Purpose - This study aims to provide assessment method for building’s condition. Building inspection is one of the key component of building maintenance as it is used for evaluating building’s current condition. Traditionally, a longhand survey description has been used for condition report. Survey that employ ratings instead of description are gaining acceptance in the industry. Hence this study provides quantitative approach towards assessing buildings condition which can be used for defining maintenance plan and also presents a case study carried out. Methodology - In this study, we adopted a condition survey protocol (CSP) 1 matrix for assessment of building’s condition. Two types of ratings are condition assessment and priority assessment. These two assessment criteria are then multiplied to find out the final score of the defects. Findings - The full score is used to give the building an overall rating: good, fair or dilapidated and according to the score type of maintenance can be suggested for the building. Originality/value – The computerized tool can be used for condition assessment, providing an overall rating to the building and type of maintenance needed.
Keywords : Building Defects, Defect Identification, Condition Assessment, Building Maintenance
 N. Hamzah, M. Mahli, A.I. Che-Ani, M.M Tahir, N.A.G. Abdullah and N.M Tawil. 2010. The Development of Smart School Condition Assessment Based on Condition Survey Protocol (CSP) 1 Matrix: A Literature Review .  Chapman, Amir M. Alani Andrew K. Petersen and Keith G. Applications of a developed quantitative model in building repair and maintenance : case study.  Mahmood, N. 2009. "Building Surveyors in Private Sector - Condition Assessment. in Malaysia Building Surveyors Jamboree."  Straub, Ad. 2009. "Dutch standard for condition assessment of buildings."  Handbook on repair and rehabilitation of RCC Buildings. 2002. Published by CPWD
Building requires energy in their life cycle from its construction work to demolition work. Studies on the total energy use during the life cycle of buildings are desirable to recognize phases of largest energy use and to develop strategies for its reduction. In the present paper, a review of the life cycle energy analysis of building is presented. The aim of this paper is to present an energy analysis by using building information modelling (BIM). The Building Information Modelling (BIM) software is used for the design of wide range of constructions; from small house to big apartment buildings. This program allow the architect, designer or civil consultant to perform several simulations of the energy behavior of a building in a timely manner, even before a single brick is put in place The study includes energy analysis of commercial building and the comparison of energy analysis data at different degree orientation. Building's life cycle energy demand can be reduced by reducing its operating energy through use of passive and active technologies even if it leads to a slight increase in embodied energy. It is observed that low energy buildings perform better than self-sufficient (zero operating energy) buildings in the life cycle context.
Keywords : BIM, 6D Model, Construction Management, Energy Analysis
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The construction industry faces different challenges and problem which results in cost and time overrun contributes low productivity. The paper presents the set of information on the lean construction and its tool last planner system of production control. Then paper present whole regarding last planner system and its essentials employs percent plan complete, anticipated assignment and assignment made ready to improve productivity and workflow reliability. So this paper aims to overview and discuss the applicability of lean construction project which helps to reduce wastages in construction and brings the quality of work in product developing process with raising the profit level and productivity.
Keywords : Lean Construction, Last Planner System
 Ballard, Glenn, Howell, Gregory A., Tommelein, Iris D., Zabelle, Todd, “The Last Planner Production System Workbook”, Lean Construction Institute, San Francisco, California, USA, 81pp, 2007.  Farook R. Hamzeh, Emile Zankoul & Carel Rouhana, “How can ‘tasks made ready’ during lookahead planning impact reliable workflow and project duration?”, Construction Management and Economics, Vol. 33, No. 4, 243–258, 2015.  Huseyin Erol, Irem Dikmen & M. Talat Birgonul, “Measuring the impact of lean construction practices on project duration and variability: A simulation-based study on residential buildings”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 2017, Vol. 23, No. 2, 241-251.  Katarzyna Ćwik, Jerzy Rosłon, “Last planner system in construction”, MATEC Web of Conferences, 2017, Vol. 117, 00032.  Marion M. Russell, Min Liu, Gregory Howell, M.ASCE and Simon M. Hsiang, “Case Studies of the Allocation and Reduction of Time Buffer through Use of the Last Planner System”, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2014.  Materials presented on the website of Lean Construction Institute: www.leanconstruciton.org
Since launch of Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) in 2014, government has allocated huge budget to modernized solid waste management especially the equipment. However, Indian industry relies heavily on the experience of managers or data provided by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). This data when used in the estimates of a project resource gives a virtual or ideal scenario which doesn’t consider the efficiencies, and factors which might affect the performance of the equipment under analysis. There is lack of research on performance of equipment productivity. This state of the art paper discusses the research carried out on equipment productivity and identifies the research needs for SWM equipment productivity.
Keywords : SWM Equipment, Productivity, Factors, Optimization
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K., Yongsheng, Z., & Jun, D. (2006). Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study. Waste Management, 26(1), 92–100.  Joshi, R., & Ahmed, S. (2016). Status and challenges of municipal solid waste management in India: A review. Cogent Environmental Science, 2(1), 1139434.  Kannan, G. (2011). Field Studies in Construction Equipment Economics and Productivity. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 137(10), 823–828.  Lambropoulos, S., Manolopoulos, N., & Pantouvakis, J.-P. (1996). SEMANTIC: Smart EarthMoving ANalysis and estimation of Cost. Construction Management and Economics, 14(2), 79–92.  Mbuligwe, S. E. (2004). Assessment of performance of solid waste management contractors: A simple techno-social model and its application. Waste Management, 24(7), 739–749.  Motwani, J., Kumar, A., & Novakoski, M. (1995). Measuring construction productivity: a practical approach. Work Study, 44(8), 18–20.  MoUD.(2011).Service Level Benchmark. 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Daily Work Reports – Based Production Rate Estimation for Highway Projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138(April), 481–490.  Yi, W., & Chan, A. P. C. (2014). Critical Review of Labor Productivity Research in Construction Journals. Journal of Management in Engineering, 30(APRIL), 214–225.  Zayed, T. M., & Halpin, D. W. (2005). Productivity and Cost Regression Models for Pile Construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 131(7), 779–789.  Zayed, T. M., & Halpin, D. W. (2004). Process versus Data Oriented Techniques in Pile Construction Productivity Assessment. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 130(August), 490–499.  AbouRizk, S., Knowles, P., & Hermann, U. R. (2001). Estimating labor production rates for industrial construction activities. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 127(6), 502–511.  Adrian, J. J. (2002). Improving jobsite production. Masonry Constr., 15(3), 14–18.  Dai, J., Goodrum, P. M., Maloney, W. F., & Srinivasan, C. (2009). Latent structures of the factors affecting construction labor productivity. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(5), 397–406.  Faridi, A. S., & El‐Sayegh, S. M. (2006). Significant factors causing delay in the UAE construction industry. Construction Management and Economics, 24(11), 1167–1176.  Mojahed, S., & Aghazadeh, F. (2008). Major factors influencing productivity of water and wastewater treatment plant construction: Evidence from the deep south USA. International Journal of Project Management, 26(2), 195–202.  Rojas, E. M., & Aramvareekul, P. (2003). Labor productivity drivers and opportunities in the construction industry. Journal of Management in Engineering, 19(2), 78–82.  Thomas, H. R., Horman, M. J., de Souza, U. E. L., & Zav\vrski, I. (2002). Reducing variability to improve performance as a lean construction principle. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128(2), 144–154
Municipal Solid Waste Management is associated with the control of generation, collection, storage, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid wastes. Concentration of VOC emissions were measured at major transfer stations of Surat city located in residential areas due to human health and environmental effects as well as on site vehicular activities. VOC are hazardous to human health and also contribute to ozone formation at ground level, responsible for climatic changes as well. VOC emissions were measured considering the spatial and temporal variations and its dispersion will be evaluated using a soft computing technique. A VOC meter was used to carry out VOC measurement which a simple handy tool is becoming popular nowadays. With further refinement, the quantitative analysis of TVOC emission by the VOC analyzer will become an easier, faster and more economical technique than the currently used standard methods.
