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Pervious concrete which is also known as the no-fines, porous, gap-graded, and permeable concrete and enhance porosity concrete has been found to be a reliable storm water management tool. By definition, pervious concrete is a mixture of gravel or granite stone, cement, water, little to no sand (fine aggregate) with or without admixtures. Pervious concrete is traditionally used in Parking areas, areas with high traffic, walk ways in parks and gardens, Residential streets, Pedestrian walkways and Green houses, Basketball and volley ball courts etc. In this study experimental investigation is carried out to study the properties of Pervious Concrete by partial replacing cement with different percentages of GGBS (0%, 20%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 80%). To achieve optimum concrete mix various trial mixes are done by varying cement, coarse aggregate, water and super plasticizers. Once getting the optimum mix, six mix design are done by replacing cement with GGBS at 0%, 20%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80 %. The pervious concrete mix is produced by using conventional cementitious materials, aggregates, and water. This concrete is tested for its Fresh properties such as workability and Hardened Properties such as density, void ratio, compressive strength, and water permeability. The most important property of pervious concrete is its water permeability. Currently, there is no standard experimental procedure to determine to this property. A method was therefore developed to determine the water permeability.
Keywords : GGBS, super plasticizers, optimum mix, workability density, void ratio, compressive strength, water permeability, Binder to coarse aggregate ratio
 IS: 10262: 2009. Concrete Mix Proportioning- Guidelines, BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARD, New Delhi.  NRMCA, ―What, Why, and How? Pervious Concrete, ―Concrete in practice series, CIP 38, Silver Spring, Maryland, May 2004, 2pp..  NRMCA, ―Freeze Thaw Resistance of Pervious Concrete,‖ National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, May 2004..  RMC Research Foundation Pervious Concrete Research Compilation: Past, Present and Future.  ACI 522R-10, ―Report on pervious concrete ‖ ACI Committee 522, March 2010”  Concrete Promotional Group inc., ―Handbook for Pervious Concrete Certification in Greater Kansas City‖, CPG Pervious Concrete Certification Program  National Concrete Pavement Technology Centre―Mix Design Development for Pervious Concrete in Cold Weather Climates‖, February 2006.  UltraTech Concrete Pervious, -Report on Permeable Concrete
Sorting is an important thing in which any items or products can be differentiated based on their size, height and color. In order to sort items, we need to be able to compare them, i.e., to determine whether the object coming through the conveyor is smaller, greater, or equal to the respected height. Here we are going to do a simple object sorting system using the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The system consists of a conveyor model in which the sorting process takes place. The product will be coming through the conveyor system to the sensing part, based on the height of the object the product will be sorted through the conveyor system by using the Programmable Logic System (PLC).
Keywords : Conveyor, Sorting, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Sensor
 Akshay varpe, Snehal Marne, Manasi Morye, Dr. Manisha jadhav, “Automatic Detection and Sorting of products”, Internation Journal of innovations in engineering research and technology, IJIERT ISSN 2394-3696 Conference Proceedings of TECHNO-2K17 Technical Symposium.  Nilima Bargal, Aditya Deshpande, Rucha Kulkarni, Rucha Moghe, “PLC Based Object Sorting Automation”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, IRJET Volume: 03 Issue: 07 July-2016.  Dhaval Tailor, Vivek Kamani, Ankit Ghetiya, Naresh Bhatiya, “Object Sorting and Stacking Automation with PLC”, International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) DOI: 10.21817/ijet/2017/v9i3/170903S031 Vol 9 No 3S July 2017.  Kadiyam Sasidhar, Shaik Faiz Hussain, Syed Ali Safdar, Mohd Aleem Uddin, “Design and Development of a PLC Based Automatic Object Sorting”, International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2017.  Bhagyashri, Kulkarni, Monika A. Satpute, Prof. S.A.Soundattikar, “Image Processing and PLC based Automated Biscuit Sorting System”, International Conference on Recent Innovation in Engineering and Management, 2016.  Amir Deshmukh, “Design and development of automatic conveyor controlling system for sorting of component on color basis”, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), volume 5, issue 2 February 2016.  Prof. Nilima Bargal Aditya Deshpande, Rucha Kulkarni, Rucha Moghe “PLC Based Object Sorting Automation” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 03, Issue: 07, July 2016.  Y V Aruna, Beena S “Automatic convey or System with In–Process Sorting Mechanism using PLC and HMI System”, Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Vol. 5, Issue 11, Part -3November 2015.  Shaukat.N, PLC based Automatic Object Sorting Machine, Multi Topic Conference 2002, IEEE publications.  Manjunatha “Postal Automation System for Mail Sorting” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015.
