higashi-Ikebukuro of Tokyo and (C) Ghost train park of Lima. Authors attempt for a comparative analysis of these three parks. Discussion follows a proposal of developing a recently closed down project of Sky-bus in Goa as a mini-park. The authority acquired land for the Sky-bus corridor, wherein the spaces at different interval can serve for creating mini-parks.
Keywords : Mini parks, Physical activity, Recreation activity, urban settlement
 Basurama, USW Lima Ghost Train Park. (2011). Retrieved from : http://basurama.org/en/projects/year/2010-en/usw-lima-ghost-train-park  Blake. (n.d.). Pocket Parks. Retrieved from http://depts.washington.edu/open2100/pdf/2_OpenSpaceTypes/Open_Space_Types/pocket_parks.pdf on 27 May 2013.  Carroll, M. (1967). "Paley Park: A Corner of Quiet Delights Amid City's Bustle; 53d St. Haven Has Something for Everyone". The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2010.  Gies, E. (2006). How Parks Help Keep Americans and Their Communities Fit and Healthy. San Francisco: The trust for public land.  Nidhi, G., & M, H. A. (2014, November 10). Shodhganga@INFLIBNET/University of Delhi/Dept. of Geography. Retrieved from Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET: http://hdl.handle.net/10603/27659  Project for Public Spaces, Paley Park. (2013, May 24). Retrieved from http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/one?public_place_id=69  Quora. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/Why-is-the-government-of-India-not-clearing-SkyBus-Metro-and-clearing-metro-which-is-costlier-than-SkyBus-Metro.  Seymour Jr., W. N. (1969). Small Urban Spaces: The Philosophy, De-sign, Sociology and Politics of Vest-Pocket Parks and Other Small Urban Spaces. New York: New York University Press.  Snow, J. (2007). Pockets Parks in Higashi-Ikebukuro, Photos for Flicker. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeansnow/746410603/ on 25 May 2013
Manufacture and use of cars are increasing day by day. This is creating environmental, social and aesthetic issues that we never imagined in last few decades. These problems force urban planners to think and design the cities which will work without cars. The transformation of existing towns and outskirts to car-free model is possible by providing better and faster public transport, better biking and by increasing density and reducing street width. Car-free development will help in reduction of traffic generation and parking problems, improvements to the urban environment and economy of government. This paper defines Car-free related terms. After describing the problems caused by the Cars, this document discusses alternative means to resolve those problems regarding replacement of cars by introducing the rapid economic, public transport. Design standards are also explored to make a city, Car-free. In a later section of paper, its major focus is on the methods of conversion of existing cities into the Car-free model. Four Indian cities viz. Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Bangalore have already taken initiatives to promote the Car-free movements by various means. The paper discusses popular Car-free places and their character. There are some objections to the Car-free model like Congestion, Noise, Mixed uses of land and, of course, the people’s love towards their cars, which elaborated in the later section of this paper. This review is expected to be helpful to planners for alternative means to release some major issues caused by cars.
Keywords : Car-free, Conversion, Densely populated neighbourhoods, Public Transport
 [Online] www.carfree.com.  Aurbach, Laurence. 2010. The Power of Intersection Density. pedshed.net. [Online] 27 May 2010. [Cited: 08 March 2016.] http://pedshed.net/?p=574.  Carter, Owe. 2014. “Carless Cities: Could our cities adapt to become carfree in the next twenty years?”. 2014.  Crawford, J.H. 2013. "A Vision for Carfree Cities for the 21st Century". 2013.  ESAF. 2012. "City of Bangalore and its approach to 21st Century". Bangalore : s.n., 2012.  Lloyd, Wright. 2005. "Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities, Module 3e: Car-free Development". 2005.  Melia, Mr Steven. 2012. "Potential for Carfree Development in the UK”. 2012.  Newman P., Kenworthy J. 1999. Sustainability and cities: overcoming automobile dependence. Washington : Island Press, 1999.
Cities are the growth engineer of the nation and the development of nation is depending on the city’s urbanization level. As per statistics urban population of the world was estimated to be 2.96 billion in 2000 and it was estimated that nearly 50 million people are added to the world’s urban population each year. But the urbanization level of developed country is almost stabilized and that with the improved infrastructure and high standard of living. The developing counties are also making same pace and direction as developed countries. But they could not able to make pace in tem of life style and infrastructure provision and that will creating the problems in the urban area in term of pollution, traffic congestion, substandard housing, degraded quality of life, congested residential areas etc. This all addressing the issues of sustainability and hence this paper is intended to provide the broader view for cites of developing county by having sustainability index in form of sustainability Indicators. This paper focuses the methodology for selection of sustainability indicators for Indian context.
Keywords : Sustainable Development, Sustainability Index, Climate change
 Amna S. and Salman Q. 1998, Indicators of sustainable urban development: A review of urban regeneration projects in Karachi, Pakistan, Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg 5020, Austria.  Christian A., John H., Kristian L. 1996, Methodological and Ideological Options Socio-ecological indicators for sustainability, Ecological Economics Vol. no.18, page no. 89-112.  De C., Carden K., Armitage N. 2005, Application of a sustainability index for integrated urban water management in southern African cities: case study comparison – Maputo and Hermanus, UCL Development Planning Unit in collaboration with DFID and UN-Habitat, London.  Emmanuel A., Samuel O. , Theophilus A. 2007, A Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Methodologies, International Conference on Whole Life Urban Sustainability and its Assessment M. Horner, C. Hardcastle, A. Price, J. Bebbington (Eds)Glasgow.  Giuseppe M. 2003, Measuring Sustainability: A Multi-Criterion Framework, Manuscript forthcoming in Environment, Development and Sustainability Version November 2003.  Heintz T. 1999, The Roles and Importance of Sustainability Indicators, U.S. Department of the Interior.  Joyashree R., Chatterjee B. 2009, Sustainable Development in India? Who Should Do What?, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.  Klaus S., Michael W. 2003, Modeling Urban Sustainability, Gulmohar Hall, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi.  Miquel O. 2002, Sustainability indicators as discursive elements, Third World Planning Review, Vol.14, No.4.  Parris, T.M., Kates R. 2003, Characterizing and Measuring Sustainable Development, Annual Review of environmental and resource, PP 559-586.  A report on GHG emission profile of India, by Ministry of Environment and Forestry.  A report on Liveable City and Sustainable Plan, by City of El Paso Sustainability Program.
