Now-a-days robots have taken its remarkable position in the development of a nation. Robot has changed the structure of society and made available different devices for safer and comfortable condition. Various robots are developed to perform varieties of task. Researchers are taking inspiration from the nature and try to develop novel robots. Biological inspired robotics has emerged as an important area within the field of robotics. People dreamt to fly like a bird since the earliest civilizations. The study of robotic bird is the race to overcome natural flight through mechanical means. Numerous devices have been developed with an objective to achieve optimum natural flight capabilities since the concept of ornithopters or Flapping Aerial Vehicles (FAVs) flourished. This paper aims at discussion and comparison between various aspects of flying robot. The comparative analysis is done in the fields of mechanism employed, designing techniques, materials, actuators, power source used, transmission mechanism, type of tails, controllers as well as the mainframe. Relative studies have concluded to a number a limitations or drawbacks that are currently observed in FAVs, which has been put forward in the paper. A number of already developed FAVs were studied in order to present the following premise serving as a common platform.
Keywords : Flapping Aerial Vehcle, Micro Aerial Vehicle, Ornithopter, Robotic-Bird, Samrt-Bird, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
 www.ornithopter.org  Kevat Mitesh , Avdhiya Darsan , Vasava Vasanti , Meet Jayesh Shukla1-Flapping Wing over fixed wing Saiyed Moinuddin-International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science and Technology (IJAREST) Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2016, e-ISSN: 2393-9877, print-ISSN: 2394-2444, pg;676-683, 2016  C.P. Ellington, Journal Of Experimental Biology, Vol 202,].“The Novel Aerodynamics of Insect Flight: Applications to Micro-Air Vehicles.” No. 23, December 1999  Gautam Jadhav and Kevin Massey, Development of miniature flexible FAV for use in robotic vehicle-Georgia Inst. of Technology/GTRI/ATAS, Atlanta, GA 30332-0844-American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics-pg;1-11 2007  J. Everaerts-The Use Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Uavs) For Remote Sensing And Mapping,Remote Sensing and Earth Observation Processes Unit, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol, Belgium email@example.com-The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Vol. XXXVII. Part B1. Beijing 2008-pg;1187-1192 2008  G.C.H.E. de Croon, K.M.E de Clercq, R. Ruijsink, B. Remes, and C. de Wagter-Design, aerodynamics, and Vision Based Control of the Delfly- Vol 1-Number 2- International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles  S. Deng, B.W.vanOudheusden, B.D.W.Remes, M.Percin, H.Bijl and H.M.Ruijsink-Experimental Investigation of the Flapping Performance on ‘Delfly Micro’-International Micro Air Vehicle Conference and Flight Competition (IMAV2013) Toulouse, France,pg;1-8;17-20 September 2013  Autonomous Flight of a 20g flapping wing MAV with a 4-gram Onboard Stereo Vision System-G.C.H.E. de Croon, C. De Wagter)  Alexis Lussier Desbiens, Yufeng Chen, Robert J. Wood- A wing characterization method for flapping-wing robotic insects (https://micro.seas.harvard.edu/papers/IROS13_Desbiens.pdf)  T.Nick Pornsin-Sirirak, Yu-Chong Tai, Chih-Ming Ho, Matt Keennon, A Palm-Sized Electrically Powered Ornithopter California Institute of Technology, Pasadena,CA 91125, USA  John Gerdes, Alex Holness, Ariel Perez-Rosado, Luke Roberts, Eli Barnett, Adrian Greisinger, Johannes Kempny, Deepak Lingam, Chen-Haur Yeh, Hugh A. Bruck, Satyandra K. Gupta- Design, `Manufacturing, and Testing of Robo Raven- Technical Report, Advanced Manufacturing Lab, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, April 2014  https://www.festo.com/net/SupportPortal/Files/46270/Brosch_SmartBird_en_8s_RZ_110311_lo.pdf  G.C.H.E. de Croon, M. Perçin, B.D.W. Remes, R. Ruijsink, and Christophe De Wagter, 2016, The Delfly - Design, Aerodynamics, and Artificial Intelligence of a Flapping Wing Robot, Springer Netherlands, DOI-10.1007/978-94-017-9208-0  Nahid Hasan Adnan,Mohammad Talha Talkin Alam, Designing a Radio Frequency Controlled Biomimetic Flying Bird;A Thesis Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering-pg;1-46 2014  Meseguer, S Franchini, I Pe´rez-Grande, and J L Sanz2On'-On the aerodynamics of leading-edge high-lift devices