Mekongga Protected Forest area located in Kolaka District, East Kolaka and North Kolaka, save the wealth of natural resources, in the form of forest honey bees which became a source of livelihood for the surrounding community. As the population increases, the rampant illegal logging has further reduced the supply of flower resources that feed the honeybees in the forest. As a result, the production of forest honey tends to decrease, which also causes the number of circulating fake honey in the region. To solve these problems, assistance is needed for the community. The research was conducted in Talodo Village and Kesio Village, Lalolae Sub-District, East Kolaka District with the purpose of the activity is 1. Increasing people's understanding of conservation values of forest resources, 2. Increase the knowledge of bee hunters to conduct 'Self-Control' which can foster desire in securing the source of income from honey bees through protection and planting of bee forage species and for bee tree planting; Increase the knowledge of bee hunters to conduct 'Self-Control' which can foster desire in securing the source of income from honey bees through protection and planting of bee forage species and for bee tree planting; 3. Increase the knowledge of honey gatherers to give buyers confidence to the genuine honey products produced by the hygienically and sustainably managed Mekongga natural forest using Self-Control, through the collection of honey, the packaging of honey using bottles. The methods used are lecture and discussion methods, technology transfer, and demonstration ways. Through the 'Self-Control' approach is able to increase community knowledge in monitoring and protecting the presence of nectar and pollen trees and host trees for honey bees. The community has also been able to perform hygienic harvesting techniques, packing honey in hygienic bottles, and labeling on bottles.
Keywords : Fake Honey, Forest Bees, Self-Help Control, Hygienic Honey
 International Biodiversity Cooperative Group (ICBG). (2012). Proposed Change of Function of Protected Forest Area Mekongga Mountain Complex into Conservation Forest. Local Government of Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia.  Rosmarlinasiah. (2015). Honeybee Resource Development Analysis (Apis dorsata Binghamii) Community Based. Case Study at the Mekongga Forest Complex. Graduate Program of Hasanuddin University. Makassar. Dissertation. Not Published.  Murniati dan Sumarhani. (2010). Development of Social Forestry Models. Social Forestry. Ministry of Forestry Forestry Research and Development Agency. Center for Climate Change Research and Development and Policy. Jakarta  Hussein,M.H., Omar, M.O.M., Mannaa, S.H. and Moustafa, A.M. 1992. An activity of honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.) and Flowering of some bee forage plants in Assiut region. 4thNat. Conf. of Pests and Dis. Of Veg. and Fruits in Egypt and Arab Count. Ismailia, Egypt. 196-208.  Sulistyorini, C.A. (2006). Inventory of Honey Bee Plant Apis cerana Ferb in Plantation of The Gunung Mas Bogor. Forest Cultivation Study Program Faculty of Forestry Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. Indonesia. Essay. Not Published.  Kuntadi, 2013. Steps to Increase Production and Quality of Bee Products. Puslitbang Konservasi dan Rehabilitasi. Budidaya_Madu.pdf. Www.forda-mof.org. Access February 17, 2014.