India is the second largest urban system in the world that shows the process of evolution, “Urbanizations”. One of the reasons for urbanization is transform of rural area in to urban area. This rapid urbanization leads to unplanned, uncontrolled development in urban area which demands more planning effort to satisfy the requirement of the people. But the urbanization level of developed country is almost stabilised and that with the improved infrastructure and high standard of living. The developing counties are also making same pace and direction as developed countries. But they could not able to make pace in tem of life style and infrastructure provision and that will creating the problems in the urban area in term of pollution, traffic congestion, substandard housing, degraded quality of life, congested residential areas etc. These all addressing the issues of sustainability. To resolve all these issues sustainable development is required. Sustainability indicators are one of the effective tools to measure the sustainability. For the study 101 census wards of Surat city is selected to evaluate the sustainability of Surat city. The sustainability indicator is divided in 3 tier system i.e. social, environment and economic. Based on the composite sustainability index the ward sand all zones of surat city is given sustainable ranking. Sustainability indicators are useful for the decision making and a powerful tool for the planners to plan the future requirements.
Keywords : Urbanization, Social sustainability Index, Environmental Sustainability Index, Economical Sustainability Index, Composite Sustainability Index
 Atkinson A. (1992) “The Urban Bioregion as Sustainable Development Paradigm”, Third World Planning Review, Vol.14, No.4.  Amna Salman and Salman Qureshi (1998), “Indicators of sustainable urban development: A review of urban regeneration projects in Karachi, Pakistan”, Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg 5020, Austria.  Adriana A. (2002), “Sustainable Cities or Sustainable Urbanization?” UCL Development Planning Unit in collaboration with DFID and UN-Habitat, London.  Barton, H., (1995) “Sustainable settlements. A guidefor planners, designers and developers”, Bristol, University of the West of England and London.  Burgess, R., Carmona, M. and Kolstee, T. (1997), The Challenge of Sustainable Development: Neo-liberalism and Urban Strategies in the Developing World, London, Zed.  Ban K. (2009), “Planning Sustainable Cities”, A Global report on human settlements, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, London.  Colin F. (1996), “EUROPEAN SUSTAINABLE CITIES”, European Commission.  Commission of the European Communities (1992) “Towards Sustainability: A European Community Programme of Policy and Action in Relation to the Environment and Sustainable Development”. COM (92) 23, Brussels 27 March.  Christian Azar, John Holmberg , Kristian Lindgren (1996), “Methodological and Ideological Options Socio-ecological indicators for sustainability”, Ecological Economics 18 (1996) 89-112.
Pedestrians, bicyclists and non-motorized rickshaw are the most critical elements in mixed traffic. Several researchers are agreed that the congestion at the major urban roads is due to overlook attitude for NMT. So it’s important to create a safe pedestrians, bicycle and public transport friendly urban roads without increasing the right of way of existing arterial roads in most of the cities. Sahara Darwaja is main entrance of Surat city of Gujarat state and connecting major employment center with the residential center. During peak hour about 6000 Pedestrians are crossing this area. These high density Pedestrian flows create chaotic movements and results into congestion, delay, pollution and unsafe movements. This paper focusing the issues related to NMT and improvement of traffic condition to have sustainable transportation planning. At the concluding remarks authors are focusing the less expensive and less disruptive planning proposals for the surrounding land uses.
Keywords : Sustainable Development, Non-Motorized Transportation
 City Development Plan of Surat (An initiative under JNNURM by SMC with CEPT technical support in 2005.  Misra R.P. (1999), “Urban India: Historical roots and contemporary scenario, in Million Cities of India” ed. R.P.Misra, Kamlesh Misra, Sustainable Development Foundation, Delhi, India, pp52.  Mohan, D. And Tiwari G. (1997), “ Road safety in india: issues and concerns”. Delhi: transportation research and injury prevention programme, Indian institute of technology, Delhi, pp. 1-25.  S. Padam S. K. Singh (1985), “Urbanization And Urban Transport In India:The Sketch For A Policy”. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.  Tiwari G, D. Mohan, J. Fazio (1998), “Conflict Analysis in Mixed Traffic Conditions, Accd. Anal. and Prev.”, Vol.30 No.2, pp.207-215,.  Tiwari G. (1997), “Planning for non-motorized traffic-A prerequisite for sustainable transport system”, IATSS Research, vol.23 No.2, pp70-77,.  Tiwari, G. (1999), “Road Designs for Improving Traffic Flow: A Bicycle Master Plan for Delhi”. TRIPP, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.  Tiwari, G. (2000), “Economic Benefits of Cycling Infrastructure: Case study” Delhi, report for ICE-Netherlands, TRIPP, Indian Institute of Technology, and Delhi, India,  Tiwari, G.,Mohan D.(1998), “Bicycle Master Plan for Delhi”, Final Report submitted to Transport Department, Delhi Government, TRIPP, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.
Concrete is the most widely used construction material for infrastructure but most concrete structures are prone to cracking. Tiny cracks on the surface of the concrete make the whole structure vulnerable because water seeps in to degrade the concrete and corrode the steel reinforcement greatly reducing the lifespan of a structure. As current crack filling material in concrete proved harmful and toxic. It can be replaced by recent innovative, eco-friendly material – Bacteria. Huge diverse bacterial species can participate in precipitation of mineral carbonate, even in many diverse conditions. Lots of work has been done for Bacillus Sphericus. So through this project we want to show the role of Bacillus Sphericus as crack- healing material in concrete to improve mechanical performance & its effect on various parameters of concrete.
Keywords : Bacillus sphericus, Compressive strength, Concrete, Crack
 Ashwija K.C. & Narayan Jayaprakash K.S., “Experimental Study on The Strength Variation of Concrete Using Bacteria”.  Chahal Navneet, Rajor Anita and Siddique Rafat, “Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by different Bacterial strains”, African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(42), pp. 8359-8372, 8 August, 2011, DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.345, ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals.  Day J. L.,“Bacillus subtilis Gene Cluster Involved in Calcium Carbonate Biomineralization”.  De Belie .N & De Muynck .W, “Crack repair in concrete using biodeposition” , Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II – Alexander et al (eds) © 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-46850-3.  Dhami NavdeepKaur, Reddy Sudhakara M. and Mukherjee Abhijit, “Biofilm and Microbial Applicationsin Biomineralized Concrete”, Thapar University, Patiala,India.
Sustainability is still a relatively new term in everyday public discourses, yet broad consensus is emerging that issues of sustainability should take a central part in future development strategies. Some of the professions most seriously affected by the complexities and challenges of sustainable development are the engineering professions. As a consequence many institutions are now engaged in rethinking the professional engineers’ role and contribution in contemporary society and concretize the implications that such a change will hold for engineering educations. Design, on the other hand, is an old concept, but its use has always been fluent and changing. Today it is no longer solely a matter of formalist aesthetics employing materials and tangible form for iconic recognition. The New design Engineering field is rather shifting towards a reflective, creative practice working across disciplines and professions, and the objects of design are shifting towards systems, services, and experiences rather than material products.