Keywords : Municipal Solid Waste Management, VOC Measure, Spatial and Temporal Variations, Dispersion Model
 Andreja Stojic and Dimitrije Maletic (2015). Forecasting of VOC emissions from traffic and industry using classification and regression multivariate methods. Science of the Total Environment, 521–522, 19–26.  Maryam Sarkhosh and AliAkbar Shamsipour(2017). Dispersion modeling and health risk assessment of VOCs emissions from municipal solid waste transfer station in Tehran, Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering,15:4.  Prasanna Kumarathilaka(2014). Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Gohagoda municipal solid waste landfill leachate, Sri Lanka. A specialnsession on Solid Waste Management.  Ritesh K Singh and D. S. Ramteke(2013). Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Terms of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Occupational Health Exposure at Petroleum Refinery. International Journal of Environmental Protection, 3, 22-32.  Sumin Kim and Jin-A Kim(2006). Development of a test method using a VOC analyzer to measure VOC emission from adhesives for building materials. J. Adhesion Sci. Technol., Vol. 20, No. 15, pp. 1783–1799.  Wen-Yi Deng, Jian-Hua Yan and Xiao-Dong Li (2008). Emission Characteristics of Volatile Compounds during sludges drying process. Journal of Hazardous Materials,162, 186-192.  http://www.iitg.ac.in/scifac/qip/public_html/cd_cell/CD%20Cell%20Lab%20Manual%20Report.pdf  https://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/TheCity/City/Stml3  www.easlab.com/QC/EPA%20TO17%20Volatile%20Organic%20Compounds.pdf
Modeling Rural Networks and Piecemeal Water supply systems is tough because these systems are not fully Pressurized Pipeline Networks but Networks with very low Pressures. In order to fulfil the water demand of the Continuously Growing Population, it is essential to provide a sufficient and uniform Quantity of water through the designed network of pipes. In this research, the analysis of the existing network was studied and concludes Reliability on the network using EPANET software. EPANET software is simulation tool which is used for efficient distribution of water supply. For the analysis of existing water distribution system various data are required like, Main water source, Population of the area, Demand for water, Requirement of the pumps, Distribution Network ,and water tanks. The Google Earth Image of Olpad village is downloaded and the elevation of a node, length of pipe was recorded for nearly 27 junctions and 35 pipes. These data were used in EPANET software for analysis of Pressure, Head loss, and Elevation. This analysis resulted in pressure and elevation at various nodes and head loss at various pipes.
Keywords : EPANET, Water Supply Network, Nodes, Pipes, Elevation
 Arjun Kumar, Kankesh Kumar, Bharanidharan B, NehaMatial, EshitaDey, Mahan Singh, Vivek Thakur, Sarit Sharma, Neeraj Malhotra, (2015), “DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING EPANET”, ISSN 2320-5407 International Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 3, Issue 9, 789 – 812.  Darshan Mehta, SahitaWaikhom, VipinYadav, Krunal Lakhani, (2015), Simulation of Hydraulic Parameters in Water Distribution Network using EPANET: A Case Study of Surat City, HYDRO 2015 INTERNATIONAL 20th International Conference on Hydraulics, Water Resources and River Engineering, IIT Roorkee, India, 17-19 December.  Rossmann LA, (2000), “EPANET 2.0 User manual,” Water supply and water resources division, national risk management research laboratory, Cinchinnati.  Dr. H. Ramesh, L. Santhosh and C. J. Jagadeesh, (2012), Simulation of Hydraulic Parameters in Water Distribution Network Using EPANET and GIS, International Conference on Ecological, Environmental and Biological Sciences (ICEEBS'2012) Jan. 7-8, Dubai.  J. Muranho, A. Ferreira, J. Sousa, A. Gomes, A. Sá Marques, ( 2014 ), Technical performance evaluation of water distribution networks based on EPANET, Procedia Engineering 70, 1201 – 1210.  KakadiyaShital, Mavani, Krunali, Darshan Mehta VipinYadav, (2016), Simulation of Existing Water Distribution Network By Using EPANET: A Case Study Of Surat City, RD Journals, Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering Recent Advances in Civil Engineering for Global Sustainability,March 2016 e-ISSN: 2455-5703.  Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization. Manual on Water Supply and Treatment. Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, 199.
Rapid growth in human population as well as limitations in water resources due to the contamination and salinization have resulted in significant demand for fresh water. Therefore, it seems essential to develop new sustainable and cost-effective water supply alternatives. Desalination that is a promising method for the purification of saline water, offers unlimited, constant supply of high quality drinking water. The needs for safe and reliable water quantities continue to increase following the expected population expansion by the year 2050. Further, the absence of other sustainable water sources, desalination remains the best option that can meet domestic, public and industry water demand. It does not only address the immediate water needs but also plays a significant role in long-term issue of water security. To provide a sustainable use of desalination technology, the impacts of desalination plants should be investigated and mitigated by means of an environmental impact assessment studies. We will use the method of desalination that is cost effective and economical for village’s people.