The intelligent energy management system is operated automatically to ON and OFF the generating sources as per the load demand. The renewable energy sources used in this energy management system are solar, wind, fuel cell and energy storage element battery as an input source. These renewable energy sources are integrated into the main dc bus through dc-ac converter. Microgrid is basically a group of large power grid. The renewable energy sources producing variable ac, variable dc and fixed dc. So, the converters in this are used to convert variable dc to fixed ac. The dc-ac converter is used for controlling the maximum amount of energy for the requirement of load demand. The Microgrid is operated in the real time and also for the load demand requirement. The ac microgrid is connected to the load for distribution. The Arduino is the microcontroller giving feedback to the inverters and converters.
Keywords : Wind, Solar, Fuel cell, Microgrid, Arduino controller, converters and battery.
 A.A.Salam, A.Mohamed, M.A.Hannan, Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, “Improved Control Strategy for Fuel Cell and Photovoltaic Inverters in a Microgrid”, ISSn: 1790-5060.Issue:10, Volume 4, October 2009.pg.No:331-340.  Kai Strunz, Ehsan Abbasi, and Duc Nguyen Huu, “DC Microgrid for Wind and Solar Power Integration”, IEEE Journal of Engineering and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Vol.2, No:1, March 2014.Pg.No:115-126.  M.Anantha Kumar, “Integration and Distribution of Renewable Sources in DC Microgrid with Energy Storage System” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 3, Special Issue 3, March 2014.P.No:2713-2718.  Manzoa Ahmed, Uzma Amin. Suhail Aftab, Zaki Ahmed, “Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Microgrid”, Energy and Power Engineering, 2015, pg:12-29.  A. L. Dimeas and N. D. Hatziargyriou, “Operation of a multiagent system for microgrid control”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1447–1455, Aug. 2005.  Katiraei and M. R. Iravani, “Power management strategies for a microgrid with multiple distributed generation units”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1821–1831, Nov. 2006.  D.Westermann, S. Nicolai, and P. Bretschneider, “Energy management for distribution networks with storage systems—A hierarchical approach”, in Proc. IEEE PES General Meeting, Convers. Del. Electr. Energy 21st Century, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, Jul. 2008.  R.Lasseter, A.Akhil, C.Marnay, Integration of Distributed Energy Resources, the CERTS Microgrid Concept, LBNL-50829, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2002.  H. H. Zeineldin, E. F. El-Saadany, and M. M.A.Salama, Impact of DG Interface Control on Islanding Detection and Non-detection zones, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 21,No. 3, 2006, pp. 1515-1523.  K. Sung-Hun, S. R. Lee, H. Dehbonei et al., Application of Voltage and Current-controlled Voltage Source Inverters for Distributed Generation Systems, IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2006, pp. 782-792.  H. Tao, A. Kotsopoulos, J.L. Duarte, and M.A.M. Hendrix, “Multi-input bidirectional dc-dc converter combining dc-link and magnetic-coupling for fuel cell systems,” in Proc. IEEE IAS, Hong Kong,  China, Vol.3, Oct.2005, pp.2021-2028.  S.Sikkabut, N.H.Fuengwarodsakul, P.Sethakul, P.Thounthong, S.Pierfederici, M.Hinaje, B.Nahid-Mobarakeh, B.Davat, ”Control strategy of solar/wind energy power plant with supercapacitor energy storage for smart DC microgrid", Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference vol., no., pp.1213,1218, 22-25 April 2013.  M. R. Patel, Wind and Solar Power Systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999.  C. Yaow-Ming, L. Yuan-Chuan, H. Shih-Chieh, and C. Chung- Sheng, “Multi-input inverter for grid-connected hybrid PV/Wind power system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1070–1077, May 2007.  R. Palma-Behnke, C. Benavides, F. Lanas, B. Severino, L. Reyes, J. Llanos, et al., “A microgrid energy management system based on the rolling horizon strategy,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 996–1006, Jun. 2013.
Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in modern era which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of glass fibres & is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete. It is lighter than conventional concrete having special features such as low density and thermal conductivity with main advantage of reduction in dead weight, faster building rate in construction, lower haulage & handling cost. Light is transmitted from one surface of the brick wall to the other due to optical fibres strands along the overall width of the wall which allows light to pass through. An optical fibre (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fibre made of glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair & can function as waveguide, or “light pipe” to transmit light between the two ends. Main aim of the study is to design translucent concrete blocks with the use of glass optical fibres with sand & cement then analyse their various physical & engineering properties with respect to conventional concrete blocks by adding glass optical fibres of 1%, 2 %, 3 % 4 % 5% at 0.5 cms & 1.0 cms spacing respectively. From the study, it can be concluded that there is 5% to 10% increase in initial compressive strength for 7 days & also 10% to 15% increase in initial compressive strength for 28 days to an optical fibres mix up to 3% whereas the initial & final characteristic compressive strength gradually decreases with an increase in Optical fibres in the concrete mix.
Keywords : Transparent concrete, Workability, Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Flexural strength.
 Momin, A., Kadiranaikar, R., Jagirdar, V. & Inamdar, A., “Study of Light Transmittance of Concrete Using Optical Fibers and Glass Rods,” Proceedings: International Conference on Advances in Engineering & Technology – 2014.  Shanmugavadivu, P., Scinduja, V., Sarathivelan, T. & Shudhesamithronn, C., “An Experimenal Study of Light Transmitting Concrete,” IJRET, vol. 3, no. 11, 2014.  Zhou, Z., Ou, G., Hang, Y., Chen, G. & Ou, J., “Research and Development of Plastic Optical Fiber Based Smart Transparent Concrete,” SPIE, vol. 7293, no. F, 2009.  Prasad. Bishetti. Etal, “EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH”, International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320 -8163, www.ijtra.com Volume 4, Issue 4 (July-Aug, 2016), PP. 120-122.  BasmaF.Bashbash, “Basics of light Transmitting Concrete”, International Journal of Research ISSN 2249 -9695 in Environmental Science and Technology- Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties of Coir Pith In Relation To Particle Size Suitable For Potting Medium, pp 079-083, (2013).  IS: 7320-1974 Code of practice for “WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE BY SLUMP TEST”.  IS:1199-1959 Code of practice for “WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE BY COMPACTION FACTOR TEST”.  IS:10510-1983 Code of practice for “WORKABILITY TEST BY VEE-BEE CONSISTOMETER”.  IS: 516-1959 Code of practice for “FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST”.  IS 5816-1976 Code of practice for “SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH TEST”.  IS: 516-1959 Code of practice for “COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST”.
There are four main and most types of cancer treatments, which are surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. In this paper, we consider cancer treatment by radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is a treatment procedure that uses radiation to kill tumor cells. The Histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDAC) Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or SAHA) combination with radiotherapy blocks cancer cell proliferation. In this study we developed and analyse Mathematical model for tumor growth and histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with radiotherapy then we analyse the stability of equilibria. And fitting Patient 1 data to numerical simulation for locally weighted smoothing linear regression.