Keywords : Design Engineering, Sustainable development
 Archer, L.B. (1981), “A View of the Nature of Design Research” in: Jacques, R. and Powell, J.A. (eds.),  Asimov, M. (1962), “Introduction to Design, Prentice-Hall”, USA.  Beheshti, M.R. (1993), “Design Decisions and Uncertainty, Design Studies”, Vol. 14, No. 1.  Beheshti, M.R. (1993), “Editorial, Design Studies”, Vol. 14, No. 1.  Beheshti, M.R. (1999), “Handbook Systematic Design in Architecture and Civil Engineering”, Delft University Press, Delft, the Netherlands.  Beheshti, R. and Veer, P. van der (1999),”Design Science and Technology”, EuropIA, France.  Blalock, J.Th. (1984), “Theory Construction”, Prentice-Hall, USA.  Brown, T. & Wyatt, J. 2010, “Design thinking for social innovation”. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 8, 30-35.  Bucciarelli, L. L. 1994, “Designing Engineers”. MIT Press.  Cross, N. 2000, “Engineering Design Methods: Strategies for Product Design”. 3rd edn. Wiley.  Downey, G. 2005, “Are Engineers Losing Control of Technology”? Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 83, 583-595.  Jørgensen, U. 2013, “Center for Design, Innovation and Sustainable Transition (DIST) - Foundational notes”. Unpublished. DIST. Jørgensen, U. & Yoshinaka, Y. 2009. Teknologi som genstand og vision. In: Jørgensen, U. ed. I teknologiens laboratiorium - ingeniørfagets videnskabsteori. 2nd edn. Polyteknisk Forlag, 13-38.  Mulder, K.F. 2006. Engineering curricula in sustainable development. An evaluation of changes at Delft University of Technology. European Journal of Engineering Education, 31, 133-144.  Mulder, K.F., Segalas, J. and Ferrer-Balas, D. 2012. How to educate engineers for/in sustainable development: Ten years of discussion, remaining challenges. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 13, 211-218.  Schön, D. A. 1999. The Reflective Practitioner - How Professionals Think in Action. Basic Books. Ulrich, K. T. & Eppinger, S. D. 1995. Product design and development. McGraw-Hill.
Design Engineering is defined as a process, leading to the development of new technologies, which refers to the outcome of innovative ideas through various brain storming activities. Source for the design thinking process originates from the various problems existing in the environment. Research survey carried out in the present paper focus on the area of work which is environmentally, socially and economically important for our nation’s growth, referring to tourism. Scarcity of pure water is a growing threat to the healthy, hygienic and clean environment of the tourist places. Survey study indicates that the reason for such scarcity is due to various geographical and other conditions prevailing in that area. So, review on the problem regarding availability of fresh or pure water along the drier area of tourists’ places has been reviewed through the entire process of design engineering and concluded that seawater desalination plant powered by solar energy produces freshwater and dry salt, satisfying the criteria of both, eco-friendly and economic feasibility.
Keywords : Design engineering, Desalination techniques, purified water, salt water, solar energy
 William W. Aultman (1949), “Freshwater from salt”. ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE MONTHLY. Vol. XII No.5  Asimov, M. (1962),”Introduction to Design”, Prentice-Hall, USA.  G. Broadbent, (1981), “The Morality of Design” in Design: Science: Method 309–328.  Archer, L.B. (1981), “A View of the Nature of Design Research”, in: Jacques, R. and Powell, J.A. (eds.), Design:Science: Methods, Westbury House, Guildford, UK.  Malik MAS, Tiwari GN, Kumar A, Sodha MS (1985), “Solar distillation”. Oxford: Pergamon Press.  Ulrich, K. T. & Eppinger, S. D. (1995), “Product design and development”. McGraw-Hill.  Buros, O.K. (2000), “The ABCs of Desalting”, International Desalination Association.  Soteris A. Kalogirou (2005), “Seawater desalination using renewable energy sources”. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Higher Technical Institute, Nicosia 2152, Cyprus  Hugo Niesing, “Solar energy: desalinating sea water into fresh water”. Wattpic, Barcelona/Amsterdam.  Delyannis E. (2003) “Historic background of desalination and renewable eneries”. Solar Energy;75(5):357–66.
Due to increase in the growth of industrial sectors the power requirement of the country is rapidly increasing. India depends on Thermal Power as its main source, thus increase in power requirement every year. Present scenario of our country shows 75 % of country’s total installed power generation is thermal of which coal-based generation is 90%. The coal reserves of the country are predominately of lower grades (average of 35% ash content), non-cooking and as a result more than 110 million MT coal ash is being generated every year. Ash generation may likely reach to 170 million MT by 2012. Use of coal brings huge amount of ash every year. Lots of research has been carried out for effective utilization of fly ash in construction industries due to its fine particles and Pozzolonic properties. But little literature is available on pond ash utilization. Pond ash being coarser and less Pozzolonic than fly ash can be used as fine aggregates in concrete by partial replacement of sand. As per M60 Mix Design in this project we will replace the alccofine and fine fly ash partially with cement and pond fly ash as a replacement of fine aggregate. In mix G1, G2, G3 we will replace cement with alccofine 4% and fine fly ash 26% and pond fly ash varies 10%, 20%, and 30% as replacement of F.A. Similarly in mix G4,G5,G6 alccofine 6% and fine fly ash 24% and pond fly ash same as 10%,20%,30%. The Concrete specimens will tested at different age level for Mechanical Properties of concrete, namely, Cube Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength with other properties such as Compacting Factor, with respect to 7,28,56,90 Days strength. The main aim of our study as project is to get the economical and eco-friendly High strength Concrete (HSC).
Keywords : Alccofin, Cement, Fine aggregate and fine fly-ash, Pond Ash
 IS 8112 – 1989 “Specification for 43grade Ordinary Portland Cement”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  IS 383: 1970-“Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards,New Delhi.  IS 2386 (Part I-VIII) -1960, “Indian standards method of testing for concrete”, (First revision), Bureau of Indian Standards,New Delhi, India.  IS 10262:2009, ‘Indian standard concrete mix proportioning – Guidelines” (First revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.  ACI 211.1. (1993),”Standard practice for selecting proportions for normal, heavyweight and mass concrete”. ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, 38 p.  ASTM C39 (1994),“Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens”, Annual Book of ASTM Standards.  Demirel B, Yazıcıo_lu S (2008), “Thermoelectric behavior of carbon fiber reinforced lightweight concrete with mineral admixtures”. New Carbon Mater., 23(1): 21-24.  Erdogan T (2003),Concrete, METU Press. p. 741. (in Turkish) Gonen T, Yazicioglu S (2007), “ The influence of mineral admixtures on the short and long-term performance of concrete”. Build Environ.,42(8): 3080-3085.  Sonerbi M., Bartos PJM., ZHU W., Gibbs J., Tamimi A., (2000), “Task 4—properties of hardened concrete”, Final report, Brite EuRam Project No. BE963801/Contact  “Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design”, IS 10262 -2009, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.  “Plain And Reinforced Concrete -Code Of Practice”, IS 456- 2000, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi  “Specification For Coarse And Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources For Concrete”, IS 383-1970, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi
The transportation system of any country is a vital part of their economy and public life. Country’s national security is majorly based on the transportation system by which most of the commercial businesses are done through all coasts and parts of nation. The objective of this paper is to categorize numerous critical dangers and their relative safety measures on Canada’s national transportation system such as rail, road, marine and air transportation. Transportation system may face natural, accidental and malicious harms. The national transportation structure is so crucial that a damage of such conveyance mode or system would have a devastating impact on national economic security, public health or safety, or any other critical sector such as trade or business. Critical hazards and vulnerabilities to transportation systems through various modes of damages were recognized for a long time and many new ways and regulations came out to reduce and regulate those deficiencies after such big causes of devastation. Canada’s transport ministry had induced many new conventions and safety supervision systems in order to prevent and minimize the critical threats to major transportation systems of the nation. Canadian government had introduced various safety programs such as CATSA (Screening Contractor Management System) for airport security and safety management system (SMS) for rail security. This paper will also discuss various recommendations and safety measures to be taken while various critical conditions happen and it also contains a possible solution to various problems regarding the security of various modes of transportation in Canada.