Keywords : Domestic Water, Desalination Plant, Solar Energy
 Wheeler, N., Evans, W. Improvements in Evaporating and Distilling by Solar Heat. 1870  Attia, Ahmed A.A. "Thermal analysis for system uses solar energy as a pressure source for reverse osmosis (RO) water desalination". Solar Energy. 86 (9): 2486–93. 2012.  Li, Chennan; Goswami, Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias. "Solar assisted sea water desalination: A review". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2013.  García-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Palmero-Marrero, Ana I.; Gómez-Camacho, Carlos. "Comparison of solar thermal technologies for applications in seawater desalination". Desalination. 142 (2): 135–42. 2002.  The MEH-method (in German with english abstract)  Wheeler, N., Evans, W.Improvements in Evaporating and Distilling by Solar Heat. 1870  Kalogirou, S. Solar energy engineering: Processes and systems. Burlington, MA: Elsevier/Academic Press. 2009.  Enas R Shouman, Sorour MH, Abulnour AG. International journal of economics & management science. 2015.  Hikmat S. Ayber. A Review of desalination by solar still: NATO security through science. 2007.  Deepak devasagayam Solar energy based purification of sea water: International Research journal of engineering & Technology. 2015.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. The planning commission, government of india has estimated from 710 BCM (Billion cubic meter) to almost 1180 BCM in2050.So, It’s very important to treat discharge of untreated sewage in water. A 2007 study found that discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important source of pollution of surface and ground water in India. Samples of sediments can collected by Van Veen grab (25 cm2).Analysis of samples can be done as per National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) protocol. Polymers identified through Micro Raman Spectroscopy or Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. From Present Study we conclude that once Micro Plastic are released into water little can be done to limit its distribution and effects to environment. So, by reducing plastic use is the best key to reduce micro plastic pollution.
Keywords : Water Pollution, Micro Plastic, Micro Raman Spectroscopy, Van Veen Grab, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
 Dipak Paul, Research On Heavy Metal Pollution of River Ganga: A Review, 2017, Analyses of Again Science 15,278-286  Frrancesco Saiu,Simone Montao,Maria Grravaglia, Marina Lasagni,Davide Seveso,Paolo Galli, Micro plastic and charred micro plastic in Fafafu Atoll,Maldives,2018,Marine Pollution Bulletin,136,464-471  Gema Alvarao Barros,Alberto Velando,The Use Of European Shag Pellets As Indicators Of Micro Plastic Fibbers In The Marine Environment,2018,Marine Pollution Bulletin,137,444-448  Jayashri, H.B Purshotaman, C S Vennila.A, 2013plastic Litter Accumulation on High Water Strandline of Urban Beaches in Mumbai, India. Environ Monit Assess,185(9) 7709-7719  Kai Zhang,Hauahony Shi,Jinping Peng,Yinghui Wang,Xiong Xiong,Chenxi Wu,Paul K.S. Lam,Micro Plastic Pollution In China’s Inland Water System: A Review Of Findings, Methods, Characteristics, Effects And Manegments,2018,Science Of The Total Environment,630,1641-1653  Martin Pivokonsky ,Lenka Cermakova,Katerinna Novotna,Petra Peer,Tomas Cajtham Vaclav Janda, Occurance Of Micro Plastics In Raw And Treated Drinking Water,2018  Maitri surati, Keyur prajapati, urvi parmar, darshan mehata, rudri Vaidya, Analysis of water quality index for Surat city: Case study of Tapi river, 2018, Hydro2018 International, National Institute of technology, Patna.  R. Karthik,R S Robin,R Purvaja,D Ganguly,I Anandvelu,R Raghuraman,GHariharam,A Ramkrishna,R Ramesh, Micro Plastics Along The Beaches Of Southeast Cost Of India,2018,Science Of The Total Environment 645,1388-1399  Reddy,S.M Basha S. Adimurthy,S Ramchandrrairah,G,Discription Of Small Plastics Segments In Marine Sediments Along The Alang - Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard,India.Esttuar.Cost.Shelf Sci 68,656-660  S.Sruthy,E V Ramasamy, Micro Plastic pollution In Vembanad Lake, India: The First Report Of Micro Plastics In Lake And Estuarine Sediments In India,2017,Enviromentalpollution 222,315-322
Informal recycling of e-waste not only impacts environment and the people living or working in that area but may also pollute the environment in nearby or far-flung areas. The present systemic review analyzes the environmental pollution effects of heavy metals and other pollutants from e-waste processing workshops in India. Study evaluates the possible exposure routes and human health risk due to effects of heavy metals in order to understand the evidence of causality between exposure to heavy metals from e-waste and human health outcomes.
Keywords : E-waste, Heavy Metals, Land Contamination
 Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Xianlai Zeng, Jinhui Li, Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review, Environmental Pollution 211 (2016) 259-270.  Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Jinhui Li, Management of electrical and electronic waste: A comparative evaluation of China and India, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 76, 2017, 434-447.  Kanmani, S., Gandhimathi, R., 2013. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil due to leachate migration from an open dumping site. Appl. Water Sci. 3, 193-205.  Mohd Zahari Abdullah, Veronica Cyrila Louis, Mohd Tahir Abas, Metal Pollution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Balok River Sediment, Pahang Malaysia, American Journal of Environmental Engineering 2015, 5(3A): 1-7.  Pradhan, J.K., Kumar, S., 2014. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21 (13), 7913-7928.  Sheng-Xiang Quan, Bo Yana, Chang Lei, Fan Yang a, Ning Li, Xian-Ming Xiao, Jia-Mo Fu, Distribution of heavy metal pollution in sediments froman acid leaching site of e-waste, Science of the Total Environment 499 (2014) 349–355.
