Text Summarization has always been an area of active interest in the academia. In recent times, even though several techniques have being developed for automatic text summarization, efficiency is still a concern. Given the increase in size and number of documents available online, an efficient automatic news summarizer is the need of the hour. In this paper, we propose a technique of text summarization which focuses on the problem of identifying the most important portions of the text and producing coherent summaries. People tend to read multiple news articles on a topic since a single article may not contain all important information. A summary of all the articles related to topic will save the time and energy. In this research, an extractive based approach is used to generate a two-level summary from online news articles. News topics covered include politics, sports health, science and movie reviews from, etc. The first-level summary generates the summary of each article and second level summary combines the first level summaries and generates the final summary. To understand the variation of these news articles, Sentiment Analysis is applied.
Keywords : Text Summarization, Extraction based Summarization, Sentiment Analysis
 Krishnaprasad, A. Sooryanarayanan and A. Ramanujan, "Malayalam text summarization: An extractive approach," 2016 International Conference on Next Generation Intelligent Systems (ICNGIS), Kottayam, 2016, pp. 1-4.  Agarwal, A., Xie, B., Vovsha, I., Rambow, O., and Passonneau, R,“Sentiment Analysis of Twitter Data,” in Proc of ACL HLT Conf, 2011  ATSSI: ABSTRACTIVE TEXT SUMMARIZATION USING SENTIMENT INFUSION Author Rupal Bhargava Yashvardhan Sharma Gargi Sharma  Sentiment analysis algorithms and applications: A survey Walaa Medhat , Ahmed Hassa ,Hoda Korashy
As it is quite obvious that there is day to day increase in population, the major challenge faced by the civil engineers is to provide a better space for living at cities and to deal with the burning issues of water scarcity. Where urban planning is used to promote environmental sustainability. With good planning, urban heritage is a key sustainable resource that need promoting as part of the existing territorial competitiveness in a scenario marked by an increase in rivalry between cities. This requires the development of a conceptual framework that on a global, holistic and integrative approach covers equality and social justice, environment and public health, among other aspect. Public health is an important aspect to be considered in any development process because a stable living environment can be created only with healthy habitant. Increasing pollution is a factor that polluting water and environment which effects human life. Available supply of potable, clean water within the city helps to stabilize this healthy environment to an extent. A functioning water treatment plant in a city can achieve this goal. The properties of water changes based on its surface sources. Average total water demand on the particular area was estimated as 5 MLD. Design of 5 MLD water treatment plant is proposed in this project accordance to 2050 population. Some proposals to lacking facilities at the site is also made in this project to conserve the energy and to promote optimum utilization of renewable resources such as solar street light, biogas plant and the necessity of a proper solid waste management system is also indicated in this report.
Keywords : Town Planning, Environmental Sustainability, Water Treatment Plant
 Jennifer R.Wolch, Jason Byrne, Joshua P.Newell, “Landscape and urban planning”, 2014  Padhye P. R, Urade S. P, Deo N.N, “Self-Sustainable Township Planning”, 2016  Harka Man Lungkhmba, Amrit Bahadur Karki, Jagan Nath Shrestha, “Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of biodegradable household work”, 2010  S.M Al Salem, P.Lettieri,J.Baeyens,“Waste Management”,2009  S.Rajesh, P.Mugilvani, “Design of water treatment plant”,2018  Smitha M V, Thasnim M S, “Remedial measures for flash flood in Trivandrum city”,2014  J.K. Gupta, “Guidelines for Planning of Mega Residential Township Projects”,2006  M.Farhaoui, “Managing and modeling of the drinking water treatment plant sludge”, 2017
Cognitive Radio (CR) is a recent technology to improve the spectrum availability. Cognitive radio scenario is well explained in this paper. When secondary users fail to realize the white space, either it will cause a serious interference with primary user or a failure to reuse the unoccupied band. Various sensing scheme for the cognitive radio are reviewed and the challenges associated with it. This paper describes signal sensing techniques and their various forms. Further identified issued and research challenges to overcome in future.
Keywords : Spectrum Sensing, Cognitive Radio, Spectrum Hole, Spectrum Sensing Techniques
 Muchandi, Niranjan, and Rajashri Khanai. "Cognitive radio spectrum sensing: A survey." Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT), International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.  Huang, Jingfang, Honggang Wang, and Hong Liu. "A Survey on Cognitive Radio Networks." International Conference on Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.  Vakil, Meghamadhuri, and K. Nagamani. "Cognitive Radio Spectrum Sensing–A Survey." Energy 3.02 (2017).  Sindhubargavi, R., M. Yuvasrri Sindhu, and R. Saravanan. "Spectrum sensing using energy detection technique for cognitive radio networks using PCA technique." Indian Journal of Science and Technology 7.4 (2014): 40-45.  https://wp.wpi.edu/catalyst/2015/04/14/5-advantages-of-cognitive-radio/  Wei, Zhiqing, et al. "Three regions for space–time spectrum sensing and access in cognitive radio networks." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 64.6 (2015): 2448-2462.  Akyildiz, Ian F., et al. "NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey." Computer networks 50.13 (2006): 2127-2159.  Nasser, Abbass, et al. "Spectrum Sensing for Half and Full-Duplex Cognitive Radio." Spectrum Access and Management for Cognitive Radio Networks. Springer Singapore, 2017. 15-50.  Pandya, P., Durvesh, A. and Parekh, N., 2015, April. Energy detection based spectrum sensing for cognitive radio network. In 2015 Fifth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (pp. 201-206). IEEE.  Chaari, Fakher, et al., eds. Cyclostationarity: Theory and methods. Springer Science & Business Media, 2014.  Federal Communications Commission. "FCC 03-323, Third Report and Order and Second Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in CC Docket 02-6 (In the Matter of Schools and Libraries Universal Service Support Mechanisms)." (2003).  Cordeiro, C., and K. Challapali. "Spectrum agile radios: utilization and sensing architectures." New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, 2005. DySPAN 2005. 2005 First IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, 2005.  Yucek, Tevfik, and Huseyin Arslan. "A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications." IEEE communications surveys & tutorials 11.1 (2009): 116-130.