of avian wings-The aerodynamics of leading-edge high lift devices of avian wings-pg;63-68-2005  Jishnu Keshavan, Norman M. Wereley,-Design and Development of a high frequency biologically Inspired Flapping Wing Mechanism-American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,48th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference 15th, Honolulu, Hawaii- pg 1-11;23 - 26 April 2007  Thomas J.Mueller and James D.Delaurier-Annual reviews Fluid Mech. 2003.35:89-111- Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles-pg89-111-2003  David Lentink, Stefan R. Jongerius, and Nancy L. Bradshaw-David Lentink, Stefan R. Jongerius, and Nancy L. Bradshaw-D. Floreano et al. (eds.), Flying The Scalable Design of Flapping Micro-Air Vehicles Inspired by Insect Flight  G C H E de Croon, M A Groen, C De Wagter, B Remes, R Ruijsink and B W van Oudheusden2 -Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the Delfly-Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 (2012) 025003 G C H E de Croon et al-pg;1-15;-2012  Sawyer B. Fuller, Michael Karpelson, Robert. J Wood-Estimating attitude and wing velocity using biomimetic sensors on a microrobotic bee-2013  P.S. Sreetharan • R.J. Wood- Passive torque regulation in an underactuated flapping wing robotic insect- Received: 1 November 2010 / Accepted: 28 June 2011 / Published online: 20 July 2011© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 Auton Robot (2011) 31:225–234 pp. 225-234  2000-T.Nick Pornsin-sirirak, S.W. Lee, H. Nassef, J. Grasmeyer, Y.C. Tai, C.M. Ho, M. Keennon, Mems Wing Technology For A Battery-Powered Ornithopter, The 13th IEEE Annual International Conference on MEMS, Miyazaki, Japan, January 23-27,pp. 709-804;2000  G.C.H.E. de Croon, M. Percin, B.D.W. Remes, R. Ruijsink, C. De Wagter– Design Aerodynamics and Artificial Intelligence of a Flapping Wing Robot_By , page- 13  Pakpong Chirarattananon and Robert J Wood- Identification of Flight Aerodynamics for Flapping-Wing Microrobots- 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6-10, 2013 pp. 1381-1390  Z. E. Teoh, S. B. Fuller, P. Chirarattananon, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, J. D. Greenberg and R. J. Wood-A hovering flapping-wing microrobot with altitude control and passive upright stability-School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 USA and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University,Boston, MA 02115  Michael Karpelson,Gu-Yeon Wei, Robert J. Wood-Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications-M. Karpelson, et al., Driving high voltage piezoelectric actuators in microrobotic applications, Sens. Actuators .A: Phys. (2012), doi:10.1016/j.sna.2011.11.035-pg;1-12-2011  Wei Zhang and Chao Hu-Solar cell as wings of different sizes for flapping-wing micro air vehicles- International journal of Micro Air Vehicles Vol 8(4);2016  http://accesio.com/  https://www.adlinktech.com/  Zachary John Jackowski-Design and Construction of an Autonomous Ornithopter-Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-June 2009  http://www.microstrain.com/  Jeremy L. Cookson-A method for testing the dynamic accuracy of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) magnetic, angular rate, and gravity (MARG) sensors for inertial navigation systems (ins) and human motion tracking applications-June 2010  https://www.festo.com/PDF_Flip/corp/smartbird_en/files/assets/downloads/publication.pdf
'Green Building' and its 'Assessment Schemes' are the key to achieve the sustainable growth of the urban zone. An attempt is made to develop Global Weights (λi) of various parameters for the assessment of green Buildings. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to derive Sustainability Global Weights (λi) for all contributing parameters: Environmental, Social, Economical and Cultural. Consultants from various regions of India were asked to give their responses on AHP based questionnaire. Based on 72 valid responses from consultants, Global Weights of parameters are derived by Geometric Mean Method (GMM) along with AIP (Aggregation of Individual Priorities) approach. Consultants have ranked site selection, regional priority, Rapid Renewable Materials, as most crucial parameters in pre occupancy phase and Segregation and Disposal of waste, functionality and indoor air quality as most crucial parameters in post occupancy phase. Findings of this paper can be helpful to designers and developers to achieve real sustainable development in developing country like India.