Air pollution has been an alarming concern and a threat to our ecosystem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. To combat its ill effects, the first step is to know its concentration and behavior in air. This is done by finding its dispersion in air using different softwares. Such softwares run a predefined algorithm based on various mathematical dispersion models using values given by user. AerscreenEZ is one such software which creates a dispersion scenario of a pollutant using AERMOD atmospheric dispersion model around the source. The basis of AERMOD model is the Gaussian plume dispersion model. Here, various screening softwares based on the Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model are being reviewed with focus on application of AerscreenEZ for point source. The values of stack height, stack diameter, emission concentration, gas emission velocity, stack temperature and the prevailing meteorological conditions are given as input. The output obtained is in a graph form where concentration (y-axis) v/s distance (x-axis) is plotted which indicates the dispersion of the emitted pollutant from the point source in its surrounding,
Keywords : Dispersion, Air Pollution, AerscreenEZ
 Mohammad Hashem Askariyeh, Sri Harsha Kota, Suriya Vallamsundar, Josias Zietsman, Qi Ying, 2017. AERMOD for near-road pollutant dispersion: Evaluation of model performance with different emission source representations and low wind options. Transport and Environment, 57, 392–402. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2017.10.008  F. Matacchiera, C. Manes, R.P. Beaven, T.C.Rees-White, F. Boano, J. Mønster, C.Scheutz, 2018. AERMOD as a Gaussian dispersion model for planning tracer gas dispersion tests for landfill methane emission quantification. Waste Management. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.02.007  Ondřej Sáňka, Lisa Melymuk, Pavel Čupr, Alice Dvorská, Jana Klánová, 2014. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling. Atmospheric Environment, 96, 88–95. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.07.002  Dmitry Tartakovsky. Eli Stern, David M. Broday, 2016. Indirect estimation of emission factors for phosphate surface mining using air dispersion modeling. Science of the Total Environment, 556, 179–188. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.207  Milando, C. W., & Batterman, S. A. (2018). Operational evaluation of the RLINE dispersion model for studies of traffic-related air pollutants. Atmospheric Environment, 182, 213–224. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.03.030  Liu, Y., Li, H., Sun, S., & Fang, S. (2017). Enhanced air dispersion modelling at a typical Chinese nuclear power plant site: Coupling RIMPUFF with two advanced diagnostic wind models. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 175-176, 94–104. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2017.04.016  Heist, D., Isakov, V., Perry, S., Snyder, M., Venkatram, A., Hood, C., Owen, R. C. (2013). Estimating near-road pollutant dispersion: A model inter-comparison. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 25, 93–105. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2013.09.003  Rees-White, T. C., Mønster, J., Beaven, R. P., & Scheutz, C. (2018). Measuring methane emissions from a UK landfill using the tracer dispersion method and the influence of operational and environmental factors. Waste Management. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.03.023  https://www.enviroware.com/portfolio/aerscreenez/  https://www.enviroware.com/products/AerscreenEasy_UserGuide.pdf
Organic waste can be converted into a useful material like soil known as ‘fertilizer’ which is rich with Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus and is used to add into plants to enhance the growth and health of a plant. This fertilizer from biodegradable wastes can be prepared using any of the methods such as Ordinary Composting, Vermicomposting, Millicompost (composting using Millipedes), using industrial sludge, etc. Various parameters such as Temperature, Volume Reduction, Nutrient values, Moisture Content, etc. also differ with the type of waste and method used for making compost. In this study the various characteristics of ordinary compost and vermicompost have been studied for the same type of waste, quantity and proportion. It has been observed that for same waste, there is huge difference between nutrient values, bulk density and volume reduction. Temperatures of both the composts are comparatively same throughout the period of study. Volume reduction in compost with earthworms is larger than ordinary compost. This study has been carried out for solid waste management in Government Engineering College, Surat. So after the comparison, the Vermicomposting method is proved to be beneficial.
Keywords : Vermicompost, Ordinary Compost, Nutrient Values
 Chellachamy, V and Dinakaran, S, A Comparative Study on Vermicomposting of Epicarp of Fruits (Pomegranate and Sathukudi) using Earthworm Eisenia Foetida, International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, (March 2015), (3125-3129)  Dr. B. Hemlatha, Vermicomposting of Fruit Waste and Industrial Sludge, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology (April-June 2012), (60-63)  Gade Venkatesham, K.S.S.S.N. Reddy, Vermicomposting – A Sustainable Technology, Journal of Industrial Pollution Control (2009), (7-12)  Mahalakshmi Mathivanan, G Aravind Vishnu Saravanan, Aravindh Baji and J Manoj kumar, Biodegradation of paper waste using Eisenia foetida by Vermicomposting Technology, ICCIEE (2017)  Naturland, Vermicomposting high-grade fertilizer for improved soil fertility (Guidance Manual)  P. B. Londhe, S. M. Bhosle, Recycling of Solid Wastes into Organic Fertilizers using Low Cost Treatment: Vermicomposting, International Journal of Innovations in engineering Research and Technology (IJIERT) (June 2015, Volume 2), (1-11)  Prabhas C. Thakur, Prem Apurva and Shailendra K. Sinha, Comparative Study of Characteristics of Biocompost produced by Millipedes and Earthworms (Pelagia research Library) (2011, 2(3)), (94-98)
The effluent from product processing and refining plants contains phenol and phenolic compounds which are harmful and toxic in nature, requires a great attention in wastewater treatment. The study was focused on ozonation process for the reduction of phenolics and chemical oxygen demand (COD) at certain time interval by varying pH. Ozone is a strong oxidizing agent, the reaction of it with organic and inorganic ions in aqueous media has achieved a verity of treatment goals. Ozone is a safe alternative to chlorine products which performs the same functions without the undesirable side effects, it is not harmful to the environment since it is made from oxygen and decompose back into oxygen, no sludge disposal problem and increase the dissolved oxygen content of wastewater which helps further in the degradation of residual pollutant. Ozone generator was used for the treatment of phenolic wastewater. Experimental study was performed on synthetic wastewater which containing 200mg/l phenol concentration at different pH conditions for 6hrs of ozonation. The maximum 96.04% phenol removal was found after 4 hours of ozonation and maximum 65.08% COD removal was found after 6 hours of ozonation at pH11. The overall study showed that the alkaline pH was more favourable for better phenol and COD removal.