Agriculture is main occupation of Indian people. In agriculture field, the difficulty of detection and counting the number of on trees fruits plays a crucial role in fruit orchids. Manually counting of fruits has been carried out but it takes lot of time and requires more labor. The purpose of the system is to minimize the number of human computer interactions, speed up the identification process and improve the usability of the graphical user interface compared to existing manual systems. The hardware of the system is constituted by a Raspberry Pi, camera. This system includes preprocessing of images, extraction of features and classification of fruit using machine-learning algorithms. This paper presents computer vision and machine learning techniques for on tree fruit detection, counting and sorting.
Keywords : Graphical User Interface
 Y. song et al, C.A Glaxbey, G.W Hargon, G.Polder, J.A. Dieleman and G.w.a.m Van der heijden “automatic fruit recognition and counting from multiple images”, biosystems engineering 118(2014)203e215.  Bipan Tudu, Chandra Sekhar Nandi, Chiranjib Koley “An Automated Machine Vision Based System for Fruit Sorting and Grading”, 2012 Sixth International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST).  M. Bulanon, T. Kataoka, Y.Ota, and T.Hiroma, “A Segmentation Algorithm for the Automatic Recognition of Fuji Apples at Harvest,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 405-412, Aug. 2002.  Yousef Al Ohali “Computer vision based date fruit Grading system: Design and implementation”, Journal of King Saud University – Computer and Information Sciences (2011) 23, 29–36 R. Nicole, “Title of paper with only first word capitalized,” J. Name Stand. Abbrev. in press.  Zeeshan Malik, Sheikh Ziauddin, Ahmad R. Shahid, and Asad Saf “Detection and Counting of On-Tree Citrus Fruit for Crop Yield Estimation ,”(IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2016
The proposed system is aimed at viewing different online product’s price through object recognition. The system provides list of price of a product by comparing with other websites. Unidentified products can be easily recognised by object recognition just by uploading the picture. Web sites which provide the best price for a product are abundant in internet nowadays. These sites gives the best price by searching the name of the product provided by the user in a search bar. However it would be interesting, if the web application could find best price using the image of the product as input. The proposed web application does the same, enabling the user to upload the image of the product and provide the best price while avoiding unnecessary advertisements and information. Thus the over burden of typing out the exact name of the product is thus reduced. Object recognition is used to identify product. To obtain the information regarding the product, the API’s of different E-commerce sites are taken.
Keywords : Object Recognition
 “Retail e-commerce sales worldwide from 2014 to 2021”, https://www.statista.com/statistics/379046/worldwide-retail-e-commerce-sales/  Henry C. B. Chan, Chris K. H. Chin and Benjamin Lam, “Price-comparison agents for MAGICS*”, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, IEEE 2001, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/953739/similar/.  Andrea Horch, Holger Kett and Anette Weisbecker, “Mining E-Commerce Data from E-Shop Websites”, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7345488/, IEEE 2015.  Ahmad Pouramini and Shahram Nasiri, “Web content extraction using contextual rules”, International Conference on Knowledge-Based modeling and Innovation, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7436183/, IEEE 2015.  Guowei Chen and Pengzhou Zhang, “The content extraction method of webpage information based on knowledge base”, Fifth International Joint Conference on Computational Sciences and Optimization, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6274803/ , IEEE 2012.  Soran Abdulkarim Pasha and Cafer Bal, “Similar image retrieval in e-commerce for online shopping based on color and edge”, International Journal of Scientific & modelering Research, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5040/af1f04f93f340e46c6a8f0c10a526c8a2211.pdf/, IJSER 2017.  Forrest N. Iandola , Song Han2 , Matthew W. Moskewicz , Khalid Ashraf , William J. Dally , Kurt Keutzer, “Squeezenet: Alexnet-Level Accuracy with 50X Fewer parameters and <0.5MB model size”, https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1xh5sYgx, ICLR 2017.
The correct stabilization of foundation soils constitutes an increasingly important issue in the present Civil Engineering world. Concerns over the environment have taken significant proportions, and there is the awareness today that efforts must be made to diminish the environmental damage caused by the development of infrastructures. Therefore, it has become urgent not only to find building procedures, which will allow this objective to be achieved, but also to accelerate their implementation. This study consists of improving the Engineering properties of Black Cotton soil using recycled glass and plastic. Recycling material from the original site, independently of the simplicity avoids its substitution by better materials, recovered elsewhere; which has severe consequences for the environment. This also eliminates the need for a deposit site of unused material. The main goal of this work is to quantify the benefits achieved with the stabilization of a black cotton soil, with respect to its Engineering properties.
Keywords : Soil Stabilization, Plastic Granules, Civil Engineering World
 Amit Tiwari (2014), “Experimental Study on Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil by Fly Ash, Coconut Coir Fibre & Crushed Glass”. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering.Vol 2, Issue 3.pp:28.  Anas Ashraf, Mariamma Joseph. (2014), “Soil stabilization using raw plastic bottles”, Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference, Vol 2, Issue 3.pp:304.  Baleshwar Singh, Shivanand Mali (2013), “Soil stabilization using glass fibers”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume5, Issue 12.pp:32.  Choudhary A.K (2012), “A study on CBR behaviour of plastic waste strip reinforced soil”, Emirates Journal for Engineering Research. Vol 2, Issue1.pp:118.  Mercy Joseph, Femeeda Muhammed Haneef (2014), “Effect of Plastic Granules on the Properties of Soil”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. Vol. 4, Issue 4.pp.160.  Michel B, Aderinle, (2014), “Clay soil stabilization using powdered glass”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology.Vol.9, Issue 1.pp:541.  Sivakumar Babu G.L, (2014), “Studies of Black Cotton Soil admixed with Plastic waste”, International Journal of Indian  Institute of Science. Vol.9, Issue 2.pp:154.  Suresh K, (2009), “Experimental study on stabilization of black cotton soil with stone dust and fibers”, International Journal of Civil Engineering Society.Vol 1, Issue 3.pp:82.ISSN: 2278-0181 IJERTV5IS040842
In the current scenario security of the children is very poor. This model helps the worried parents at ease regarding their child security. Our system ensures 24x7 tracking will be provided. This paper proposes a model to secure the child safety inside and outside the school premises through a smart watch and an android phone. The current location will be given to parent via SMS. The principal or the higher authority can fix the geofence.