Keywords : Analytic Hierarchy Process, Geometric Mean Method, Global Weights, Pre-Occupancy and Post-Occupancy
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The Department of Chemicals & Petrochemicals (DOC&PC), Government of India (GoI) has approved the Gujarat Petroleum, Chemical & Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR) at Dahej (District: Bharuch) in the year 2009. MOA is signed between DOC&PC and the Government of Gujarat (GoG) in the year 2010 for developing the Special Investment Region (SIR) under the provisions of the state legislature of the year 2009. Dahej is a Village in Vagra Taluka in Bharuch District of Gujarat State, India. The District of Bharuch witnessed a surge in investments in chemicals & petrochemicals, drugs & pharmaceuticals, engineering and textiles as well as allied services. The district is an inherent part of the popularly referred golden corridor for chemical and petrochemical industries which extends from Ahmedabad to Vapi. The presence of existing industrial estates at Dahej, Vilayat and Panoli have enhanced the location attractiveness of the Region. Current research proposed a population projection considering diverse aspects concerning industrial needs. In the census of India (2011), the reported population in the region was about 69,000 which will grow to 85,400 in a natural course of time and trend. The Govt. of Gujarat (GoG) is committed to undertaking speedy implementation of all the active projects like freight corridor, National Express Highway No. 1, Airport and such. The effect of industrial migration will have a significant effect on the settlement and will be developed as an urban centre, and it will house a more substantial population yet. These citizens will need not only housing but social infrastructure facilities as well. Based on the analysis, the needs in housing sector under various categories and classes are projected. Besides, the needs for social infrastructure, addressing the education, health, socio-cultural, open spaces, recreational spaces, sports facilities, distribution services, safety and security services, and safety management are identified and envisaged for need-based development that generates an opportunity at different levels.
Keywords : Dahej PCPIR, Gujarat, Industrialization, Social Infrastructure, Urbanization
 G. Dahej, “Petroleum, Chemical & Petrochemical Investment Region Petroleum, Chemical & Petrochemical Investment Region Leading Companies in PCPIR Petroleum, Chemical & Petrochemical Investment Region Petroleum, Chemical & Petrochemical Investment Region.”  G. of G. MSME, “Government of India Ministry of MSME Brief Industrial Profile of Porbandar District MSME – DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE,” no. 079, p. 20, 2013.
Transportation planning is the process of defining future policies, goals, investments and design to prepare for future needs. Many urban cities and towns of India are facing transportation problems due to increased rate of urbanization, urban sprawl and tremendous increase in travel demand. Travel demand management is crucial part of transportation planning which depends on the socio-economic parameters of that area. The study has been carried out for Morbi (a medium town II) of Saurashtra region of Gujarat having population of 1.94 lakh. Morbi is ceramic hub of India which contributes more than 70% of the total ceramic production of India. It has also some other industrial development like manufacturing of wall clock, CFL bulbs and electric bikes which generates employment opportunities. There is remarkable rate of migration due to its industrial development. The public transportation system (city bus service) has been started in 2014 which is not sufficient to cope with the growing travel demand of Morbi. To overcome the transportation issues like increased travel demand, congestion, air pollution - a sustainable development is very much required for Morbi city. The first step taken by researcher is the digitization of map of Morbi city by using TransCAD software. The study area has been divided in to 14 zones. The Home Interview Survey has been carried out for socio economic data and trip information with sample size of 1 in 35 HH. The distances from CBD for all wards have been plotted on digitized map. Trip generation model with regression analysis in Excel sheet is developed for the study area. Mode choice for trips by two-wheeler (43%), Rickshaw (24%), Car (8%), Bus (2%), Bicycle (5%), and Walk (18%), are observed. Trip distribution is the second stage of travel demand modeling. This paper focuses on calibration of gravity model for medium sized city. Calibration parameters for four different impedance factors –Travel distance, Euclidean distance, Travel time and Travel cost have been derived. Trip length frequency distribution of observed trips and modeled trips is presented.