Keywords : Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, Radiation Therapy, Mathematical Model
 Hahnen E, Hauke J, Tränkle C, Eyüpoglu IY, Wirth B, Blümcke I (Feb 2008). "Histone deacetylase inhibitors: possible implications for neurodegenerative disorders". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 17 (2): 169–84. doi:10.1517/13543722.214.171.124. PMID 18230051.  P. Hahnfeldt, D. Panigrahy, J. Folkman and L. Hlatky, Tumor development under angio- genic signaling: a dynamical theory of tumor growth, treatment response, and postvascular dormancy, Cancer Research, 59 (1999), 4770–4775.  Kelly WK, Richon VM, O'Connor O, Curley T, MacGregor-Curtelli B, Tong W, Klang M, Schwartz L, Richardson S, Rosa E, Drobnjak M, Cordon-Cordo C, Chiao JH, Rifkind R, Marks PA, Scher H (2003) Phase I clinical trial of histone deacetylase inhibitor: suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid administered intravenously. Clin Cancer Res 9: 3578–3588  Lane AA, Chabner BA: Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol 2009, 32:5459-5468.  Merck Research Laboratories, Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, BMB9-101, 33 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA  Miller TA, Witter DJ, Belvedere S (Nov 2003). "Histone deacetylase inhibitors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (24): 5097–116. doi:10.1021/jm0303094. PMID 14613312  Mwakwari SC, Patil V, Guerrant W, Oyelere AK (2010). "Macrocyclic histone deacetylase inhibitors". Curr Top Med Chem. 10 (14): 1423–40. doi:10.2174/156802610792232079. PMC 3144151 . PMID 20536416  L.G. de Pillis, W.Gu, A.E. Radunskaya, Mixed Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy of tumors: Modeling, Applications and Biological interpretations, 2005.  S.T.R. Pinho a,∗, F.S. Bacelar a,b, R.F.S. Andradea, H.I. Freedmanc A mathematical model for the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy in the treatment of cancer tumours by chemotherapy Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications 14 (2013) 815–828  "Scientists 'reverse' memory loss". BBC News. 2007-04-29. Retrieved 2007-07-08.  Siegel D, Hussein M, Belani C, et al. Vorinostat in solid and hematologic malignancies. J. Hematol. Oncol. 2009;2:31. [PMC free article] [PubMed]  Wagner JM, Hackanson B, Lübbert M, Jung M. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in recent clinical trials for cancer therapy. Clin Epigenetics. 2010;1 (3-4:117–136. [PMC free article] [PubMed].
In computer networks, it consists of policies and practises adopted to prevent and monitor unauthorised access. Networks can be both public and private where many of the counter attacks were practised. It is long known that IP spoofing or IP address spoofing is one of the major threats in communication protocol. IP spoofing is nothing but IP packets with forged source IP address, with purpose of concealing the identity of sender or impersonating an another computer system by forging the source address of packet header so it contains a different address, an attacker can make it appear that the packet was sent by a different machine .so that the IP spoofing comes into place. In existing, Passive IP trace back (PIT) that bypasses the deployment difficulties of IP trace back techniques. Though PIT cannot work in all the spoofing attacks and therefore we have proposed a novel idea, to restrict the Man in the Middle Attack (MITM) by providing inbound and outbound rules to avoid the challenges in operation. As long as the real origin of IP spoofing is not disclosed they cannot be deterred from launching further attacks. So the proposed solution ensures that the entity requesting for a service is an actual recipient by trace back the real identification of an attacker.
Keywords : IP spoofing, Man in the Middle Attack (MITM), inbound and outbound rules, call traceback
 Yang Siang, Wanleizhou, Minviguo, “FLEXIBLE DETERMINISTIC PACKET MARKING: An IP Traceback system to find the real source of attacks”, IEEEsecurity and policy, (vol: 20, no 4, pp 567-580), 2009.  Shui,Keshavshood, Yongxiang,” An Effective and feasible traceback scheme in mobile internet environment”, IEEE communications letters(Volume 18,issue 11),2014.  Y.Bhavani, R.Sridevi,”IPtraceback through modified Probablistic Packet Marking algorithm using Chinese remainder theorem”, (Volume 6, issue 2), 2015.  Shui yu,wanlei zhou,Song guo,”Afeasible IP Traceback through ,“dynamic deterministic packet marking”, IEEEtrans on computers (Volume 65, issue 5), 2016.  Long Cheng, D.M.Divakaran, VL.Lthing “Opportunistic piggyback marking for IP Traceback”,IEEEtrans on info forensics and security (Volume 11,issue 2),2016.  Aqeel Sahi Khader,david lai,”preventing man-in-the-middlw attack in diffie hellman key exchange protocol”, telecommunication(ICT)22nd international conference,2015.
Refrigerators are widely used devices today. From keeping the food fresh to chilling the drinks, and even to preserve blood, refrigerators serve all such purposes. But sometimes it becomes cumbersome to use household refrigerators, especially when we are dealing with some grocery bags or a large utensil and there is no additional helping hand to open and close the refrigerator door. Foot lever refrigerator door opener and motor operated closure helps in opening and closing the fridge door even when both the human hands are engaged in handling stuff. Foot lever operated refrigerator door opener and motor operated closure uses a foot lever which operates a lock with the help of a cable lock opening assembly. The torsion spring attached to the hinges of the refrigerator door activates and opens the door. The electric motor is used to close the door when our job is finished.