Keywords : Global Positioning System (GPS), Geo-Fencing, Short Messaging Service (SMS), Child Tracking
 Aditi Gupta, Vibhor Harit “Child Safety & Tracking Management System By using GPS, Geo-Fencing & Android Application: An Analysis” 2016 Feb 12-13  https://www.plotprojects.com/geofencing/https://proximi.io/geofence-complete-guide-geofencing/  Natalia Wawrzyniak, Tomasz Hyla “Application of Geofencing Technology for the Purpose of Spatial Analyses in Inland Mobile Navigation” (2016 June 2-4)  W3C Editor's Draft “Geofencing Use Cases and Requirements” (2014 February 28)  “Location tracing of Android devices Based on SMS” (2014 Jan 2)  A.Saranya et al, International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing, “Design and implementation of automatic child monitoring (ACM) system using wireless network” Vol.5 Issue.4, (2016 April) pg. 356-363  Leonardo D'Errico, Fabio Franchi, Fabio Graziosi, Claudia Rinaldi, Francesco Tarquini “Design and implementation of children safety based on IOT” (2017 July 12-14)
Robots have Artificial Intelligence. The Artificial Intelligence may vary from one to another. Some Robots do action based on the gestures produced by Human. In this project, we have designed a Robot which is based on Human movements. Four MEMS accelerometers are connected with the two hands and legs of the particular person. This project consists of three stages. They are 1) Signal sensing, 2) Signal analysis and 3) Signal control. When the person moves his hand, leg etc. in up or down, the accelerometer connected with the particular organ identifies the movement and accordingly it sends signal to the microcontroller and signal sensing stage is done. In signal analysis the microcontroller analyses the signal and accordingly it controls the Robotic motors. The signal control is done by the robotic motors. The Robotic motors move the arm, leg of the Robot according to the particular person’s movement. Thus the Robot can move its hand, leg like the particular human being.
Keywords : Accelerometer, Humanoid Robot, Human Imitation
 K. Loffler, M. Gienger, F. Pfeiffer, and H. Ulbrich, “Sensors and control concept of a biped robot,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 972–980, Oct. 2004.  Carmona.A, Monolina Tanco, Azuaga M, Rodriguez J.A., “ Online absorption of mediolateral balance disturbances for a small humanoid robot using accelerometer and force-sensor feedback”, IEEE/ASME international conference, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AIM.2007.4412426,Page(s):1–6, Publication Year: 2007  Li, T.S, Yu-Te Su, Cheng-Hsiang Kuo, Chi-Yang Chen, Chia-Ling Hsu, Ming-Feng Lu,“Stair-Climbing Control of Humanoid Robot using Force and accelerometer sensors”, SICE, 2007 Annual Conference Digital Object identifier : 10.1109/SICE.2007.4421336 , Page(s): 2115 – 2120, Publication Year: 2007  Karlsson.N, Karlsson.B, and P. Wide, “A glove equipped with finger flexion sensors as a command generator used in a fuzzy control system,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 47, no. 5 Oct. 2008.  X. He and Y. Chen, “Six-degree-of-freedom haptic rendering in virtual teleoperation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1866–1875, Sep. 2008  J. P. Ferreira, M. M. Crisostomo, and A. P. Coimbra, “Human gait acqui- sition and characterization,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 58, no. 9, Sep. 2009.  Chunzhan Yu, Xinyi Zhang, Qingxuan Jia, Jinliang Li, ”Theoretical research on a six-axis accelerometer for humanoid robot wrist” .International conference, Digital object Identifier: 10.1109/ICMA.2009.5246662 , Page(s): 1411 – 1416, Publication Year: 2009  Lin, Chih-Min, Chih-Hsuan Chen , Chih-Min Lin, ”A novel intelligent control system design for a humanoid robot ” Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC), International. Conference, Volume: 3, Digital.Object.identifier: 10.1109/ICMLC.2011.6016883, Page(s): 1156 – 1161, Publication Year: 2011  K. Suwanratchatamanee, M. Matsumoto, and S. Hashimoto, “Haptic sensing foot system for humanoid robot and ground recognition with one leg balance, studied the relationship between the CoP and the stability of the robot.” IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics vol. no. 8, pp. 3174–3186.year:2011  Iwasaki, T, Venture. G., Yoshida., E. “Identification of the inertial parameters of a humanoid robot using grounded sole link” International conference, digital object identifier: 10.1109/HUMANOIDS.2012.6651558, Page(s): 449 – 454, Publication Year: 2012  X. J. Zhao, O. Huang, Z. Peng, and K. Li, “Kinematics mapping and sim- ilarity evaluation of humanoid motion based on human motion capture,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Intell. Robot. Syst., 2012, vol. 1, pp. 840–845.  K. Erbatur, A. Okazaki, K. Obiya, T. Takahashi, and A. Kawamura, “A study on the zero moment point measurement
The Smart incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of substances contained in waste materials. Since the natural degradation of plastic is impossible, the possible way of disposing the plastic waste is through 3R method, but the 3R method has its limitations. An alternate way of disposing plastic waste is by incineration. This paper deals with the implementation of an incinerator which extracts the carbon produced from burning plastic and converts it into “carbon black”. The input to Smart Incinerator is Plastic Waste. Burning of Plastic Wastes in Smart Incinerator produces Flue Gases- Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, etc., and ash. A Standalone web server with an ESP8266 displays the temperature with a DS18B20 temperature sensor .There are similar devices implemented in many industries but they don’t provide any proper filtration of smoke which is produced as a part of combustion.
Keywords : Smart Incinerator, IoT, Waste Management
 E Ramya,Dr. R.Sasikumar,”A survey on smart waste environment conservation and protection for waste management”,2017.  Mayan Chavan,T R Pattanshetti,”Survey on municipality waste in smart city”, International research journal for engineering and technology, Volume 05;issue 01,Jan 2018.  JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2003, Etch Rates for Micromachining Processing—Part II, Kirt R. Williams, Senior Member, IEEE, Kishan Gupta, Student Member, IEEE, and Matthew Wasilik.  Rao, K. Samba Siva, et al. "lot Based Intelligent Sanitary Napkin Disposer." Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences11.10 (2017): 32-41.  Umemoto, Hiroshi, et al. "Electrostatic precipitators for cleaning diesel exhaust." Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2008. IAS'08. IEEE. IEEE, 2008.
Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. As it poses a serious global health problem, the project proposes to develop a device to detect malaria parasite accurately with the hope of reducing death rate due to malaria. In this device, a digital microscope camera is used to obtain color images from giemsa stained blood films. Digital image processing techniques are applied to these images to detect malarial parasites. Processing of the image is done on a Raspberry pi platform. The aim of the project is to create a fully portable and automated device that can be used with minimum training to detect malarial infection with a high degree of accuracy. The proposed malaria diagnostic device will be helpful when lab technicians who are trained in microscopic analysis of blood samples are not available. It will also limit human error in the detection of the presence of parasites in the blood sample. Automated diagnostic techniques can also notably decrease the time needed for diagnosis of the disease. This device will result in early onset of treatment saving many lives.
Keywords : Malaria, Raspberry Pi, Digital Image Processing
 Recommended selection criteria for procurement of malaria rapid diagnostic tests – Global Malaria Programme – WHO/CDS/GMP/2018.01  Malaria microscopy quality assurance manual – Ver. 2 Jan 2016, WHO, ISBN: 978 92 4 154939 4  Frean J,(2010) “Microscopic determination of malaria parasite load: role of image analysis”.Micrsocopy: Science, Technology, Applications, and Education 862-866.  Kishor Roy, Shayla Sharmin, Rahma Bintey Mufiz Mukta, Anik Sen , “Detection of malaria parasite in giemsa blood sample using image processing”.  https://data.broadinstitute.org/bbbc/BBBC041/
This paper presents smart charging of vehicle batteries using the microwave technology, the main objective is to increase the overall battery charging efficiency using microwave technology of a magnetron. This method helps in increasing the systems charging efficiency to 80% compared to the conventional plug in chargers, Also the problem with the charging ports can be resolved using this wireless technology. Another add on advantage in this technology is that it requires less amount of time for charging. The system consists of a transmitting system and a receiving system. The main component used are magnetron, rectenna, dc controller, metering device.
Keywords : Magnetron, Efficiency, Wireless Charging
 Md. Sazzad Hossain, Amit Barua “Charging of electric vehicle via microwave energy transmission and analysis of advanced energy storage system” Rajshahi University of engineering & technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh (2013)  Naoki Shinohara, Yuta Kubo, Hiroshi Tonomura “Wireless Charging for Electric Vehicle with Microwaves “Research institute of sustainable Humanosphere Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan 2013  Suh NP, Cho DH, Rim CT“Design of On-Line Electric Vehicle (OLEV)” Plenary Presentation, CIRP Design Conference, Nantes, France,2010
This paper is on GPS Image Processing Based Smart Walking Stick. The main objective is to provide more mobility and independency to blind people. Main components used are ultra-sonic proximity sensors, Image Processor. Presently the blind use their stick to identify the obstacles and seek help from others when moving from one place to another. In the proposed system the stick will use ultrasonic proximity sensors sense the obstacles on their way. It also include small wheels at the end of the stick which will use image processing to guide the person from one place to another. The processing is done with the aid of rasberypy and arduino board. The system will revolutionise the lives of the blind people.
Keywords : Processor, Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor, Arduino
 D.Sathya,S.Nithyaroopa,P.Betty,G.Santhoshni,S.Sab harinath,M.J.Ahanaa,2018, “SMART WALKING STICK FOR BLIND PERSON”2018 International Journal of Pure and Applied  Mathematics.  Shashank Chaurasia and K.V.N. Kavitha, 2014, “AN ELECTRONIC WALKING STICK FOR BLINDS” 2014 International Conference on Information Communication & Embedded Systems ICICES.  Dada Emmanuel Gbenga, Arhyel Ibrahim Shani, Adebimpe Lateef Adekunle,2016, “SMART WALKING STICK FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE USING ULTRASONIC SENSORS AND ARDUINO” 2016 Dada Emmanuel International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET).  R Dhanuja, F Farhana, 2018, “SMART BLIND STICK USING ARDUINO” 2018 International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET).
This paper presents a small trolley system which provide fast purchase and great convenience to customers. The main objectives are to eliminate human labor to push trolley and to reduce the time of the queue in supermarket. Sensor technology, rfid, image processing is used in several areas. In this paper sensor technology is used to guidance the trolley system. This system can automatically follows the customer from rack to rack for collecting items and it maintains a safe distance between customer and itself. There is also a QR scanner facility to read the QR code of the product which the customer is taking and shows the price details and other details of the system. This design will reduce the efforts and time consumption of the user.
Keywords : Ultrasonic Sensor, RFID, QR Code, Raspberry Pi
 Smart Trolley in Mega Mall International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012) .S.Awati, S.B.Awati  “Automated Shopping Trolley for Super Market Billing System “ International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) International Conference on Communication, Computing and Information Technology (ICCCMIT-2014) S.Sainath, K. Surender, V. Vikram Arvind  “Automatic Shopping Trolley using Sensors” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) Mr. Shrideep S. Anchan and Mr. Karthik Kamath  “Automated Trolley for Shopping “International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering Vol. 5,Issue 6, June 2017 274 UGC Approved Journal Rajesh Nayak, Ravi S Raikar,Vishwas Student, E&C, SMVITM, Bantakal, Udupi, India
This paper present solar regenerated desiccant dehumidifier which is energy efficient. The main objective is to reduce the load of air conditioner in humid area and to reduce electricity bills. Desiccant is a substance that absorbs moisture. Here we are using a solar regenerated desiccant as a dehumidifier. The desiccant used here is silica gel. The air from the room is passed through the silica gel using blowers. The silica gel will adsorb the moisture from the air up to the required level. Sensors used to measure the pressure, temperature, humidity are equipped before and after the desiccant. According to the required level the moisture is absorbed. The remaining hot air is then passed through a cooler which will cool the air up to the requirements. The air is then blown in to the room. A solar air heater is used to dry the desiccant. The hot air from the heater is passed or circulate through the desiccant which will in turn dry out the desiccant. The hot air will then blowed outside the room. The main advantage of this system is that we are using solar aided dehumidifier, so apart from the capital cost all other costs are minimum. Solar is renewable energy resource.