Keywords : Chemical Oxygen Demand, Ozonation, Phenol, Synthetic Wastewater, Treatment
 Afilah Abd Gami, Mohd Yunus Shukor, (2014) Phenol and its Toxicity. Journal of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicity, 2, 11-24.  Ana Paula Barbosa Rodrigues de Freitas, Leandro Valim de Freitas (2013) Phenol Removal Via Advanced Oxidative Processes (O3/Photo-Fenton) and Chemometrics. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 2, 243-247.  Arti D. Galgale, Neha B. Shah (2014) Treatment of Wastewater Containing High Concentration of Phenol & Total Dissolved Solids in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3, 10924-10930.  D. Manojlovic, D.R. Ostojic (2007) Removal of phenol and chlorophenols from water by new ozone generator. Desalination, 213, 116-122.  E. Hernández-Francisco, José Peral, L.M. Blanco-Jerez (2017) Removal of Phenolic Compounds from Oil Refinery Wastewater by Electrocoagulation and Fenton/Photo-Fenton Processes. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 19, 96-100.  Haidong Zhou, Jianbo Liu (2015) Removal and Reduction of Selected Organic Micro- Pollutants in Effluent Sewage by The Ozone-Based Oxidation Processes. Chemical Engineering Journal, 269, 245-254.  Hoda Roushdy Guendy (2007) Ozone Treatment of Textile Wastewater Relevant to Toxic Effect Elimination in Marine Environment. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 33, 98-115.  J.E.Forero, J. J. Duque (2001) Ozone for Phenol Treatment in Industrial Wastewater. C.T.F Cienc. Technol. Futuro, 2, ISSN 0122-5383.  Kadir Turhan, Suheyla Uzman, (2008) Removal of Phenol from Water using Ozone. Desalination, 229, 257-263.  Kishora K. Panda, Alexander P. Mathews (2014) Ozone Oxidation Kinetics of Reactive Blue 19 Anthraquinone Dye in a Tubular in Situ Ozone Generator and Reactor: Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses. Chemical Engineering Journal, 255, 553-567.  N. Kaushalya Herath, Yoshito Ohtani (2011) Color and Phenolic Reduction of Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent by Ozonation with Some Pre-treatment. American Journal of Science and Industrial Research, 2, 798-806.  P. Gharbani, M. Khosravi, S. M. Tabatabaii (2010) Degradation of Trace Aqueous 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol Occurring in Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastewater by Ozonation. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 7, 377-384.  Pieter Van Aken, Rob Van den Broeck (2015) The Effect of Ozonation on The Toxicity and Biodegradability of 2,4-dicholorophenol Containing Wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 280, 728-736.  Shaoping Tong, Rui Shi (2010) Catalytic Performance of Fe3O4-CoO/Al2O3 Catalyst in Ozonation of 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)Propionic Acid, Nitrobenzene and Oxalic Acid in Water. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22, 1623-1628.  Shibo Wang, Dongwei Zhong (2016) Degradation of Phenol in Wastewater with Ozone Produced by Self-design Ozone Generator. MATEC Web of Conferences, 82.  Sunil J. Kulkarni, Dr.Jayant P. Kaware (2013) Review on Research for Removal of Phenol from Wastewater. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3, 1-5.  Yousef Dadban Shahamat, Mahdi Farzadkia (2014) Magnetic Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation: A New Removal Method for Phenol in Industrial Wastewater. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 12, 1-12. Book  APHA AWWA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater Technologies, 22nd Edition.  Phenols and Phenolic Compounds, Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change, August 2016.  S.P. Mahajan, Pollution Control in Process Industries, Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., ISBN 0-07-451772-4, pp.115-125.  William W. Anku, Messai A. Mamo and Penny P. Govender, Phenolic Compounds - Natural Sources, Importance and Applications, Intach, Open Science/Open Mind, pp. 419-430
Land filling of hazardous industrial solid waste is a major issue of the waste management system in India. The generated Leachate from landfills must be appropriately treated before being discharged into the environment. Technologies used for Leachate treatment can be classified as follows (1) biological methods, (2) chemical and physical methods and (3) emerging technologies. Here is a review of the main processes currently used for the landfill Leachate treatments.
Keywords : Landfill Leachate, Physicochemical Methods
 Boumechhour, F., Rabah, K., Lamine, C., & Said, B. M. (2013). Treatment of landfill leachate using F enton process and coagulation/flocculation. Water and Environment Journal, 27(1), 114-119.  Duc, T. M. (2017). PHOTODEGRADATION OF NON-BIODEGRADABLE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN LANDFILL LEACHATE BY Mn-TiO2-BENTONITE. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology, 55(4C), 304.  Gandhimathi, R., Durai, N. J., Nidheesh, P. V., Ramesh, S. T., &Kanmani, S. (2013). Use of combined coagulation-adsorption process as pretreatment of landfill leachate. Iranian journal of environmental health science & engineering, 10(1), 24.  Kattel, E., Kivi, A., Klein, K., Tenno, T., Dulova, N., &Trapido, M. (2016). Hazardous waste landfill leachate treatment by combined chemical and biological techniques. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(28), 13236-13245.  Koçak, S., Güney, C., Argun, M., Tarkın, B., Kırtman, E. Ö., Akgül, D., & Mertoglu, B. (2013). Treatment of landfill leachate by advanced oxidation processes.  Knox, K., & Goddard, A. (2013). Non-degradable COD in landfill leachate–A review: occurrence, chemical characteristics, environmental properties and treatment. In Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy.  Payandeh, P. E., Mehrdadi, N., &Dadgar, P. (2017). Study of Biological Methods in Landfill Leachate Treatment. Open Journal of Ecology, 7(09), 568.  Rodrıguez, J., Castrillon, L., Maranon, E., Sastre, H., & Fernández, E. (2004). Removal of non-biodegradable organic matter from landfill leachates by adsorption. Water Research, 38(14-15), 3297-3303.  Suresh, A., MinimolPieus, T., &Soloman, P. A. (2016). Treatment of landfill leachate by membrane bioreactor and electro Fenton process. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology, 3, 689-697.  Wiszniowski, J., Robert, D., Surmacz-Gorska, J., Miksch, K., & Weber, J. V. (2006). Landfill leachate treatment methods: A review. Environmental chemistry letters, 4(1), 51-61.  Yilmaz, T., Apaydin, S., &Berktay, A. (2010). Coagulation-flocculation and air stripping as a pretreatment of young landfill leachate. Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 3, 42-48.  Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Liu, C., Guo, Y., Shan, N., Meng, C., & Sun, L. (2014). Removal of COD from landfill leachate by an electro/Fe2+/peroxydisulfate process. Chemical Engineering Journal, 250, 76-82.