Keywords : Critical infrastructure, critical threats, national security, public safety, Transportation security
 Rosslin John Robles, Min-kyu Choi, Eun-suk Cho, Seok-soo Kim, Gil-cheol Park, Jang-Hee Lee. Common Threats and Vulnerabilities of Critical Infrastructures. International Journal of Control and Automation.  Canada’s national civil aviation security program. Transport Canada.  Threats to Canada’s Critical Infrastructure. Office of critical infrastructure and emergency preparedness. Government of Canada.  Securing an Open Society: Canada’s National Security Policy (April 2004). National Library of Canada cataloguing in publication data. ISBN 0-662-36982-3.  Aviation recommendations (February 2008), Transportation safety board of Canada, Government of Canada.  Road transportation (April 2015), emergencies, Transport Canada.  Graham, A. Canada’s critical infrastructure: When is Safe Enough Safe Enough? The MacDonald –Laurier institute.  Dunlavy, J., Akuoko-Asibey, A., Masse, R., Pilon, D., an Analysis of the Transportation Industry in 2005. Ottawa, Transportation division, statistics Canada.  Transportation in Canada (2011) Comprehensive Review, Transport Canada. Government of Canada.  Canadian Air Transport Security Authority, CATSA Screening Contractor Management System Standard. September 2015.
Asphalt is sticky, black and viscous liquid substance which extensively known as bitumen and broadly useful in the construction of roads and bridge pavements. Its natural adhesive characteristics makes it possible to combine all required aggregate together to produce a greater amount of strength to sustain the higher traffic loads. Asphalt is naturally originated substance and it also could distinguish from the petroleum by products. A major application of asphalt material is to make high strength road pavements and as an adhesive to combine aggregates together for several applications. Deterioration or elimination of asphalt binder from aggregate layer due to the effect of moisture is generally named as the “stripping”. Moisture damage or stripping distress is one of the most severe causes of damage in asphalt pavement. This paper will exhibit the stripping distress due to the water (moisture) effect on the bitumen pavements and how that damages could be cured. Asphalt roads may face destructions due to water or moisture vapor. These hazards may damage roads in such critical ways which results in temporary close-up or permanent renewal of that particular pavement. This paper will discuss remedies and maintenance techniques should be taken while the stripping characteristics affect the asphalt pavements and it will also cover the basic critical points should be taken in the consideration while constructing the asphalt pavement to reduce the stripping hazard effects on it. Recommendations are also made in the research to minimize the occurrence of such premature failure resulting from stripping distress.
Keywords : Asphalt pavement, moisture damages, pavement strength, stripping
 Stripping (2007) .Pavement interactive. Retrieved from http://www.pavementinteractive.org/article/stripping/  TAC (transport association of Canada).December 1997.Moisture damages of asphalt concrete and antistripping additives. ISBN 1-55187-095-9.  Badru M. Kiggundu, Freddy L. Robertes. (September 1988), stripping in HMA mixtures: state-of-the-art and critical review of test methods. National Center for Asphalt Technology. NCAT Report No. 88-2.  Prithvi S. Kandhal, Ian J. Rickards. (April 2001), premature failure of asphalt overlays from stripping: case histories. NCAT Report 01-01.  Erlingsson, S., Failure Modes in Pavements (2003). Flexible Pavement Distress Modes. AF2903 Road Construction and Maintenance.  Harnish, I., Liquid Anti-Strip Technology & Best Practices (2010). ArrMaz Custom Chemicals. Overland Park, KS.  Kandhal, K., Parker, F., Wu, Y., Aggregate toughness/ abrasion resistance and durability/soundness tests related to asphalt concrete performance in pavements (1998). NCAT Report No. 98-4.  Wood, T., Stripping of Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements under Chip Seals (2013). Minnesota Department of Transportation Research Services. St. Paul, Minnesota.  ODOT Distress Survey Manual (2010). Oregon department of transportation.  Neal, B., 13 Pavement Defects and Failures (2011). Paveman Pro. Retrieved from http://www.pavemanpro.com/article/identifying_asphalt_pavement_defects/  WSDOT pavement policy (2011). Washington State Department of Transportation. Environmental and Engineering Programs Division State Materials Laboratory Pavements Division. Olympia, WA.
Operation of reservoirs, often for conflicting purposes, is a difficult task. The uncertainty associated with reservoir operations is further increased due to the on-going hydrological impacts of climate change. Therefore, various artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithms, ant-colony optimization, fuzzy logic and mathematical optimization methods such as Linear programming, Dynamic Programming are increasingly being employed to solve multi-reservoir operation problems. For doing optimization, objective function is formulated which is subjected to various constraints. Constraints include continuity equation, reservoir storage constraints, release constraint and overflow constraint. Monthly data for the study are used of year 2007 to 2011. Genetic algorithm is based on Darwin’s theory of Survival of the fittest. GA reduces the difference between releases and demand and returns the value of the fitness function / Objective function. In 2007, using Genetic Algorithm the generation of power can be increased 9.22% through optimal releases. There is 7.14% increase in optimal reservoir release. Further include the study of to optimize the monthly releases from the reservoir i.e. to minimize the sum of the squared difference between monthly release of water from the reservoir and downstream demands for Ukai Reservoir Project. DP is a quantitative technique which converts one big/large problem having many decision variables into a sequence of problem each with a small number of decision variables. DP reduces the difference between releases and demand and returns the value of the Objective function. After that the difference between actual releases and optimal releases i.e. Maximum Absolute Error is calculated for a month of July, August, September and October for each year. Also for evaluation of models developed by using dynamic programming the Root Mean Square Error and Correlation coefficient is calculated for all models. And also net additional available water for every year is also carried out.