Keywords : Adsorption, Silica Gel, Water Vapor
 IEEE paper on utilizing solar energy for room air-conditioning system. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/do cument/7079076/  Qiong Wu , Wenjian Cai, Suping Shen, Haoren Yon – Dynamic Analysis of an Energy Efficiency Dehumidifier for Building Applications IEEE 2017Dong La, Yanjun Dai, Yong Li, Tianshu Ge, Ruzhu Wang, "Study on a novel thermally driven air conditioning system with desiccant dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling", Building and Environment 2010; 45: 2473-2484  Ryuichiro Yoshie, Yoshihisa Momoi, Akira Satake, Hiroshi Yoshino, Akashi Mochida and Teruaki Mitamura - Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Desiccant Wheel for Dehumidification  Fouda A., Nada S.A., Elattar H.F., "An integrated A/C and HDH water desalination system assisted by solar energy: Transient analysis and economical study", Applied Thermal Engineering 2016; 108:1320–1335.  Elzahzby Ali M., Kabeel A.E., Bassuoni M.M., Mohamed Abdelgaied, "A mathematical model for predicting the performance of the solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system, with one-rotor six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system", Energy Conversion and Management 2014; 77: 129–142
This paper presents a motorized hospital stretcher with omnidirectional mobility using pressure sensors for efficient patient transportation. The main objectives are to reduce the manpower during patient transportation and work related injuries. Thus man power and time can be saved. Pressure sensing technology are used for controlling the direction and movement of the stretcher. The stretcher can also detect the obstacles on their way using ultrasonic sensors. Implementation of this design is highly efficient compared to conventional system of patient transfer since this system provides omni-directional mobility and patient loaded stretcher can be easily moved with low manpower. Micro controller is used for programming and the conversion pressure of signals. Logic Signals are produced according to pressure variations. Thus the perfect design is implemented.
Keywords : Pressure Sensor, Omni-Directional Mobility, Micro Controller, Logic Signals
 Zhao.Guo, Xiaohui.Xiao, and Haoyong.Yu “Design and Evaluation of a Motorized Robotic Bed Mover with Omni-directional mobility for Patient Transportation”, IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics. Year-2018, article in press  Zhao Guo, Haoyong.Yu “Development of a novel robotic omni-directional hospital bed mover for patient transfer”, IEEE workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts; Year-2016; pages: 37-42  Z. Guo, R. B. Yee, K.-R. Mun, H. Yu. “Experimental evaluation of a novel robotic hospital bed mover with omni-directional mobility,” Applied Ergonomics, Vol. 65, pp.389-397, year-2017  G. U. Sorrento, P. S. Archambault, F. Routhier, D. Dessureault, and P. Boiss “Assessment of joystick control during the performance of powered wheelchair driving tasks” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil., vol. 8, no. 31, pp. 1-11, 2011.
Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a process in which speech signal is converted into a sequence of words, other linguistic units by making use of an algorithm which is implemented as a computer program. The speech recognition system would support many valuable applications that require human interaction with machine. The major objective with which ASR works is the development of the techniques and a system that enables the computers to recognize speech as input. Most precisely speech recognition means phoneme recognition. Good phonetic decoding leads to good word decoding, and the ability to recognize the English phones accurately will undoubtedly provide the basis for an accurate word recognizer. In this work, a detailed survey on a classification technique called support vector machine (SVM) is carried out. Linear SVM are mainly used where linear separation between two classes is possible and in nonlinear SVM’s kernel functions are used for conversion purpose. Among two types of SVM classifier soft margin SVM is used to improve the performance when error occurs and least square SVM is used for large scale classification.
Keywords : Phoneme Recognition, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC), Support Vector Machine (SVM)
 Eray, Osman, Sezai Tokat, and Serdar Iplikci. "An application of speech recognition with support vector machines." 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). IEEE, 2018.  Aida-zade, Kamil, Anar Xocayev, and Samir Rustamov. "Speech recognition using support vector machines." 2016 IEEE 10th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT). IEEE, 2016.  Chen, JinBiao, and Shiqing Zhang. "Manifold learning-based phoneme recognition." 2009 International Conference on Image Analysis and Signal Processing. IEEE, 2009.  TombaloĞlu, Burak, and Hamit Erdem. "A SVM based speech to text converter for Turkish language." 2017 25th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). IEEE, 2017.  Sonkamble, Balwant A., and D. D. Doye. "An overview of speech recognition system based on the support vector machines." 2008 International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering. IEEE, 2008.  Fletcher, Tristan. "Support vector machines explained." Tutorial paper (2009).  Suykens, Johan AK, and Joos Vandewalle. "Least squares support vector machine classifiers." Neural processing letters9.3 (1999): 293-300.  Theodoridis, Sergios, and Konstantinos Koutroumbas. "Pattern recognition and neural networks." Advanced Course on Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1999.  Solera-Urena, Rubén, et al. "Real-time robust automatic speech recognition using compact support vector machines." IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 20.4 (2012): 1347-1361.  Cui, Jianguo, et al. "The application of support vector machine in pattern recognition." 2007 IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation. IEEE, 2007.  Salomon, Jesper. "Support vector machines for phoneme classification." Master of Science, School of Artificial Intelligence, Division of Informatics, University of Edinburgh (2001).  Cutajar, Michelle, et al. "Discrete wavelet transforms with multiclass SVM for phoneme recognition." Eurocon 2013. IEEE, 2013.  Mporas, Iosif, et al. "Recognition of greek phonemes using support vector machines." Hellenic Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
IoT and machine learning technology is growing very rapidly and its implementation has been conducted in several sectors. One of them is for aquaculture. For the traditional farmers, they face problems for monitoring water quality, food feeding and recycling of water. In this paper, we present the application of IoT and machine learning algorithms in aquaculture. The system performs water quality monitoring, automatic food feeding, and water recycling and fish disease detection. Water quality is a critical factor by culturing aquatic organisms. The quality of water is monitored continuously with the help of sensors to ensure growth and survival of aquatic life. The sensed data is transferred to the aqua farmer’s mobile via IoT. Automatic food feeding system supplies a fixed amount of food at regular intervals of time. Water recycling system uses free energy water pump. Studies based on machine learning have been developed for the diagnosis of diseases in fish. As such, the proposed smart system has demonstrated to be a self-sustainable, cost-effective, eco-friendly urban farming that can attract commercial farmers and home gardeners.