Keywords : Gravity Model, Impedance Factors, Mode Choice, Model Calibration, Trip Distribution, Trip Generation, Transcad Software
 J.R. Mekemson & K.C.Sinha “Evaluation and development of synthetic trip distribution modelling techniques as applied to small urban area”  Hakan Guler “Model to Estimate Trip Distribution: Case Study of Marmaray Project in Turkey” ASCE -J. Transp. Eng., (2014), 140(11): 05014006  Fred Wegmann Jerry Everett “Minimum travel demand model calibration and validation guideline for state of Tennessee”, The University of Tennessee Centre for Transportation Research Knoxville, Tennesse  Mounir Mahmoud Moghazy Abdel-Aal “Caliberating a trip distribution gravity model stratified by the trip purposes for the city of Alexandria”-Alexandria Engineering Journal (2014) ,53 677-689  “shopping trips in the Netherlands Transportation” (2010) 37:663–676 Springer  Salini P.S.,Sowjanya Dhulipala,B.K.Katti “Developing A Fuzzy Rule Based Urban Trip Distribution Model On Income Criteria Basis At Zonal Level: A Case Study” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) (2016) e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, PP 39-47  Tae Gyun KIM, Yeong Hyun RHO, Geunyoung KIM “Developing A Trip Distribution Model Using the Interzonal Relative Attractiveness for the Seoul Metropolitan City” Journal Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, vol-8 (2010)  Thomas G. Jin, Mitsuru Saito, Grant G. Schultz “Statewide Commodity Flow Distribution Model Using Composite Friction Factor” ELSEVIER- Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 43 (2012) 406 – 417  Tomasz Kulpa, Andrzej Szarata,“Analysis of Household Survey Sample Size in Trip Modelling Process” ELSEVIER- Transportation Research Procedia 14 (2016) 1753 – 1761  “Travel Estimation for Urban Planning NCHRP Report 365” Transportation Research Board, National Council 1998  V. Thamizh Arasan, M. Irmuth & B. S. Srinivas “Modeling of Stratified Urban Trip Distribution”-ASCE- J. Transp. Eng., (1996), 122(5): 342-349
Urbanization and change in life standards along with socio economic up gradation resulted in rapid growth of private vehicle ownership and use. This causes stress on the existing urban transport system. In urban area road networks are with sharing of limited right of way by variety of modes in most of the cities of world. There is requirement of large size of road network and facilities in terms of infrastructure which leads to increase in urban boundaries. There are unmanageable problems like traffic congestion, accident, inadequate parking area, delay, inconvenience, uncomforting, environment and deterioration. To minimize or eliminate this kind of problems, proper traffic management by providing efficient road infrastructure facility and mobility. Mode shift from personalized vehicle to public transit vehicle is required. Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is one of the most effective solutions for removal of congestion. Before implementation of any facility there is a need to study the effect of proposed facility and mobility on traffic. There is need to study effect of BRTS on urban corridor before implementation. This research work carried out on study area Jashodanagar to Hathijan road of Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The selected stretch is of 6.1 km length located in Vatva ward in south zone of Ahmedabad city. There is population of 1, 64,730 and 35,480 households in study area. Selected corridor is divided in to four segments to carry out micro level analysis. Stated preference survey is carried out up to 750 m width on both side along the selected corridor to collect information like Travel characteristics and rider type. Classified volume count survey at intersection and spot speed along midblock of the stretch is carried out. Vehicle occupancy survey is carried out to derive number of users and beneficiaries. Videography is carried out to estimate travel demand and traffic performance. Effect of BRTS is measured in terms of modal shift of private vehicle users to BRTS. Effect of BRTS is evaluated on mixed traffic performance using VISSIM software. Traffic projection is compared with BRTS and without BRTS scenario. Developed network model with and without BRTS in VISSIM is validated with error range of 0.84 % to 12.75 % which is less than the permissible error 20%.
Keywords : BRTS, Modal Shift, Traffic Congestion, Urban Road, VISSIM