Present times approve supplemented universal industrial segment request for Civil Engineers; following expansion of Civil Engineering stages, producing extra talented ex-students. Countless establishments have regularly selected that companies are unsatisfied with abilities arrays present by alumni; an investigation of trained and anew employed Civil Engineers’ understandings of their distinct work abilities elected highest exuberant for total transferable abilities, with operational evidence categorized significantly worse. Due to this author has examined whether Civil Engineers, both involved and in teaching, have similar capabilities sympathies, by evaluating Civil Engineering students in last years of teaching, and Civil Engineers ex-students hired in Civil Engineers characters; all from the South Gujarat region. Courtesy bunches demonstrated that male scholars cherished ‘operational evidence’ and ‘communicating capably’; by variance, female ex-students accentuated ‘inventiveness’ and ‘commerce abilities’. Consequently, leadership meetings were mature; focused on alterable abilities known as dangerous by all masses, to be taken during instructive time trainings, bring into line abilities to time prospectuses.
Keywords : Exchangeable Abilities, Employability Syllabi, Configuration Abilities, Peculiar Progress Expert Results
 Andreas Bloom, H. S. (2011). “Employability and Skill Set of recently pass out technical students in India”. World Bank  Atif Anis Rao, (August 2011). Ability to become employable in Multinational Companies: Undefeatable Wall for Graduates. IJCRB, Vol 3, No. 4.  Amelink, C.T., Creamer, E.G., 2010. Masculinity modifications in fundamentals of the student practice that impact consummation with the manufacturing foremost and the determined to chase trade as a career. J. Eng. Educ. 99 (1), 81–92.  Bandiera, O., Larcinese, V., Rasul, I., 2010. Heterogeneous class size effects: new evidence from a panel of university students*. Econ. J. 120 (549), 1365–1398.  Barker, A., 2011. In: Dawsonera, P.D.A. (Ed.), How to Manage Meetings. Kogan Page, London.
Analysis of combined piled raft foundation proves to be an effective tool to bear the stresses and reduce the settlement of the foundation. Efforts have been made to optimize the parameters of pile raft foundation. In order to find economical solution various parameters like spacing of piles and the load imposed on foundation are varied to obtain optimum results. A finite element model of combined piled raft foundation is simulated in SAP-2000 to examine the performance of foundation under various loading conditions. Springs are assigned by discretising the model to simulate soil properties. The model is being validated by comparing result with standard book. This study could be helpful and serve as a guideline for the variation in other parameters like pile length, pile shape, raft thickness and several soil properties.
Keywords : Piled Raft Foundation, SAP – 2000, Spacing of Piles, Loads, springs, Modulus of Subgrade Reaction
 Solanki Rahul (2016) A Review on Pile-Raft Foundation, International Journal of Civil Engineering Research. ISSN 2278-3652 Volume 7, Number 1 (2016), pp. 51-58  Sharma Nibedita (2015) Structural Design Of Raft Foundation Based On Geotechnical Analysis, Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology., Print ISSN : 2349-8404; Online ISSN : 2349-879X; Volume 2, Number 11; April – June, 2015 pp 31 – 36  R. Katzenbach (2005) Combined pile raft foundations, an appropriate Solution for the foundations of high-rise buildings; Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering., 18.4.2005  Sadeq H.A.(2009) A report on Structural design of raft foundation, Qatar University College of Engineering  Swami Saran. Analysis and design of structures – Limit state of Design, Oxford and IBH publishing company, New Delhi  Pillai Menon. “Reinforced Concrete Design” Tata McGraw Hills Private Limited, New Delhi  IS 2911: 2010 (Part I to IV) – Design and construction of pile foundation – Code of Practice  IS 2950: 1981 – Code of practice for design and construction of raft foundation (Part 1 - Design), Second Revision  Joseph E Bowels – Foundation Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw Hills Private Limited, New Delhi  Varghese P.C. - Design of reinforced Concrete Foundation, PHI Learning Pvt Ltd, New Delhi
In India, urban land management is a state subject and each state has their own urban land supply policy. The aim of research paper is to identify the best land management techniques in India based on performance indicators and to develop an innovative technique using a combination of various tools to enhance the quantum of supply of urban land. The SMART (Sustainable, Marketable, Aesthetical, Rational and Transit Oriented) Model was developed to improve the performance of the Land Pooling land management policy in India. The SMART model was implemented for TPS no 32 and 12% extra urban land was provided for infrastructural development in TPS no 32.
Keywords : Guided Land Development, Land Acquisition, Land Pooling & Redistribution, SMART Model
 Acharya, B.P. (2014) Application of Land Management Tools in Combination: Utilizing the Indian Urban Land and Ceiling Act and the Plot Reconstitution Techniques Land Development Studies, 6:2, 129-146.  Chakraborty N. (2013) Land as resource for sustainable development, 62 congress, Institute of Town Planners, India.  Kankariya C. and Bhangale P. (2010) Transfer of development rights: Effective tool for sustainable urban development, IJLTEMAS, Vol. 4, ISSN 2278-2540.  Katti, B. K. and Garg, L. (2010) Urban land management and land augmentation strategies for the housing, poor, Urban Housing: issues and strategies, 24-37.  Kulshrestha, S.K. (2011) Process of Transformation of Virgin Land into Resource for Urban Development, 59th Congress, Institute of Town Planners India publications Panchkula.  Mendoza & Martins (2006) Multi decision criteria analysis in natural resource management: a critical review of methods and new modelling paradigms, ELSEVIER.  Meshram, D. S. (2011) Land as Resource for Urban Development: Some Issues and Imperatives, 59 congress conference, Institute of Town Planners India publications.  Repetti, A. & Desthieux, G. (2005) A relational indicator set Model for urban land use planning and management: Methodological approach and application, Journal of Landscape and urban planning, Switzerland.
The construction industry in India averages 2000 billion rupees from 2011 until 2018, reaching an all-time high of 2400 billion rupees in the first quarter of 2018 on the GDP chart. The construction industry in India is feeble and suffering through failure of resolution of disputes expeditiously and effectively by the parties.Our aim is to analyse the main causes of disputes which occur in construction industry in surat city. Disputes have become an endemic feature of the Indian construction industry. If they are not resolved promptly they can escalate causing schedule delays, lead to claims that require litigation proceedings for resolution and destroy business relationships. In this research, the causes of disputes were classified in 7 broad categories depending on their nature and mode of occurrence. All these categories comprises of 31 factors that have been used for research. The research focuses on questionnaire survey for the data collection. In this research total 100 quessionaire were surveyed in Surat construction industry. The questionnaire was prepared in the form of importance index and severity index. The research concludes, the top factors which causes dispute in surat construction industry are variations initiated by owner, design errors, change in government policy, quality related dispute and delays in work progress.