Keywords : Machine Learning, Aquaculture, IoT, Fish Disease Detection, Water Recycling
 S. Usha Kiruthika, R. Jaichandran, “IOT based Automation of Fish Farming” Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2017  Abraham, S., Shahbazian, A., Dao, K., Tran, H., & Thompson, P. “An Internet of Things (IoT)-based aquaponics facility”, IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2017  Idowu TA, HA Adedeji and OA Sogbesan, “Fish Disease and Health Management in Aquaculture Production”, International Journal of  Environment & Agricultural Science, 2017  Thu Ya Kyaw, Andrew Keong Ng,”Smart Aquaponics System for Urban Farming”, World Engineers Summit – Applied Energy Symposium & Forum: Low Carbon Cities & Urban Energy Joint Conference, WES-CUE 2017  Manju M, Karthik V, Hariharan S, & Sreekar B,”Real time monitoring of the environmental parameters of an aquaponic system based on Internet of Things” 2017 IEEE, Third International Conference on Science Technology Engineering & Management (ICONSTEM).  Jino Ramson, S.R.Bhavanam, D.Draksharam, S.Kumar, “Sensor Networks based Water Quality Monitoring Systems for Intensive Fish  Culture -A Review”, 4th International Conference on Devices, Circuits and Systems (ICDCS), 2018 IEEE  Ragai H. F, Adly. I, Hossam. E. M, & Wilson S “ Remote control and monitoring of fish farms using wireless sensor networks” 2017 12th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Systems (ICCES).
Automated Localized Information Collecting Entity (ALICE) is an Android application that aids people for their day to day shopping activities. Urban life has turned busy, rush has become a habit, countless goals are to be achieved, multiple chores to be done, every ticking second is precious. In such a scenario it’s very common to forget little things that has to be purchased on the daily go. Hence, we need someone to store that information and remind us of the duty we are left with. ALICE has been born just to turn out as saviour for all those busy people who require a tool to aid purchasing activities. This application not only aids in listing out the products to purchase, but also has a built-in localized search engine that helps to search and identify the shops or places nearby based on users requirement. ALICE specializes in maintaining numerous lists containing shopping items, triggered reminders for each list at its assigned time, navigating through a source and destination, wherein all the listed items are plotted on the way itself. It also displays offers for the items on your list, which is provided by nearby shops and vendors.
Keywords : ALICE-Automated localized information collecting entity, FAQ frequently asked Questions, MapQuest, Way points
 Kamal Dharani, Sania Bhatti, Amirita Dewani, Eman Rajput, Areeba Ayaz, ”A Geo-based Technical professional hiring system for repairing and maintenance services”, IcoMET Conference paper 2018.  Keisuke Utsu, Ayami Manaka, Koki Nakafuri ,Osamu Uchida, ” Web Application Prototype for Collecting Disaster related Information Focusing on Tweets Immediately after Retweeting News Posts”, IEEE Transactional paper 2017.  RuiLi Huizhou, Chun Cheng, Mingyao Qi, Weiwei Lai,” Design of Dynamic Vehicle Routing System Based on Online Map Service”, IE 2016.  Shin Matsuo, Wataru Shimoda, Keiji Yanai,” Twitter Photo Geo- Localization Using Both Textual and Visual Features”, IEEE Conference paper 2016.  Arentze, T., Hofman, F., Kalfs, N., and Timmermans, H.” Data needs, data collection and data quality requirements of activity-based transport models”,International Conference on Transport Survey Quality and Innovation (Transport Surveys: Raising the Standard), 24-30 May 1997, Grainau, Germany.
This app is used to store and manage accounts of properties belonging to the respective branches. It makes use of QR code scanning hence we can avoid time consumption due to typing and clerical errors. For using this app, each classes and properties are given a unique QR code. Initially we are defining each department as database and using our app we select a particular department and when we click on add new class, the scanner is activated and it is ready to scan the QR code. After reading the QR code, a table with class id as a table name is created under the database with attributes properties, property id. After adding all rooms to each DB, we can add the properties contained in each room by scanning the QR code provided to all properties. Only the admin has the privileges to add/remove property from a table. Others have only the privilege to view the tables.
Keywords : Barcode Scanning, Aisat Property Management System (APMS)
 “Applications of barcode technology in automated storage and retrieval systems” by T.Sriram ; K. Vishwanatha Rao ; S. Biswas ; B. Ahmed (9-9 Aug. 1996)  ISO/IEC 15420:2000. Information technology - Automatic identification and data capture techniques - Bar code symbology specification - EAN/UPC, 2000.  ISO/IEC 18004:2000. Information technology - Automatic identification and data capture techniques - Bar code symbology - QR Code, 2000.  H. Kurosaka, K. Miyamoto, Y. Nagase, H. Ikegami, K. Sato, and M. Otsubo. Mobile Phone Application LSI Design Using C based Design Methodology. Technical Report 4, NEC Corporation, 4 2003.  J. Matas, L. Soh, and J. Kittler. Object recognition using a tag. In 1997 International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '97) 3-Volume Set-Volume 1, pages 877-880. IEEE, IEEE Computer Society Press, 10 1997.  R. Muniz, L. Junco, and A. Otero. A Robust Software Barcode Reader Using the Hough Transform. In Proc. of 1999 International Conference on Information Intelligence and Systems, pages 313-319. IEEE, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1999.
This paper presents an automatic medication dispenser (prototype) which help to dispense medicine on time to elderly people. The aim is to avoid irregularities in the dosage and the risk of mishandling. Taking medicines incorrectly can have serious consequences like delayed recovery, illness and even cause death of the person. The dispenser is realized using raspberry pi which help to control the functions of the system. When medication time is arrived a dose of medication is released and an audio alarm is generated. If the patient does not take the dose prescribed by the doctor, an SMS is sent to a phone number using GSM system .The system is a real-world prototype with LCD display, keyboard and fingerprint sensing for user friendly interface and low cost requirements.