Keywords : Foot Lever, Cable Lock Opening Assembly, Torsion Spring, Electric Motor, One Touch Relay Switch
 Bruno Fuhge, “Apparatus for opening and/or closing a door”. 2015, March 17. US8981698 B2. https://www.google.co.in/patents/US8981698#forward-citations  R S Khurmi, J K Gupta. “A Textbook of Machine Design”. 34th Edition. S Chand Publications.  B L Theraja, A K Theraja, “A Textbook of Electrical Technology Volume 2”. 23rd Edition. S Chand Publications.
There is large growing requirement of building materials in India due to urbanization. To meet this challenge, india requires innovative and efficient building material. Glass fiber reinforced gypsum (GFRG) wall panel is made essentially of gypsum plaster reinforced with glass fiber. The panels are hollow and can be used as load bearing walls. The hollow cores inside the walls can be filled with in-situ plain or reinforced concrete. Variation of buckling load of unfilled GFRG wall panels for various widths is reported. The axial load carrying capacity obtained from the numerical analysis and the test results comparable for this load case. While assessing the axial load capacity for design under compression, a minimum possible eccentricity is accounted for. An engineering model is proposed to assess the strength of unfilled and concrete filled GFRG wall panels in multi-storied building system subjected to lateral load such as earthquake.
Keywords : Glass Fiber, Gypsum Panel, Reinforcement, Costing, Rate Analysis, Masonry
 IITM, Material properties and assessment of gypcrete building panels, indian institute of technology, Madras, india; September 2002. Project no. CE/BTCM/2557/2002, 2002  Rapid wall manufacturer (2012) Rapidwall installation manual, Building Materials & Technology Promotion Council, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India.  Dr.. R. P. Rethaliya, education, engineering, engineering books, engineering in gtu, gtu, gujarat,  leydecker, sylvia, nanomaterialien in architektur, innenarchitektur und design: birkhäuser verlag, 2008.  Liu K, Wu YF and Jiang XL, “Shear strength of concrete filled glass fiber reinforced gypsum wall walls”, RILEM, mater struct 2008:41(4) pp: 649-62 .  Menon D and Prasad AM, “Development of building system using glass fiber reinforced gypsum (GFRG)”, the master builder, building systems: GFRG, 2013 pp: 210-214.  Rapidwall installation manual, building materials & technology promotion council, ministry of housing & urban poverty alleviation, government of india, December 2011.  Rapidwall projects list, Materials & technology promotion council, ministry of housing & urban poverty alleviation, government of india, 2009.  Potts, K. and Ankrah, N. (2008) Construction Cost Management, Learning from case studies, Routledge, New York, USA.  Serc, evaluation of seismic performance of gypcrete building panels, structural engineering research centre, Chennai, india, 2002.  Wu YF, “The effect of longitudinal reinforcement on the cyclic behavior of glass fiber reinforced gypsum wall panels: tests”, Elsevier eng struct 2004:26(11) pp: 163346.  wu, y.f., the effect of longitudinal reinforcement on the cyclic shear behaviour of glass fiber reinforced gypsum wall panels: tests engineering structures, 26 (11): 163346, 2004.  wu, y.f., the structural behaviour and design methodology for a new building system consisting of glass fiber reinforced gypsum panels, construction and building materials, volume 23, 2905-2913, 2009.  CE/BTCM/2557/2002. Sexton, D. E. (2009) Value above Cost, Driving Superior Financial Performance with CVA, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.