 Bhanu Kireeti Chanda,Maddalisai Satya Goutham, “Introduction to Corridor Selection and Assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS)in HYDRABAD”, American Journal of Research andScience,2014  Gautam Raj Godavarthi, Ravi Sekhar Chalumuri, Senathipathi Velmurugun, “Measuring the Performance of Bus Rapid-Transit Corridors Based on Volume by Capacity Ratio” ASCE.,2014  Thaned Satiennam, Sittha Jaensirisak, Wichuda Satiennam, Sumet Detdamrong, “Potential for Modal Shift by Passenger Car and Motorcycle Users towards Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in an Asian Developing City”, IATSS Research,2016  Thaned Satiennam, Atsushi Fukuda “A Study on the Introduction of Bus Rapid Transit System in Asian Developing Cities– A Case Study on Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Project”, IATSS research vol.30 no.2,2006  Vaishali M. Patanakar, Rakesh Kumar, Geetantiwari, “Impact of Bus Rapid Transit Lanes on Traffic and Commuter Mobility”, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ASCE, June2007.  V. Thamizarasan, P. Vedagiri, “Simulating Heterogamous Traffic Flow on Road with and Without Bus Lane” Journal of Urban Planning and Development”, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ASCE march2009.  V. Thamizh Arasan, P. Vedagiri, “Microsimulation Study of the Effect of Exclusive Bus Lanes on Heterogeneous Traffic Flow”,ASCE,2010  Dipti T. “Urban Road Network Simulations using VISSIM: A Case Study of Navrangpura Area, Ahmedabad”,M.E.Thesis-GTU,2012 Book, Code and Manual References  Dr,L.R.Kadiyali, “Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning ”, Khanna Publisher., Edition 2013.  IRC: 106-1990,”Guidelines for capacity of Urban Roads in Plain Areas” IRC New Delhi.  Highway Capacity Manual 2010, TRB, National Research Council, Washington,B.C.,2009. Website References  www.amts.co.in  www.amc.co.in  www.ahmedabadbrts.co.in  www.ahmedabadrto.co.in  www.rtogujrat.gov.in
The urban sanitation is actively being addressed by the Central Government of India. The action is taking place though various provisions of Swachh Bharat Mission launched in the nation. The paper discusses about a study undertaken for auditing and assessing pay and use public toilet and urinal blocks located within the central zone of Surat Municipal Corporation administrative limits. All the pay and use toilet blocks and urinals were visited for a study that was focusing on assessment for criteria concerning– Cleanliness, housekeeping, safety and maintenance. Inventories were prepared, and quality assessment was performed. All the locations were geotagged by obtaining coordinates. Based on the study, the facilities were assessed for its components and provided with ranking through analysis of four factors and 74 sub-parameters. The qualitative issues were identified for the service delivery. Suggestions and recommendations are discussed to improve the service delivery.
Keywords : Community Facilities, Public Toilet, Sanitation, Social Infrastructure, Urbanization
 Draft Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment Systems, CPHEEO 2013  A guide to better public toilet design and maintenance, A publication by the Restroom Association (Singapore) in partnership with The National Environment Agency (www.toilet.org.sg)  A Motivational talk on “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” organized by Ministry of Power, Government of India & National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC) by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak; 18/05/2016, Mavalankar Hall, New Delhi  Pune Public Toilet Policy, Standard framework for public toilets, Pune Municipal Corporation  Guidelines for Swachchh Bharat Mission (revised on 30/06/2017) Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India  Census of India (various years records)  Website of Surat Municipal Corporation (www.suratmunicipal.gov.in)
A road crash refers to any accident involving of at least one road vehicle, occurring on the road open to public transit using different modes. Intentional acts (terrorism, war) and natural disasters are excluded. Road crashes will be acquiring higher rank among non-natural deaths around the globe. The fatalities in urban road crash incur major economic, social and cultural loss to the society. Present work aims to evaluate these losses by computing an ‘Urban Fatality Impact parameter(s)’ that would indicate the severity of the fatalities for the area based on different variables involved. The research builds on a study carried out in the Surat city. The city has the population of about 5 million and spread of the urban area of about 327 km2. Encompassing road lengths of more than 2500 km. The records of road crash for past ten years under six police station administered areas were examined. The “Fatality Impact Index” may have itself several applications like identification of most vulnerable cities for road traffic injuries and fatality, most required improvement locations, so that the development of transit facilities give an overall high value of return and would also diminish the losses due to road crashes. The present work is based on a study carried out to understand the fatality and road crash occurring on the streets of Surat – specific attention is given for cases of Varachha and Salabatpura police station areas. The initial details include over understanding these areas, road inventories, type of accidents through records of police stations and analysis thereof. In the next course of work, a collection of further data and analysis for different police station limits would be carried out to attain the aim of developing an Index for various areas of Surat as well as of the city.