Keywords : Automatic Medication Dispenser (Prototype), LCD Display, GSM System
 C. Crema, A. Depari, A. Flammini, M. Lavarini, E. Sisinni, A. Vezzoli “A smartphoneenhanced pill-dispenser providing patient identification and in-take recognition” IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society 2012  Wissam Antoun, Ali Abdo and Suleiman AlYaman, Abdallah Kassem, Mustapha Hamad and Chady El-Moucary “Smart Medicine Dispenser (SMD)” 2018 IEEE 4th Middle East Conference on Biomedical Engineering  Sadiparala Charan Kumar Reddy, K.S.P.Sandeep, Obulam Siva Dheeraj Reddy, Aakash Bharadwaj “Enhancing Healthcare using m-Care Box (Monitoring non-Compliance of Medication)” International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications 2017  C. Parcas, I. Ciocan, N. Palaghita and R. Fizean “Weekly Electronic Pills Dispenser with Circular Containers” 2015 IEEE 21" international Symposium/or Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging  Anitha Ilapakurti, Jaya Shankar Vuppalapati, Santosh Kedari, Sharat Kedari, Chitanshu Chauhan “iDispenser - Big Data Enabled Intelligent Dispenser” 2017 IEEE Third International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications  Timothy J. Gale and Clive R. Stack  “Medication dispenser for narcotic rehabilitation patients” Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS 2006  Nurmiza Binti Othman1 and Ong Pek Ek “Pill Dispenser with Alarm via Smart Phone Notification” 2016 IEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics  Huai-Kuei Wu,Chi-Ming Wong, Pang-Hsing Liu, Sheng-Po Pen, Xun-Cong Wang, Chih-Hi Lin and Kuan-Hui Tu “A Smart Pill Box with Remind and Consumption Confirmation Functions” 2015 IEEE 4th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics
Ubiquitous computing is foreseen to play an important role for data production and network connectivity in the coming decades. The Internet of Things (IoT) research which has the capability to encapsulate identification potential and sensing capabilities, strives toward the objective of developing seamless, interoperable, and securely integrated systems which can be achieved by connecting the Internet with computing devices. Energy growth is directly linked to well-being and prosperity across the globe. Meeting the growing demand for energy in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is a key challenge. Increasing cost and demand of energy has led many organizations to find smart ways for monitoring, controlling and saving energy. A smart energy management system can contribute towards cutting the costs while still meeting energy demand. This paper aims to establish an effective IoT based dynamic distributed energy management system. In this paper, we propose an effective energy management system with two sources. This system is having a switching network solar, the main source and the ac power line. As the intensity of solar reduces, it will automatically switches to the other source. And the excess power will be distributed to the public lighting system. These smart IoT devices allow for the usage energy data from each unit to be collected and stored in a Cloud-based database that can be analyzed and reported for energy conservation and analysis.
Keywords : IoT, Dynamic Distributed Energy, Data Production, Network Connectivity
 Pratik Kalkal, Vijay Kumar Garg, “Transition from conventional to modern grid”, 2017 IEEE 4th International conference on signal processing, computing and control.  Michael I. Henderson, Damir Novosel, and Mariesa L. Crow, “Electric Power Grid Modernization Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities”, 2017 IEEE paper.  Ravikumar V. Jadhavl , Sandip S. Lokhande2 and Vijay N. Gohokar3, “Energy management system in smart grid using Internet of Things”, 2016 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems.  Indrajeet Prasad “Smart Grid Technology: Application and Control”, 2014 International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering  Prof. Dr. Mohamed Zahran, “Smart Grid Technology, Vision, Management and Control”, 2013 Electronics Research Institute, Photovoltaic Cells Dept.  J. O. Petinrin, Mohamed Shaaban , “Smart power grid: Technologies and applications”, 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon)
Transmission lines are the important factor of the power system. Transmission and distribution lines has good contribution in the generating unit and consumers to obtain the continuity of electric supply. Now a day in the transmission lines are ON/OFF are the major and important part in the power system. And also maintenance of the transmission line is also important part in transmission line. In the earlier system for the fault like overloading of the transmission line AB switches are used. The main disadvantage of old AB switch, is they can only operate manually. It requires man power and it has less reliability so, we are introducing automatic AB switch for the protection of overhead line against overload fault it is operated by PLC system. This AB switch can have operated remotely and no man power required on the fault location. It is more reliable and efficient than the old AB switches. The electric power system and advance devices has become a very complicated system because of re-structuring and the penetration of distributed generation and storage. In this system the automation link is made possible between the detection and the solution of problem in minimum amount of time.
Keywords : Power Line Communication, Fault Analysis, Alarm Indication
 Alarm transmission for distributed energy resources over power line communication, Christoph Becker, Germany, IEEE 2012  Power Line Communication, Andrew Marshall, IEEE 1992  Bill Evjen, Scott Hanselman, Farhan Muhammad, Srinivasasivakumar, Devin Rader Programming in Embedded C 2nd Edition JOHN Wiley & Sons 2000  Abhishek B. Sharma, Haifeng Chen, Min Ding, Kenji Yoshihira “Detection and Localization in Distributed Systems using Invariant Relationships” 2013 IEEE.  E. Kallauer “Detection of High Impedance Faults Power Technologies” EPRI Final Report EL-2413 June 1982 Inc.  Prof. M. S. Sujatha and Dr. M Vijay Kumar “On-line Monitoring and Analysis of Fault in Transmission and Distribution Line Using GSM Technique” 30th November 2011 IEEE. Vol. 33 No.2  “Upper Bounding Fault Coverage by Structural Analysis and Signal Monitoring” Soumitra Bose and Vijay Gangaram Auburn University, 2006 IEEE.
The proposed system is aimed at managing all the buses of a college through an Android Application. The Application will allow all the faculty and students of a college to monitor where exactly each college bus is at any point of time. It makes use of a GPS module that must be placed inside each bus which will help us find the location of each bus and the data is retrieved in an Android App which will make use of Google Maps to track the movement of each bus. This app will help students and teachers to reach the bus stop at the right time or look for another alternative if the bus has already left or even check if there is any other bus going through the same route. This application will prove to be a great help for college students. Every Student shall login to the application by using the college Registration number. After logging in we can easily identify where exactly each bus of the college is travelling at that point of time.
Keywords : GPS, Tracking, Node MCU, Neo7m
 Design and Development of Android Mobile based Bus Tracking System. Authors: K Sujatha, KJ Sruthi, IEEE 2014  Location tracking in GPS using Kalman filter through SMS. Authors: Mania Anu V  Design and implementation of an accurate real time GPS tracking system. Authors: Hind Abdalsalam Dafallah, IEEE 2014  An RFID Based System for Bus Location Tracking and Display. Authors: Mohammad Zababy, Prawesh Gaonjur
Aquaculture is the farming of fish. Aquaponics is a system that mutually integrates aquaculture and hydroponics. It is an emerging technology that supports integrated aquaculture and vegetable production. In this, the feed required for 1 kg of fish is 4 kg. The main drawback in this technology is accumulation of ammonia, high fish feed, weekly water maintenance which in turn resulting in diseases to aquaculture and resulting in less effective processing. Biofloc (BFT) is a modern technique for rearing aquaculture only. This method is adopted in outdoor ponds. This technology contains natural photoautotrophic algae, carbon and carbohydrate source along with single celled microorganism which convert feces in fish pond to fish feed. Thus the feed required for 1 kg of fish is 1.2 kg, which is less than the above technology. Hence by considering the advantages of both technologies, we are adopting a new setup by combining the above two technologies resulting in Zero Waste Management. The combination of biofloc and aquaponics gives a new insight in to increasing the efficiency of food production which respects the sustainable agriculture.