Cracks in building are a common occurrence. It affects the stability and appearance of buildings. So, it is important to understand the cause of cracks and the effective measures should be taken for prevention. Though cracks in concrete cannot be prevented entirely but they can be prevented by using proper material and technique of construction and considering criteria. Sometimes water penetrates through cracks in building and cause severe damage to building. There are many reason of occurrence of cracks like moisture, thermal movement, elastic deformation, chemical reaction, foundation movement, vegetation and earthquake. We all dream of a house structurally safe and aesthetically beautiful but it is not so easy. So, timely identification of such cracks and adopting preventive measures is essential. In this paper, we will discuss about the methodology for prevention and repair of cracks in building. This research paper also gives information about result of Rebound Hammer Test and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test for determining strength of concrete. Because strength of concrete is also an influencing factor for repairing cracks in building. So, we can say if crack repair is assumed to be building of structure then this paper can be assumed as foundation of it.
Keywords : Crack, Structural Failure, Concrete, Causes, Prevention, Repair technique, Epoxy, Grouting
 Grishma Thagunna. “Building cracks – Causes and Remedies”. 3rd World Conference on Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology at Basha Research Centre.  Robert T. Ratay. “Structural Condition Assessment”.  FIP Guide. “Repair and Strengthening of Concrete Structures”, Thomas Telford.  Chung, H.W. 1981. “Epoxy Repair of Bond in Reinforced Concrete Members”, Journal, American Concrete Institute, Proceedings, Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 79-92.  P.I. Modi and C.N. Patel. “Repairs and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures”, PHI Publication.  R.Dodge Woodson. “Concrete Structures, Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation”.  M. Shariati, N.h. Ramli-Sulong, M.M. Arabnejad K.H., P. Shafigh and H. Sinaei, 2011, assessing the strength of reinforced concrete structures through Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Schmidt Rebound Hammer tests, Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 6(1): 213-220.  R.Holland. “Appraisal and Repair of Reinforced concrete”. Thomas Telford Ltd.  V.M. Malhotra and Nicholas J. Carino. “Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete”.  P Kumar Mehta and Paulo J.M.Monterio. “Concrete microstructure, Properties and materials”.  Handbook on Repairs and Rehabilitation of RCC buildings-CPWD, Government of India  Is 456: 2000, “Indian Standard of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice”.  Hand book HB 84-2006: “Guide to Concrete Repair and Protection”, A joint publication of ACRA, CSIRO and Standards Australia.  IS.SP.25, “Handbook on Causes and Prevention of Cracks”, Central Building Research Institute, 1984.  M.L. Gambhir. “Concrete Technology”. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.  J.H. Bungey, S.G. Millard and M.G. Grantham. “Testing of Concrete in Structures”, Taylor and Francis.  Dr. R.P. Rethaliya and prof. A.R. Darji. “Repair and Rehabilitation of Structures”, ATUL Prakashan. Website References  www.theconstructor.org  www.ijetae.com  www.concretenetwork.com  www.anythingconcrete.com  www.civildigital.com
Urbanization has become a common feature of Indian society. Growth of industries as a result of industrialization, people have started moving towards the industrial areas in search of employment. These have resulted in the growth of towns and cities. A country can never prosper if the villages are not developed as this is an important part of country’s economy. Our project is about development of appropriate facility and suggestion for up gradation of Niyol village.Niyol is one of the villages in Palsana district. So it is essential to develop the village under the district for the growth of state and also for the country. Slow pace of development in villages and pursuit of better life style has led to huge migration from villages to cities. For most villages on one hand some essential infrastructural facilities like children playground, public garden etc. have been not available and on the other hand provided infrastructural facilities like drinking water, drainage etc. have become insufficient. As per the present scenario, the village has larger area but lack of infrastructures and facilities. They all have separate toilets at home by participating in Swachchh Bharat Abhiyan. The coordination between the villagers is good. But there is lack of employment. There is no proper facilities of transportation and other basic needs. There is mostly health issues are exerting in village. On the basis of collected data from Techno-economic survey & smart village survey, we found GAP between existing facilities and required facilities as per norms.
Keywords : Rainwater Harvesting, RWHS, Rural uses, Simulator, Viability
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