Keywords : Causes of Dispute, Questionnaire Survey, RII, SI
 Acharya, N.K.Lee, Y.D. &Im, H.M. (2006) Conflicting factors in construction projects: Korean perspective. Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 13: 543-566.  Arditi, D. Patel, B.K. (1989) Expert system for claim management in construction projects. International Journal Project Management 73:141–146.  Assaf, S.A. and Al-Hejji, S (2006) Causes of delay in large construction projects. International Journal of Project Management 24: 349–357.  Cakmak, P.I.,& Cakmak, E. (2013). An analysis of causes of disputes in the construction industry using analytical hierarcy process (AHP). AEI 2013 Architectural engineering institute conference, 3-5 april, the Pennsylvania state university, university park, Pennsylvania, USA.  Cheung, S. O., and Suen, H. (2002) A multi-attribute utility model for dispute resolution strategy selection. Construction Management Economics 20:557–568.  Dikmen, I. and Birgonul, M. T. (2004) Neural network model to support international market entry decisions. Journal Construction of Engineering Management 130:59–66.  Global Construction Dispute Report (2018) by Arcadis.  Iyer, K.C., Chaphalkar, N.B., Joshi, G.A. (2008) Understanding time delay disputes in construction Contracts. International Journal Project Management 26:174-184  Kumaraswamy, M.M. (1997) Conflicts, claims and disputes in construction. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 4:95-111.  Kalayjian,W.H. (2000) Third world markets anticipating the risks. Civil Eng. ASCE 70:56–59.  Lee, C. K., Yiu, T. W., and Cheung, S. O. (2016) “Selection and use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in construction projects—Past and future research.” International Journal of Project Management,34:494–507.  Lu, W, Zhang, L. and Pan J. (2015) “Identification and analyses of hidden transaction costs in project dispute resolutions.” International Journal of Project Management, 33:711–718.  Schmidt, W. H. (1974) Conflict: A Powerful Process for (Good or Bad) Change. Management Review, (December)  Semple, C., Hartman, F., &Jergeas, G. (1994) “Construction claims and disputes: causes and cost/time overruns” ASCE Journal of Construction, Engineering and Management, 120:785–795.
India is among one of the developing countries, which is achieving positive balance on economy from their population growth.The movement of goods within urban areas is vital since cities are the centre of economic and social life. The sustainability of cities cannot be viewed without considering the role of goods transport. As population keeps on increasing needs for the change arises. This paper focuses on one such urban area (Sachin GIDC) which needs to be managed as per the requirements. Sachin GIDC is one of the growing area in the form of industrial development. Increasing trips and freight among the major routes on Sachin GIDC has contributed to economic growth and development of the country. So needs arise to provide freight facility planning or management, which can be helpful in fulfilling present and future needs.
Keywords : Freight Transport, Improvement Measures, Freight Facility Planning
 Dhakras Bhairavi (2004) published a case study on Study of Parameters in the Development of Sustainable Transport System-Mumbai.  Goyal Vedant (2014) published a case study on Federal Ministry for Economy co-operation & Development. Available online: http://www.sutp.org  Dr. Gupta Sanjay; Dr. Sewa Ram published a journal of Toolkit of ministry of urban development government of India.  NTDPC (2014). Trends in Growth & Development of Transport. Planning commission.  Shivanand Swamy; Dr. Deepak Baindur (2013) published a case study of Managing Urban Logistics in an Expanding City-Ahmedabad; ISBN: 978-85-285-032-9  Swamy S.; Bhakuni N.(2011)., Consultansy report prepared for AUDA, Freight Management Plan in Ahmedabad.  IRC Manual SP:20 2002.  National Rural Road Development Agency (NRRDA).
Hunnarshala’s campus is an extended metaphor of their experimental disposition. The aim is to provide temporary housing based on owner and community driven reconstruction leading to their expertise in low cost construction. The involvement and knowledge of local artisans form the integral part of design process leading to sustainable development. The research aims to propagate the idea of sustainable methodologies and emerging technologies of Hunnarshala for its further implementation in various projects.
Keywords : Low Cost Construction, Community Empowerment, Local Artisans, Sustainable Development
 Jalia A, “Hunnarshala: Looking Backward To See Ahead”, Home Review, 14 June 2013  Personal Interview of Mr. Mahavir Acharya of Hunnarshala foundation from the design team.  Virmani S, “Humanising Architecture” Matter E-Magazine (2016)
The main motive of this study to introduce the concept of Smriti Van to make memorial places in memories of people and as an urban planner point of view to balance the green space in urban areas. Natural resources are lungs of urban & rural areas especially green spaces. It includes how urban planner can plan a city in such way that it is a sustainable. Population increases by day to day and hence green area reduces and agricultural land is converted into habitable land. This area can be used for various purposes like to build check dam to store the water and their advantages of increasing ground water storage mainly in areas where water is available in less quantity, it also becomes place of people gathering which increase social cohesion between human being and beautiful nature. Ultimately men understand how nature is important to them such that they try to preserve the natural resources whether it is water body or green parks. Urban planner has to keep certain percentage of land to create Smriti van including total percentage of green space in urban areas as per Urban and Regional Development Plans Formulation & Implementation Guidelines and also as per guidelines of Comprehensive Gujarat Development Control and Regulation. This paper helps to create awareness amongst urban planner / corporate / industrial houses/ IT industries to perform individual social responsibility/ individual environmental responsibility for the sustainable future.
Keywords : Smriti Van, Urban Planning, Green Space, Social Cohesion
 Linjun, Y., “Framework for Natural Disaster Memorial Park Design”, Landscape and urban Planning, vol.3, no. 1 2010, pp. 71-81.  Mercado, A., “Perception and Social Valuation of Landscape”, Landscape and urban Planning, vol.4, no. 1 2010, pp. 1451-1581.  Report on “Smriti Van Earthquake Memorial Museum: Bhuj”, Vastu shilp Consultants, Ahmedabad, 2005.
An archaeological site is a place or group of physical sites in which evidence of past activity is preserved (which is either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record. Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. The goal of archaeology is to understand how and why human behavior has changed over time. Archaeologists search for patterns in the evolution of significant cultural events such as the development of farming, the emergence of cities, or the collapse of major civilizations for clues of why these events occurred. Dholavira is one of the archeological sites in Gujarat. This study includes the existing condition of the site as planner point of view, locally available facilities for tourists, Features of the site, issues related to tourism. The aim is also to understand our heritage culture and to prevent it from loss and depletion.