Keywords : Fatality, Fatality Impact, Road Crashes, Urbanization
 Surat Municipal Corporation, “History,” Surat Municipal Corporation, [Online]. Available: https://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/TheCity/History. [Accessed 2017].  [Surat Urban Development Authority, “A workshop on 'Initiating Preparation of Revised Development Plan of SUDA - 2035',” 03 August 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.sudaonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/RDP-2035-presentation.pdf. [Accessed 2017].  Surat Municipal Corporation, “Introduction,” Surat Municipal Corporation, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/TheCity/Introduction. [Accessed 2017].  Surat Municipal Corporation, “Awards,” Surat Municipal Corporation, [Online]. Available: https://suratmunicipal.gov.in/Corporation/Awards. [Accessed 2017].  The Times of India, “Surat fourth fastest growing city in world,” The Times of India, 23 July 2011. [Online]. Available: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/surat/Surat-fourth-fastest-growing-city-in-world/articleshow/9328885.cms. [Accessed 2017].  Surat Municipal Corporation, “Surat City Development Plan (2008-2014),” Surat Municipal Corporation, Surat, 2008.  UNESCO New Delhi, “Social Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India,” June 2013. [Online]. Available: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002237/223702e.pdf. [Accessed 2017].  Surat Municipal Corporation, “AREA, POPULATION, DENSITY, GROWTH RATE, SLUM HOUSE HOLD & POPULATION,” Surat Municipal Corporation, [Online]. Available: https://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/TheCity/City/Stml3. [Accessed 2017].  The Southern Gujarat Chamber of Commerce & Industry, “About Surat and South Gujarat,” SGCCI, Surat, [Online]. Available: https://www.sgcci.in/pages/about-surat/.  Surat Municipal Corporation, “Details Of City Limit Extension & Population,” Surat Municipal Corporation, [Online]. Available: https://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/TheCity/City/Stml1. [Accessed 2017].  Surat Municipal Corporation, “Demographics: Statistics for Surat Municipal Corporation,” Surat Municipal Corporation, [Online]. Available: https://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/TheCity/Demographics. [Accessed 2017].
The paper deals with the failure analysis of railway signalling systems, in general, and Indian Railway signalling systems, in particular. It is worth mentioned that failure of railway signalling subsystems and systems hampers the safe running of rolling stock and thus, sometime reduces productivity. Both traditional and fuzzy logic-based failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) are considered here to analyse the railway signalling failures. It is observed that on the basis of risk priority numbers (RPN) of railway signalling subsystem’s failure, fuzzy logic-based FMEA is better than the traditional FMEA. Also, one hundred and twenty five rules have been generated with the help of fuzzy logic-based FMEA by considering different levels of severity, occurrence, and detectability. Twenty rules out of one hundred and twenty five are taken into account as very significant as far as operation and failure analysis of signalling system is concerned.
Keywords : FMEA, Fuzzy Logic, Railway Signalling Systems, RPN
 Kumar, K.V. and Chandra, V.Transputer-based fault-tolerant and fail-safe node for dual ring distributed railway signalling systems. Microprocessors and Microsystems, 1994, 18 (3), 141-150  Lee, J.-H., Hwang, J.-G., and Park G.-T. Performance evaluation and verification of communication protocol for railway signalling systems. Computer Standards and Interfaces, 2005, 27, 207-219  Bowles, J.B. and Pelaez, C. E. Fuzzy logic prioritization of failures in a system failure mode, effects and criticality analysis, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 1995, 50, 203-213  Pelaez, C. E. and Bowles, J.B. Using fuzzy cognitive maps as a system model for failure modes and effects analysis”, Information Sciences, 1996, 88 (1-4), 177-199  Misra, K.B.Reliability analysis and prediction: a methodology oriented treatment. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1992  Garcia, P. A. A., Schirru, R. and Melo, P. F .F .E. A fuzzy data envelopment analysis approach for FMEA. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2005, 46 (3-4), 359-373  Guimaraes, A.C.F. and Lapa, C.M.F. Fuzzy FMEA applied to PWR chemical and volume control system. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2004, 44 (3), 191-213  Panja, S. C. and Ray, P.K. Failure mode and effect analysis of indian railway signalling system. International Journal of Performability Engineering, 2008, 4 (3), 3-14  Saxena, S.C. and Arora, S.P. A text book of railway engineering, Sixth Revised and Enlarged Edition, DhanpatRai Publications (P) LTD., New Delhi, India, 2003  Liu, H.C., Liu, L. and Liu N. Risk evaluation approaches in failure mode and effects analysis: A literature review. Expert Systems with Applications, 2013, 40 (2), 828-838  Lin, Q.L., Wang, D.J., Lin W.G., and Liu H.C. Human reliability assessment for medical devices based on failure mode and effects analysis and fuzzy linguistic theory. Safety Sciences, 2014, 62, 248-256  Chen P.S. and Wu M.T. A modified failure mode and effects analysis method for supplier selection problems in the supply chain risk environment: A case study. Computer and Industrial Engineering, 2013, 66 (4), 634 – 642
Due to modernization and globalization, in current years has rose many new challenges to the Indian higher and Technical education system. Globalization has also opened the possibility to global companies and industries in the education sectors too. New products and services are being invented continuously with improved quality and customer focus with different techniques of improvements. The important input to the success of this new brand of industries is a group of highly motivated and methodically trained educated academic forces. The knowledgeable higher and technical work force has to be regularly updated for their skills. The Student coming out of our education system should be capable of meeting the demand and challenges of the modern industry with shorter product life cycle. They should be having sate of art in their technical know-how. Linked to India many of the institutions of higher education in overseas have excellent infrastructure institutes, libraries, resources, faculty developing programs and research but the same cannot be said about the institutions of higher education in India. In this paper, an effort has been made to understand the present status of the higher education system through the SWOT analysis, a widespread method of management studies (1).