Keywords : Dynamic Programming, Genetic Algorithm, Reservoir Operation, Ukai Reservoir
 Ashok, K. (1999) Application of Genetic Algorithms for Optimal Reservoir Operation. M.Tech thesis, IIT, Kharagpur, India.  Goldberg, D.E. and Deb, K. (1990). A comparative analysis of selection schemes used in genetic algorithms. Foundations of Genetic Algorithms, ed. G.E. Rawlins, Morgan Kaufman, San Mateo, Calif. pp. 63–93.  Reddy L.S. (1996) Optimal Land Grading Based on Genetic Algorithms. J. of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ASCE, 122(4), pp. 183-188.  Elmahdi,A., Malano, H. and khan, S.(2004) “A system dynamic approach and irrigation demand management Modelling”, Environmental Engineering Research Event 2004 conference 6-9 December 2004. Published by University of Wollongong Press ISBN: 1 74128 080 X. (www.ere.org.au).  Yeh, C.H., Labadie, J.W. (1997) “Multiobjective watershed-level planning of storm-water detention systems”. Journal of Water Resource Planning Management ASCE 123:336–343  Yang, C, Chang, L. Yeh, C. and Chen, C. (2007). Multiobjective planning of surface water resources by multiobjective genetic algorithm with constrained differential dynamic programming. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 133(6), 499- 508
This paper examines beneficiaries’ satisfaction with JnNURM housing in West zone of Surat city. This was accomplished by assessing the levels of housing satisfaction of the householders and the degrees of satisfaction of beneficiaries living in selected JnNURM housing schemes estates within west zone of Surat city. Four major housing components – Basic Amenities (A), Dwelling (D), Neighborhood (NH) and management (M). Seven JnNURM housing schemes are selected as a study area in this schemes total 1872 housing unit are constructed in which 590 housing units are interviewed. The results of analysis indicate that level of beneficiaries housing satisfaction varies and it’s dependent on the basic amenities, dwelling, neighborhood and management interaction system. It demonstrated that the level of beneficiaries’ satisfaction with the housing management and neighborhood was below average (Dissatisfied) but their level of beneficiaries’ satisfaction with the housing basic amenities was above average (satisfied). The study shows that user’s inputs and preferences should be strongly considered by planners and public housing agencies when planning and designing public housing projects.
Keywords : Housing, Dwelling, Satisfaction, Urban poor
 Adesoji David jiboye, “Evaluating tenants’ satisfaction with public housing in Lagos, Nigeria” Department of Architecture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, 2009.  Basab Dasgupta and Somik V. Lall, “Assessing Benefits of Slum Upgrading Programs” Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington DC 20433, USA , 2006.  C. C. M. Adriaanse, “Measuring residential satisfaction: a residential Environmental satisfaction scale (RESS)”, OTB Research Institute, Delft, Netherlands, 2007.  Kiran Sandhu, “Access to land by the urban poor in Amritsar City, India; Grim Realities and Blurred Hopes” , Guru Ramdas School of Planning Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar, India, 2000.  K. Iftekhar Ahmed, “Urban Poor Housing in Bangladesh and Potential Role of ACHR”, Department of Architecture, Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh, 2007.  Mari A Amerigo and Juan Ignacio Aragones, “Theoretical and Methodological Approach to the Study of Residential Satisfaction”, Journal of Environmental Psychology Volume 17, Issue 1, 1997.  Marja Elsinga and Joris Hoekstra, “ Homeownership and housing satisfaction”, OTB Research Institute for Housing Urban and Mobility Studies, Jaffalaan 9, 2628 BX Delft, The Netherlands, 2005.  Mohammad Abdul Mohit et.al, “Assessment of residential satisfaction in newly designed public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur”, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, IIUM, Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009.
Intersections are one of the most critical elements that affect the performance of urban road network. For safe and efficient movement of large volumes of traffic on city road network. Saturation flows, lost times and Passenger Car Units (PCU) are the significant parameters in the planning, design and control of signalized intersection. The accurate estimation of saturation flow values is prime importance when determining the capacity of signalized intersection. KKV intersection is one of major intersection of Rajkot city. Considering the saturation flow at KKV intersection, optimization of signal timing was done. In present scenario, cycle length of KKV intersection is 250seconds, so that signal delay at all approaches is more than 170seconds. These problems can be overcome with signal optimization. It is done with three phases and four phases and found that cycle length is decrease as 157 sec as well as delay is also decreasing at all approaches.
Keywords : Heterogeneous traffic, Optimizing signal time, Saturation flow rate
 Chang-qiao Shao and Xiao-ming Liu, “Estimation of Saturation Flow Rates at Signalized Intersections” Hindawi Publishing Corporation (2012). Volume 2012, Article ID 720474, page no.9.  Highway Capacity Manual, transportation research boards, 2010.  Kadiyali, L.R. (2000), “Traffic Engineering and Transport planning”, Khanna publishers.  M. R. Chaudhary, Prof. H. K. Dave, Prof. V. M. Patel, “Traffic Signal Design and Co-Ordination between Two Intersections of Dhansura- Shamlaji Road- A Case Study of Modasa City” International Journal for Scientific Research & Development (2014) Vol. 2, Issue 04, page no.668.  Saxena, S.C. (1989). Traffic Planning and Design. Dhanpat Rai Publications, New Delhi.  Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao, Introduction to Transportation Engineering (2007), chapter 41. Traffic signal design-I, page no. 41.1.  IRC Code: IRC-106-1990, “Guidelines for capacity of urban roads in plain areas.”  IRC-SP-41-1994, “Guidelines for the design of At-Grade intersection in Rural &Urban Areas.”
Aerated concrete is relatively homogeneous and compared to normal concrete, as it does not contain coarse aggregate phase that shows vast variation in its properties. The properties of aerated concrete depend on its microstructure and composition, methods of pore-formation and curing. AAC is a relatively new concrete masonry material that is lightweight, easy to construct, and economical to transport. However, in other parts of the world it use has been used successfully as a building material for over fifty years. It was observed that fly ash responds poorly to autoclaving. This paper details the history, physical properties, manufacturing process, and structural design of AAC and concludes that it has important advantages as a structural building material comparing with the Normal Concrete that deserves further consideration for use in the United States.
Keywords : AAC, Aerated concrete
 N. Narayanan, K. Ramamurthy, Microstructural investigations on aerated concrete, Building Technology and Construction Management Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India.  P. Prim, F.H. Witmann, Structure and water absorption of aerated concrete, in: F.H. Wittmann (Ed.), Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, Moisture and Properties, Elsevier, 1983, pp. 43 to 53.  Konstantin Kovler, Nicolas Roussel, Properties of fresh and hardened concrete, journal homepage: http://ees.elsevier.com/CEMCON/default.asp.  U. Schneider, Recommendation of RILEM TC 200-HTC: mechanical concrete propertiesathightemperatures—modelling and application, part11: relaxation, Materials and Structures 40 (5) (2007) 449–458.  Jennifer TANNER1,3, Jorge VARELA2,3, Matthew BRIGHTMAN3, Ulises CANCINO3, Jaime ARGUDO34, and Richard KLINGNER5, SEISMIC PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC) STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS.  Tanner, J.E., “Design Provisions for AAC Structural Systems,” PhD Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, May 2003.  Ali J. Hamad, Materials, Production, Properties and Application of Aerated Lightweight Concrete: Review.  S. Rooyen, “Structural lightweight aerated concrete,” M.S. thesis, Stellenbosch University, 2013.  A. M. Neville and J. J. Brooks, Concrete Technology, second edition, Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, 2010, pp. 351-352.  N. Narayanan, K. Ramamurthy, Structure and properties of aerated concrete: a revie.  Husain Al-Khaiat1 and naseer haque2, strength and durability of lightweight and normal weight concrete.