Keywords : Archaeological, Heritage, Harappan Civilization, Civilisation, Human Behavior
 Michel Danino, New Insights into Harappan Town-Planning, Proportions and Units, with Special Reference to Dholavira, (Paper published in Man and Environment, vol. XXXIII, No. 1, 2008, pp. 66-79)  Vahia, M.N., and Yadav, N., 2011. Reconstructing the history of Harappan Civilisation. Journal of Social Evolution and History, 10, 67-86.  Bisht, R. S. 2000. Urban Planning at Dholavira: a Harappan City, in Ancient Cities, Sacred Skies: Cosmic Geometries and City Planning in Ancient India, eds. J. McKim Malville & Lalit M. Gujral. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts & Aryan Books International, pp. 11-23  Bisht, R. S. 1997. Dholavira Excavations: 1990-94, in Facets of Indian Civilization — Essays in Honour of Prof. B. B. Lal, ed. J. P. Joshi, vol. I. New Delhi: Aryan Books International, pp. 107-120
Village or rural tourism showcases the rural culture and brings economic benefits to the communities, received a major thrust under India’s 10th Five Year Plan and was accorded priority. Primary focus is given on the infrastructural and economic growth of Kutch Region in Gujarat, India that grew as a result of boom in tourism sector under Endogenous Tourism Project (ETP), a joint venture between Ministry of Tourism, Government of India (MoT, GoI) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).In this paper, Local Rural Resort, situated in Hodka Village in the state of Gujarat, is mentioned as a case study to examine the relationship between tourism service quality and destination loyalty. Various parameters such as planning & construction of the resort and its management are discussed.
Keywords : Rural Tourism, Culture, Infrastructural Growth, Local Rural Resort
 Bhatt,S., ‘Shaam-e-Sarhad, Hodka Village’ Kalpvriksha Publication, Pune, 2015.  Shukla,K. and Ansari,A.A., ‘A Study of Changing Scenario of Tourism Development in Gujrat’, IJEEFUS, Vol.3,no.2,June 2013,pp.57-68.  District Census Handbook KACHCHH, Series-25, Part-XII-A, Census of India 2011. Webliography  http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/DCHB_A/24/2401_PART_A_DCHB_KACHCHH.pdf  https://www.sahapedia.org/banni-grasslands-overview  https://www.gujarattourism.com/hub/8  https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/good-governance/gujarat/Gujarat-tourism-ad-campaign-to-promote-Champaner/articleshow/51023359.cms  https://thehindubusiness.com  http://www.mahefeelerannresort.com/  https://gsfc.gujarat.gov.in/annual-reports
The traditional architecture of Kutch represents the social and cultural background of the region and its people. The climate responsive buildings were designed with emphasis on the human comfort which was largely accomplished through the use of locally available materials and sustainable construction techniques. Learning from tradition, which is a powerhouse of knowledge and wisdom of previous generations through the lessons of traditional building can be very powerful tool for improving the buildings of the future.
Keywords : Traditional Architecture, Climate Responsive Building, Sustainable Construction
 Jemish B. Lathiya, "Traditional Architecture of Kutch Region of Gujarat", IJEDR | Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016.  Janmejoy G and Shruti Mazumdar, “How Sustainble are Vernacular Dwellings?,” Architecture- Time Space and People, February 2016.
The development plan is a macro strategic plan document that defines the direction of growth and envisions the city wide infrastructure for the entire development area. It is a comprehended document that looks at all the components of development and makes specific proposals with respect to each. Bhuj city is the administrative headquarter of Kutch District, Gujarat. BHADA has taken up effective steps in the journey of development to achieve the well-determined vision to provide infrastructure facilities, new town planning of the earthquake affected city of Bhuj, rehabilitation of the earthquake affected people of the city at newly developed relocation sites and to make Bhuj a well-planned city. This paper is based on the study of the existing scenario and road infrastructure of BHADA. The study concludes with the comparison of the revised DP of 2011 and the proposed DP 2025.
Keywords : Macro Strategic Plan, Rehabilitation, Development Plan, Infrastructure
 Bhuj Area Development Authority: Revised Draft Development Plan, 2011 AD; Part I, Vol. I and II  Government of Gujarat (1976): Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976.  Government of Gujarat, Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976 and Rules, 1979.  Institute of Town Planners (1996): Urban Development Plans Formulation and Implementation.
Increasing population and urbanization demand more resources in the urban area in terms of hard and soft infrastructure both. Many problems related to spatial resources in the urban area are addressed which disputes to development of the city. The process of building up spaces by every contributing individual and organizations somehow leaves certain unbuilt/un-utilized. These vacant, unused or underused spaces in an urban area are considered as urban void causing a rupture in the urban fabric. These spaces have a potential to get converted into functionalized space. The current study is addressing the identification of such spaces in a part of Vadodara City, located in the Gujarat State. The city has flourished over past decades with population growth and spatial development in the context of economic growth and potential. In Gujarat, the cities are developed under the aegis of the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976. The act imposes the development through means of a development plan, revealing proposed zoning and regulation at a macro level. The micro level land parcels are dealt by planning Town Planning Schemes and imposition of Building Control regulations. Void spaces are identified, their characteristics are understood and visualized by an observational study. Further, these spaces are addressed with the possible inclusion of improved functionality in terms of its use for the urban population. In the study area, ten void spaces were identified. However, the paper discusses five such pockets in detail with possible remedial measures leading to improvement of space utilization.
Keywords : Town Planning, TPS, Urban Voids, Urbanization, Vadodara
 Ansari, A. (2016). Rethinking Urban Voids- Innovative ways to revitalize lost space-A case study of Ahmedabad.  Azhar, J., & Gjerde, M. (2016). Re-Thinking the role of Urban In-Between Spaces, (December), 11.  Kim, G. (2016). The Public Value of Urban Vacant Land : Social Responses and Ecological Value, 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8050486  Kumar, S. ;, & Dash, N. R. (2013). The Cultural Capital of Gujarat.  Lee, S. J., Hwang, S., & Lee, D. (2015). Urban Voids: As a Chance for Sustainable Urban Design, 007, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/ifou-D007  Trancik, R. (1986). Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design.  Vadodara Urban Development Authority. (2013). Second Revised Draft Development Plan 2031.  Wróblewski, W. (2015). Urban voids as communication gaps.