Keywords : Education, Opportunity Strength, Threats Weakness
 Girija Shankar Study of Globalization Challenges and SWOT Analysis of Education in India International Journal of Business Administration and Management. ISSN 2278-3660 Volume 7, Number 1 (2017),  V. MOHANASUNDARAM Swot Analysis of Indian Higher education ECONSPEAK Volume 1, Issue 3 (September, 2011)  http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/statistics/AISHE%20Final%20Report%202016-17.pdf  www.techeduhp.com)  Whalley, A. (2000), Strategic Marketing, Bookboon, London  Singh, N. and Kosi–Katarmal, A. (2009), “SWOT analysis – a useful tool for community vision”, Researcher, Vol. 1 No. 3, p. 25  United States Department of Agriculture Risk Management Agency (2008), SWOT analysis a tool for making better business decisions A Case study on SWOT Analysis & IDP Action Plan Preparation for JCEM, Jun eAugust 2010  Singh, Yadunath & Solanki, Meeta. (2017). Technical Education in India: A SWOT Analysis. Journal of Social Research. Volume 13 No. 1 & 2.  Myers, M. D. and Newman, M. 2007. ‘The Qualitative Interview in IS research: Examining the craft’. Information and Organization, 17(1): 2-26  https://rapidbi.com/swot-analysis-for-schools-and-education/  Dr. K. Kamar Jahan, and Dr. D. Christy Selvarani“higher education in India Issues and challenges. “International Conference on Humanities, Literature and Management (ICHLM'15) Jan. 9-10, 2015 Dubai (UAE)  Prof R Natarajan (2010) A Swot Analysis of Our Contemporary Technical Education System the Journal of Engineering Education.
The Gujarat Technological University initiated a movement of learning engineering by applying the approach of design thinking across all the branches through curriculum since the year 2014. The initial efforts were focusing on developing a mindset through a logical process of structured thinking through the introduction of a course “Design Engineering” having a spine across all six of semesters in Degree Engineering of all branches. Later in the year 2016, it was restricted to Semester III till Semester VI considering final year aspects with the inclusion of it under the project works attained by the students in a group. The current paper attempts for fine tuning the overall process by exploring a canvas before empathy mapping stage to improve the same. Empathy for a user’s mindset plays a very crucial part while empathising about one. A Role-playing canvas (RPC) was developed, many students and teachers were exposed to the canvas and reflections from students were received by performing a survey about its effect and impact. The survey results were analysed and explored in the light of responses and are discussed in detail here, and specific recommendations for further suggestive actions are drawn.
Keywords : Design Engineering, Design Thinking, Engineering Education in Gujarat, GTU, Roleplaying Canvas
 J. Szczepanska, "Design thinking origin story plus some of the people who made it all happen," www.medium.com, 03 01 2017. [Online]. Available: https://medium.com/@szczpanks/design-thinking-where-it-came-from-and-the-type-of-people-who-made-it-all-happen-dc3a05411e53. [Accessed 2017].  J. Kolko, "Design Thinking Comes of Age," Harvard Business Review, 09 2015. [Online]. Available: https://hbr.org/2015/09/design-thinking-comes-of-age. [Accessed 2017].  Centre for Industrial Design (OPEN DESIGN SCHOOL) GTU, "General Guidelines for Design Engineering," 2016. [Online]. Available: http://old.gtu.ac.in/syllabus/NEW%20BE/Design_Engg/Guideline_Design_engg.pdf. [Accessed 2017].  H. A. Simon, the Sciences of the Artificial, Third ed., Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 0-241.  GTU Open Design School, "Design Engineering 1A Course Abstract," 2016. [Online]. Available: http://old.gtu.ac.in/syllabus/NEW%20BE/Design_Engg/DE-1A_3rd%20sem%20-%20Course%20Abstract.pdf. [Accessed 2018].  B. V. Bhatt, "DESIGN ENGINEERING 1 A CANVASES," 2017. [Online]. Available: https://bvbhatt.files.wordpress.com/2016/07/01_role-playing-canvas_a3.jpg. [Accessed 2018].