After Gujarat Earthquake and other earthquakes in India, there is a nation-wide attention to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings. The fundamental design concept of earthquake resistance design of structures is to make strong column- weak beam construction to ensure safety of user means during earthquake beams yield before columns collapse. Many buildings that collapsed during the past earthquake exhibited exactly the opposite strong beam weak column behaviour means columns failed before the beams yielded mainly due to soft storey effect. The buildings with soft storey are very susceptible under earthquake load which create disasters. Due to uses of vehicles and their movements at ground levels infill walls are generally avoided in parking plot, which creates soft storey effect. It should be noted that 70 to 80 % of buildings of urban areas in India fall under the classification of soft storey structure according to IS 1893 (2002) Part-I. The open ground storey or soft storey is both a soft and a weak storey. For proper assessment of the storey stiffness of buildings with soft storey, different models G+5 and G+11 will be analyzing using software. Evaluation of the storey stiffness due to soft storey of multi storied building considering various models will be presented in final phase of project.
Keywords : Soft Storey, Static Analysis, Time History Analysis, Seismic Analysis, Storey Drift
 Amin MR, Hasan P, Islam BK. Effect of Soft Storey on Multi-storeyed R.C. Building Frame. 4th Annual Paper Meet and 1st Civil Engineering Congress. 2011; Volume 5; 267-272.  Dande PS, Kodag PB. Influence of Provision of Soft Storey in RC Frame Building for Earthquake Resistance Design. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. 2013; Volume 3; 461-468.  Girish D, Rahman SA, Seismic Response of Vertically Irregular RC Frame with Stiffness Irregularity at Fourth Floor. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2013; Volume 3; 377-385.  IS 1893 (Part I): 2002, 6th Edition, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.  IS 1893 (Part IV): 2005, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.  IS 13920: 1993, Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.  Indumathy V, Annapurna BP. Non –Linear Analysis of Multi-storeyed Infilled Frame with Soft Storey and with Window Openings of Different Mortar Ratios. 2012; Volume 1; 254-259.  Jaswant NA, Sudhir KJ, Murty CVR. Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur. Seismic Response of R.C. Framed Buildings with Soft First Stories. Proceedings of the CBRI Golden Jubilee Conference on Natural Hazards in Urban Habitat, New Delhi, 1997; 13-24.  Lamb PB, Londhe RS. Seismic Behavior of Soft First Storey. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2012; Volume 4; 28-33.
Dairy industries are one of the fastest developing industries of India, but at the same time it is one of the largest amounts of wastewater generating industry, both in case of quality and quantity. Dairy industry has many processes like Milk receiving/storage Pasteurization; Curd, butter milk, ghee production; Floor and lines washing and sanitizing, their cleaning operations and milk processing demands water and generates wastewater. The wastewater includes dissolved sugars, proteins, and fats. They are organic in nature and also bio-degradable. It is estimated that dairy industries creates approximately 2.5 to 3 liters of wastewater per liter of milk processed. Due to high organic loading, BOD (Bio-chemical oxygen demand) and COD (Chemical oxygen demand), biological treatments for wastewater are suitable for dairy waste water. Effluent characteristics of dairy get change due to production of different products on different days, which make the biological treatment process less effective. Also, with increase in production in dairy the generation of wastewater increases which leads to expansion of the ETP (Effluent treatment plant), that is costly solution and if ETP is not expanded the quality of treatment gradually decreases. When poorly treated water discharges to the water body causes water pollution. Hence there is need to improve effectiveness of biological treatment process of dairy effluent. Bio-Activator consists of naturally occurring micro-organisms attached to organic compost. It positively promotes and enhances the activated sludge process. Bio-Activator is completely organic and eco-friendly material that can solve the problems in Biological treatments in dairy Industries.
Keywords : Dairy Industry, Effluent Treatment Plant, Biological Treatments, Bio-Activator
 Boyd, J. (2000) “Unleashing the Clean Water Act, the Promise and Challenge of the TMDL Approach to Water Quality,” Resources, Issue 139.  Wildbrett G (2002) Dairy plant effluent: Nature of pollutants. In: Roginski H, et al (eds) Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, Elsevier, Oxford. pp 727–33.  R.Hesnawi, K.Dahmani, A.AlSwayah, S.Mohamed, S.A.Mohammed, “Biodegradation of municipal wastewater with local and commercial bacteria”, 12th International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry, CCWI2013, Procedia Engineering70, 2014,810–814.  J. Kevin Farmer, PE “wastewater treatment technologies” pollution engineering 1991  Ambreen Lateef, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Shazia Ilyas, “Biological treatment of dairy wastewater using activated sludge” doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2013.39.179  Prof.N.B.Singh et al. “waste water management in dairy industry: pollution Abatement and preventive attitudes” International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 3, No 2, 2014, 672 – 683  Bharati S. Shete et al “Dairy Industry Wastewater Sources, Characteristics & its Effects on Environment” International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.3, No.5 (December 2013)  J. W. Barnett, S. L. Robertson and J. M. Russell, Environment Portfolio, New Zealand Dairy Research Institute, Private Bag 11029, Palmerston North, Environmental Issues in Dairy Processing  Cameron M, Trenouth C (1999) "Resource Management Act - Practice and performance: A case study of farm dairy effluent management.” Wellington. Ministry for the environment.  Ajim S. Sutar et al “Effluent Treatment Plant of Dairy Wastewater – A Performance Evaluation” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Nov-2015  S. POSAVAC et al. The improvement of dairy wastewater treatment efficiency by the addition of bioactivator [The improvement of dairy wastewater, Mljekarstvo 60 (3), 198-206 (2010)]  H.J. Porwal, A.V. Mane and S.G. Velhal “Biodegradation of dairy effluent by using microbial isolates obtained from activated sludge” [Water Resources and Industry 9(2015)1–15]  Maghsoodi, Vida, Samadi, Akbar, Ghobadi, “Biodegradation of Effluents from Dairy Plant by Bacterial Isolates” [Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. Vol. 26, No.1, 2007]  Harush D. P., Hampannavar U. S., Mallikarjunaswami M. E “Treatment of dairy wastewater using aerobic biodegradation and coagulation” [International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Research Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011, pp. 23-26]  Doni S., Macci C., Martinelli C., Iannelli R., Brugnoli P., Lampis S., Vallini G. and Masciandaro G. “Bioactivators as a potential strategy for dredged marine sediment recovery” [The 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Rhodes, Greece, 3-5 September 2015]  S. Maunoir et al. “Role of insoluble enzymes in anaerobic wastewater treatment and enzyme‐bioactivator interactions” [Environmental Technology (Impact Factor: 1.56). 04/1991; 12(4):313-323]  MIRON et al “Use of micropan complex and eparcyl pro bioactivators for pharmaceutical wastewaters treatment” [U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series B, Vol. 77, Iss. 3, 2015]  http://www.industry.siemens.com/topics/global/en/magazines/process-news/food-beverage/vasudhara-dairy-fresh-milk/PublishingImages/Zitat_Vasudhara-Dairy.jpg  http://www.lenntech.com/wwtp/wwtp-overview.htm  http://www.maine.gov/dep/water/wwtreatment/activated_sludge_process_control.pdf
Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. In research work two different test namely compressive strength test & water absorption test are performing. A distillery spent wash was added with replacement of water for prepare of fly ash brick with different percentage likely 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, & 100%. The compressive strength test performs at different days like 7, 28, & 56 days respectively & water absorption test carried out at 27 days. From the analysis of data it will conducted that replacement of 100% spent wash with water give higher strength at end of 56 days compare to the standard fly ash brick. While it will provide nearer strength to the standard brick at 28 days when we replace the spent wash as 100%. Water absorption is also main factor for any brick & also during use of spent wash water absorption are less compare to the standard brick when use 100% spent wash. Also it will reduce during adding of spent wash as 40% and 60% compare to the standard brick.