Keywords : Aquaponics, Biofloc, Physico-Chemical Parameters, Zero Waste Management
 Thomas Groenveld, Yair Y Kohn, Amit Gross , Naftali Lazarovitch, “ Optimization of Nitrogen Use Efficiency By Means of Fertigation Management in an Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture System” , Journal of cleaner production , Vol.212, 2019, pp 401-408.  Stephen Goddard, Fatma Saif Al-Abri, “Integrated Aquaculture in Arid Environments”, Journal of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, 2019, Vol.1, pp 52-57.  Sara Mello Pinho, Diego Molinari, Giovanni Lemos de Mello, Kevin M Fitzsimmons, “ Effluent from a Biofloc Technology Tilapia Culture on the Aquaponics Production of Different Lettuce Varieties”, Journal of Ecological Engineering, 2017,Vol.103, pp 146-153.  Bartholomew W Green, Kevin K Schrader, Matthew Mc, “Effects of Solids Removal on Water Quality and Channel Catfish Production in a Biofloc Technology Production System”, Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 2019, Vol.1, pp 1-16.  Alison Alves de Sousa, Sara Mello Pinho, Artur Nishioka Rombenso, Giovanni Lemos de Mello, “Pizzeria by Product: A Complementary Feed Source for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Raised in Biofloc Technology”, Journal of Aquaculture, 2019, Vol.501, pp 359-367.  Janaina Souza, Alessandro Cardozo, Wilson Wasielesky Jr, Paulo Cesar Abreu, “ The Biofloc Size Matter to the Nitrification Process in Biofloc Technology Systems”, Jounal of Aquaculture, 2019 ,Vol.500, pp 443-450.  Panigrahi G.K., Sasmita Panda and Surendra Nath Padhi, “Aquaponics: An innovative approach of symbiotic farming”, International Journal of Bioassays 5.9, 2016, pp 4808-4814.  David C Love, Jillian P Fry, Ximin Li, Elizabeth S Hill, Laura Genello, Ken Semmens, Richard E, “Commercial Aquaponics Production and Profitability: Findings from an International Survey”, Journal of Aquaculture,2015,Vol.435,pp 67-74.  James E Rakocy, Michael P Masser, Thomas M Losordo, “Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Aquaponics Integrating Fish and Plant Culture”, SRAC Publication, 2006, Vol.1, pp 16.  Guidance note of FSSAI,“Issue of Formalin in Fish”, January 2018, pp 1-5.  John A. Hargreaves, “Biofloc Production Systems for Aquaculture”, SRAC Publication No.4503, April 2013, pp 1-11. .  Lovisa Granberg, “Biofloc Technology,” SLU, Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management, 2016, pp 1-18.
The emerging wireless communication networks provides many opportunities for photonics technologies to play in the realization of the next generation integrated optical/wireless networks. Millimeter wave Radio over fiber (MMw-ROF) systems has the advantages of a fiber optic link and a free space radio path. The optical network technology, which is considered as the backbone of virtually all communication networks, has evolved concurrently to the wireless networks to achieve the demands of the future generation. The emerging technology such as Radio-Over-Fiber (ROF) is one of the latest advancements in the area of optical networks and has a tremendous potential. The introduction of ROF into mobile front hauling networks divides the front haul to wireless and wired networks. ROF technology is capable of directly converting an optical signal to extremely frequency signal range by utilizing a photonic direct up-conversion scheme. Millimeter wave technology integrated with a ROF system is one of the promising technologies that could deliver high-speed radio transmission with seamless convergence between optical and radio signals. The photonic generation of the MMwave signal from ROF link is essentially considered to be a vital process that helps to keep the remote cells simple, cost-effective as well as energy efficient. This technology also guarantees a low-latency transmission for the wireless MM wave signals, thus could provide a satisfactory solution with excellent flexibility for a mobile broadband access network. Therefore, the integration of fiber and MM wave links could have a huge potential in optical network technology owing to its.
Keywords : Radio-over-Fiber, MMW-RoF, Optical, Millimeter-Wave, Fiber Bragg Grating, Frequency Quadrupling, Mach Zehnder Modulator
 Joseph, A. and Prince, S., 2014, April. Performance analysis and optimization of radio over fiber link. In 2014 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (pp. 1599-1604). IEEE.  Zin, A.M., Bongsu, M.S., Idrus, S.M. and Zulkifli, N., 2010, July. An overview of radio-over-fiber network technology. In International Conference on Photonics 2010 (pp. 1-3). IEEE.  Beas, J., Castanon, G., Aldaya, I., Aragón-Zavala, A. and Campuzano, G., 2013. Millimeter-wave frequency radio over fiber systems: a survey. IEEE Communications surveys & tutorials, 15(4), pp.1593-1619.  Kim, J., Yun, S., Jeon, S.H., Park, A.S. and Choi, J.K., 2014, September. Energy-efficient user relaying scheme in metropolitan mmWave mobile broadband system. In 2014 IEEE 25th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communication (PIMRC) (pp. 1305-1309). IEEE.  Wu, D., Wang, J., Cai, Y. and Guizani, M., 2015. Millimeter-wave multimedia communications: challenges, methodology, and applications. IEEE communications Magazine, 53(1), pp.232-238.  Al-Dabbagh, R.K. and Al-Raweshidy, H.S., 2017. 64-GHz millimeter-wave photonic generation with a feasible radio over fiber system. Optical Engineering, 56(2), p.026117.  Nguyen, H., 2018. A novel 22 Gbit/s 64 QAM direct-detection OFDM ROF system employing cost-effective optical filter FBG to generate optical mm-wave. Journal of Optics, 47(2), pp.229-234.  Yang, T., Gao, M. and Qian, J., 2016, June. A simple scheme to generate two millimeter-wave signals for radio-over-fiber systems. In 2016 8th IEEE International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN) (pp. 478-482). IEEE.  Chaudhary, S., Thakur, D. and Sharma, A., 2017. 10 Gbps-60 GHz RoF transmission system for 5 G applications. Journal of Optical Communications.