The generation of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) is considered as the third generation of the solar cell. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) is commonly used as n-type semiconducting layer for heterojunction thin film solar cells. In the present work, synthesis of nanoparticles of CdSe has been done using chemical precipitation technique. And extract dye from pomegranate fruit as the natural dyes. Co-sensitization by using two or more sensitizers with complementary absorption spectra to expand the spectral response range is an effective approach to enhance device performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). To improve the light-harvesting in the visible/near-infrared (NIR) region, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) was combined with pomegranate dye for co-sensitized solar cells. . The prepared CdSe QDs were characterized by UV–Vis absorption, and PL spectra. The CdSe quantum dots were prepared successfully of size 2.9 nm synthesized used LEEH as a capping agent. The size of nanoparticles in pomegranate dye found to be 8.99nm. The proposed solution have been characterized by, UV-Visible spectra and photoluminescence studies. The size of nanoparticles is estimated from Yu model. When CdSe quantum dots are combined with dye, CdSe shows absorption from 387nm to 530nm.
Keywords : Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, PL Spectra, Quantum Dots, Quantum Confinement, UV Absorption
 Kamat, P. V. “Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters”. J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 18737-18753.  Karan Surana Q, Pramod K Singh, Hee-Woo Rhee,B. Bhattacharya “Synthesis, characterization and application of CdSe quantum dots” Science Direct,ELSEVIER,2014.10.1016  Yu, William W, Qu Lianhua,Guo Wenzhuo and Peng,Xiaogang, “Experimental Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS Nanocrystals”Chem Mater,2003,15,2854-2860  C. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Jin, Q. Dai, H. Song, “CdS/CdSe Quantum Dots and ZnPc Dye Co sensitized Solar Cells with Au Nanoparticles/Graphene Oxide as Efficient Modified Layer, Journal of Colloid and Interface” Science (2016), doi:10.1016/.jcis.2016.06.076  Vikram Singh & Ashok K. Mishra “White Light Emission from Vegetable Extracts” Nature, scientific report, 2015, 10.1038/srep11118  Petrov D,santos BS,Pereira GAL,De Mello Donega C, “Size and BandGap dependence of the first hyperpolarizability of CdxZn1-xS Nanocrystals”J.Phys.chem B106,5325(2002)
This paper introduces another strong innovation for current control system in view of Artificial Neural system (ANN). Advancement of sustainable power source intently take after with vulnerability. Execution of state space vector balance can improve the execution of inverter for network interconnection. This paper demonstrates the execution of SPWM technique for under regulation and over regulation for duty cycle of static switch. Singular preparing technique have been embraced for preparing of every hub of the neural system. MATLAB based Simulink strategy has been received to approve the rationale and design. ANN instrument base has been embraced for preparing reason.
Keywords : ANN, Back Propagation Algorithm, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), SPVM, Training of Node
 Pan Ting long, JI Zhi cheng, XIE Lin bo, Shen Yan xia “Design of novel ANN based SVPWM controller’’, Journal of System Simulation Vb1.18No.2 Feb.2006: 420-423  B Ding Wei, Zhu Jianlin, Li Zhiyong, “Simulation model of matrix converter with space vector modulated control strategy’’ Natural science journal of Xiangtan university，2002，24(3)：100-103.  S. Bolognani, M. Ziglitti, “Novel digital continuous control of SVM inverters in the overmodulation range”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol.33, pp.525-530, Mars/ April 1997.  N.V.Nho, M. J. Youn, “Two-mode overmodulation in two level VSI using principle control between limit trajectories”, CD-ROM Proc. PEDS 2003, pp.1274-1279  A. Bakhshai, J. Espinoza, G. Joos, H. Jin. “A combined ANN and DSP approach to the implementation of space vector modulation techniques”, in conf. Rec. IEEE –IAS Annu. Meeting, 1996, pp.934- 940.  Yeh, F.H., Wu, M.T. and Li, C.L., “Accurate optimization of blank design in stretch flange based on a forwardinverse prediction scheme”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 47, pp. 1854–1863, 2007.  Hayati, M., Rezaei, A. and Seifi, M., “Prediction of the heat transfer rate of a single layer wire-on-tube type heat exchanger using ANFIS”, International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 32, pp. 1914–1917, 2009.  Ramesh, K., Alwarsamy T. and Jayabal, S., “ANN prediction and RSM optimization of cutting process parameters in boring operations using impact