Keywords : Spent Wash, Distillery Waste, Fly Ash Brick
 Ahring, B.K. and I. Angelidaki.: Monitoring and controlling the biogas process, Proceeding at 8th international conference on anaerobic digestion,  Amar B.S., K.B. Ashish and SivakotiRamana, 2003. Effect of distillery effluent on Plant and Soil enzymatic activities and ground nut quality. J. Plant Nutri. Soil Sci., 166: 345-347  Chao, Y.K.: Performance of a two-stage methane digester for alcohol silage derived from sugar-cane molasses, Biotechnology Letters, 3, 555-560 (1983).  Chen, S.J., C.T. Li and W.K. Shieth: Anaerobic fluidized bed treatment of an industrial wastewater. J. Water Pollut. Cont. Fed., 60, 1826-1832 (1988).  Deverajan, L. and G. Oblisami, 1995. Effect of distillery effluent on soil fertility status, yield and quality of rice. Madras Agri.  Gadre, R.V. and S.H. Godbole.: Treatment of distillery waste by upflow anaerobic filter. Indian J. Environ. Hlth, 25, 54-59 (1986). Handa, B.K. and R.Seth.: Waste management in distillery industry. Journal IAEM, 17, 44-55 (1990).  H.C., N. Kalra, A. Chaudhary and D.L. Deb, 1994. Environmental issues related with distillery effluent utilization in agriculture in India.  Pathak, H., H.C. Joshi, A. Chaudhary, R. Chaudhary, N. Kalra and M.K. Dwivedi, 1998. Distillery effluent as soil amendment for wheat and rice. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 46: 155-157.  Ramadurai, R. and E.J. Gearard, 1994. Distillery effluent and downstream products, SISSTA, Sugar J., 20: 129-131.  Sendai, Japan, pp. 40-45 (1997). APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC (1998).  Zalawadia, N.M., S. Raman and R.G. Patil, 1997. Influence of diluted spent wash of sugar Industries application on yield and nutrient uptake by sugarcane and changes in soil Properties.
In the present era we are spotting that the load bearing structures are substituted by the RC frame structures because of its sustainability against the earthquake, durability, long life span and also high strength. In past history, it has been observed that some of the greatest earthquakes on the earth have caused tremendous effect on human life and property. Most earthquake-induced casualties are the direct result of structural collapses. Structural collapse implies that the structural system is unable to withstand its own gravity loads. In this paper, symmetrical frame of commercial building (G+5) located in different seismic zones and different soil condition is considered by modeling of initial frame. Which contain the provisions of calculation of stiffness of infill masonry wall frames by modeling infill as a “Equivalent diagonal strut method” and IS 1893-2002. This linear static analysis is to be carried out on the models such as strut frame which is performed by using computer software STAAD-Pro from which different parameters are computed. In which it shows that infill panels increase the stiffness of the structure. Different parameters like displacement, storey drift, and base shear are calculated for the different storey height.
Keywords : Seismic Effect, Base Shear, Story Drift, Displacement, Equivalent Diagonal Strut
 Design Example of a Six Storey Building by Dr. H. J. Shah, Dr. Sudhir K Jain.  Earthquake Engineering Book, Atul Prakashan.  IS: 456-2000 (Indian Standard Plain Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice).  IS 1893-2002 Part1 (for seismic analysis).  STAAD-Pro user guide.  Modeling of Masonry infills-A review Catherin Jeselia M., Jayalekshmi B.R., KattaVenkataramana Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, India  C.V.R. Murthy (2002), “What are the Seismic Effects on Structures?” Earthquake tip 05, IITK –BMTPC.  B.G. Prashanta and S.S. Dyavanal (2007), “Performance Based Seismic Evaluation of Multistoreyed Buildings with the Openings in Infill Walls”, RDSE-2007, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal.  Modeling of Masonry infills-A review Catherin Jeselia M., Jayalekshmi B.R., KattaVenkataramana  Earthquake Resistant Design Of Structures By Pankaj Agarwal.
In this paper parametric study of conical tank is investigated with original approach considering the (IS-3370) draft code. The main focus for studying this topic is mainly to identify the major parameter affecting the storage of conical tank. The Conical tank shape is optimized based on different parameters example for diameter, slope, and length of slop. The basic parameter like capacity of conical tank, height of water tank from ground are tacking constant here. A excel model and mathematical model is develop, and the model result were validates with available data from the books “advanced reinforced concrete design” by Krishna Raju. The studies of different parameters are observing by the result of force, moment, stress etc. and suggest the best optimum shape of the cinical tank. The hydrodynamic and dynamic effects were not considered in the analysis.
Keywords : Conical tank, Optimization, Parametric study
 D.P.Rath (1999). “Shape optimization of RC flexural members” Journal of Structural Engineering, pp 1439-1446.  H.J. Mohammed,(2011) “Economical Design of Water Concrete Tanks”, European Journal of Scientific Research,, Vol. 49,  Amr M. I. Sweedan a, Ashraf A. El Damatty (2009) “Simplified procedure for design of liquid-storage combined conical tanks” www.elsevier.com/locate/tws, pp 750–759  Indian standard code for Liquid Storage Structures(first edition), IS 3370 (Part I to IV)  Indian standard plain and reinforced concrete – code of practice (fourth revision), IS 456:2000. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  “Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design” by N.Krishna Raju  “structural Design-II R.C.C.” by Dr.R.P.Rethaliya  IS 1893 (Part1) 2002, criteria for earthquake resistance design  IS 3370 (PartI,II,III,IV,) Code of practice for liquid storage tank
Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions. The impact of climate change on the various meteorological parameters has received a great deal of attention by scholars worldwide .The means for detecting climate trends and variability are time series analysis based on data sets e.g. Temperature, precipitation, wind speed and relative humidity. In this study the focus is on detecting trends in mean monthly maximum temperature, mean monthly minimum temperature, mean monthly precipitation, mean monthly wind speed and mean monthly relative humidity for the Vadodara district in the state of Gujarat. For this study, Mann-Kendall test was run at 5% significance level on time series data for Vadodara district for the period of thirty seven years strting from 1969 to 2005. Mann-Kendall test is carried out using software XLSTAT to analyze trend in given data. The resultant Mann- Kendall test statistic (Zs) indicates how strong the trend is and whether it is increasing or decreasing. A high positive value (Zs) statistic indicates an increasing trend while a low negative value indicates a decreasing trend in the time series of random variables. In this study maximum temperature shows highest increase in December while highest decrease in July .The minimum temperature has shown an increasing trend in all the months and a significant increase is observed in the month of March. The relative humidity is showing an increasing trend in all the months except the months of June, July and August. The wind speed is decreasing for all the months and a significant decrease is observed in June. Also, Sen’s slope estimator has been used along with Mann Kendall test statistic (Zs). Pattern of trends as discussed in the results leads to a conclusion that climate in showing changes in all climatological parameters in vadodara district.
Keywords : Climate change, Mann-Kendal Test, Sen’s Slope Estimator, Trend Analysis
 Babar. S, Ramesh H.,”Analysis of South West Monsoon Rainfall Trend using Statistical Techniques Over Nethravathi Basin” International Journal of Advanced Technology in Civil Engineering, ISSN: 2231 –5721, Volume-2, Issue-1, 2013  Climate Change 2007 – “The Physical Science Basis”, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (ISBN 978 0521 88009-1 Hardback; 978 0521 70596-7 Paperback)  Cunningham, W.P., Cunningham M.A. and B. Saigo. “Environmental Sciences: A Global Concern. “8thed. New York: Published by McGraw-Hill: 16-316. 2005  Rai R. K., Upadhyay .A. and. Ojha C. S. P , “Temporal Variability of Climatic Parameters of Yamuna River Basin:Spatial Analysis of Persistence, Trend and Periodicity”, The Open Hydrology Journal, 2010, 4, 184-210  Safari .B. (2012),” Trend Analysis of the Mean Annual Temperature in Rwanda during the Last Fifty Two Years”, Journal of Environmental Protection, 2012, 3, 538-551, June 2012.  Shah.S., Sobia .N., Khan.A., Zia-Ur-Rahman1 and Shah.M. ,”Trends and Variability In Climate Parameters Of Peshawar District” sci., Tech. And Dev., 31 (4) , 2012,pp. 341-347  Yadav.R, Tripathi.S.K, G.Pranuthi and Dubey.S.K ,”Trend Analysis by Mann-Kendal Test for precicipitation and temperature for thirteen districts of Uttarakhand”, Journal of Agrometeorology 16(2):164-171 December 2014.
Proper management of water sources, reuses of water and recycling of water can overcome water scarcity of world today and in future. Recycling of water is one of the methods for water conservation. Water utilized by humans can be divided as black water which contain feces and grey water generated generally from household activities strictly excluding black water. Grey water is the waste water generated from bathrooms, sinks, washing machines, and other kitchen appliances. Grey water is generated by human beings during their household activities can be recycled by treatment for activities like gardening, flushing etc. This grey water if not managed properly creates problems like health hazards, river water pollution and land pollution. Thus it becomes extremely necessary to have a proper waste/grey water management system. Waste water management falls under the authority of Water Supply and Sewerage Board (WSSB). Grey water generated from residential area, commercial area, institutional area, and recreational area falls under waste water. There is an increase in grey water constantly due to increase in population and change in life style. In this paper we have tried to divide the management of wastewater into 2 subdivisions so that load on WSSB can be decreased and waste water can be managed in better way. We have considered Rajupura village near Vasad as our case study. This study will be helpful to WSSB for reducing load in water treatment plants and recycling of waste water. This will be model village for similar rural and urban areas for recycling grey water so as technology goes to grass root level.
Keywords : Grey water, Recycling, Reuse, Waste water
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For many years, economic indicators such as the gross national product and customer price index have been the primary measure on “progress “available to decision makers. However, decision makers are being challenged to produce change that improves the quality of life in social, economic, environment, health, political, education and infrastructural sense. It was also generally said that if a big industrial complex is established anywhere, it will lead to a marked change in the surrounding area in terms of general changes in development and implement in employment opturnities, income generation and consequently in the quality of life of people. But unfortunately small towns have not attracted industries or people and have not served as counter magnets to the growth of big cities; as such there is deterioration in the quality of life of dwellers of big cities due to this very reason. In the present paper an attempt has been made to evolve a composite index for quality of life urban dwellers. By considering seven main indicators like Natural Environment, Physical Environments, Health, Economic, Social, Political, Educational and Infrastructure affecting quality of life. The subjective measures for all factors given by stake holders and objective measures by expert, to a normalized scale. The importance weighing, on a rank order scale. The study offers a way of expressing the quality of life index using mathematical modelling. The indices of seven indicators that were used to complete QOL Index. This study also helps local Government, policy makers, planners, non-government organization and research scholars for decision making tool for development of city region.
Keywords : Quality of life, urban development, Environment, Infrastructure, Health, Education
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From the early age, cement is widely used construction material in any type of construction projects. In the modern era, the need and demand of the High Performance Concrete is increasing exponentially. Today Engineering is designing unparalleled structures that are contravention the rulebooks of conventional construction material like Concrete. These changes in the construction industry upsurge the need of the inventive materials. Introducing Micro-Fine particles, an advanced material in concrete that assist cement to overcome its feeble parts and have non-hazardous effect to people. In this paper we are going to discuss about the efficiency, economy and performance of the concrete with the addition of these Micro-Fine Particles obtained from industrial waste. The program is consisted of designing a suitable concrete mix design with the Micro Fine Particles to improve the different parameters in concrete like Compressive Strength, Flexural Strength, Split Tensile Strength and Chlorine Permeability in concrete. The entire test on concrete is conducted with the different percentage of replacement of cement with mineral admixtures. From this results we can say that the in micro fine materials the effect of each material on concrete and its advantages and disadvantages of Micro Fine particles. Testing on the concrete is conducted at M60 Grade.
Keywords : Alccofine, High Performance Concrete, Micro-Fine Particles, Sustainable Development, Silica Fume, Ultra-Fine Fly-Ash, Waste Materials, Chemical & Mineral Admixtures
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