The Smart City mission in India was implemented with the view to improve and optimize the city functions utilizing smart technologies. Stormwater drainage is an important aspect for proper functioning of the city. In case of its inadequacy, the city has to contend with major economic loss, environmental impact and sometimes loss of life too. The major criteria of a smart city being usage of smart technologies, it is essential to integrate various software and systems available with the Stormwater drainage infrastructure too. Studies carried out by past researchers, mostly conducted for towns or cities of Gujarat, incorporating such smart resources have been studied and presented in this paper.
Keywords : Stormwater, Drainage, Smart City, Dahod
 Abid Ali Khan, Mahmood Ahmad, 2014, “Integration of Stormwater Drains with Lakes: Expectations and Reality – A Case of Raipur, India”, HYCR, an open access journal, ISSN: 2157-7587, Hydrol Current Res Volume 5, Issue 2, 1000166.  Ajay Gamit, P. P. Lodha , Indra Prakash, Khalid Mehmood, 2017, “Storm Water Management Using Remote Sensing and Gis- A Case Study of Surat City”, Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, ISSN-2349-5162, Volume 4, Issue 05.  Darshan Mali, Dipesh Agrawal, Paresh Parmar, 2017, “Estimation of Storm Runoff Quantity Using Rational Method and SWMM”, International Journal of Recent Advances in Engineering & Technology, ISSN: 2347 - 2812, Volume-5, Issue -2.  Dave Maitry, Dr. Gargi Rajpara, N. R. Chaudhary, M. D. Patel, 2016, “Design of Storm Water Network for Nagala Village, Tharad Taluka, Banaskantha”, International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science & Technology, ISSN: 2393-9877, Volume 3, Issue 2.  Harshil H. Gajjar, Dr. M.B.Dholakia, 2014, “Storm Water Network Design of Jodhpur Tekra Area of City of Ahmedabad”, International Journal of Engineering Development and Research, ISSN: 2321-9939, Volume 2, Issue 1.  Kamini Hasmukhbhai Patel, Bhasker Vijaykumar Bhatt, 2017, “Analysis of Two existing Stormwater Drainage Lines of Surat in West Zone using Bentley StormCAD”, Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR), ISSN-2349-5162, Volume 4, Issue 05.  K. Pavan Kumar, Dilip Kumar Barik and Ch. Manideep, 2015, “A Comparative Study of Storm Water Drainage Methods for Urban Storm Water Management”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, ISSN (Online): 0974-5645, Vol 8(33).  Neil Armitage, “The removal of urban solid waste from stormwater drains”, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa.  R. Kellagher1 and H. Udale-Clarke, 2008, “Sustainability Criteria for the Design of Stormwater Drainage Systems for the 21st Century”, 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008.  Sanjay B. Parmar, Prof. Vikash D. Bhavsar, 2017, “Stormwater Management a Case Study of Gandhinagar City”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), ISSN: 2395-0056, Volume: 04 Issue: 12.  S. K. Raval, 2018, “Storm Water Drainage Solutions for Urban Area”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN (Online): 2319-8753, Vol. 7, Issue 4.  Snehal N Baleva, Prof. Kinnari R. Mishra, 2016, “Overview of Storm Water Network of East Zone of Ahmedabad City”, International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development, ISSN (O): 2348-4470, Volume 3, Issue 2.
Owning a house is a dream that every person. The government doing efforts to ensure Indians have access to affordable houses. Affordable housing for all people is one of the important challenges faced by the developing countries. India is currently facing a big shortage houses. Out Of which, 95% shortage pertains to houses for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and for Lower-Income Groups (LIG).The dream of ownership of a house particularly for low-income group and middle-income group has became a difficult reality. so, there is a necessary to initiate cost effective, innovative and environment-friendly, high quality performance housing technologies for the construction of houses to enable the common people to own houses at affordable cost. This paper shows review of application of value engineering affordable housing ecosystem gaps to achieve housing for all.
Keywords : Affordable Housing, Value Engineering, Cost Effectiveness, Quality Improvement, Construction, India
 Darshan Parakhiya, Prof. Jitendra Patel “Application of Value Engineering in Construction Project: Case Study on Residential Project in Ahmedabad” IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 5, Issue 02, 2017 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613  Low cost urban housing in india and habitat for humanity 2017 Report  Manjesh Srivastava,Vikas Kumar “The Methods Of Using Low Cost Housing Techniques In India” 2017 (Journal of Building Engineering) 15 (2018) 102–108  National Workshop on Urban Transformation - Learnings & Way forward Report  Racha Rachwan, Ibrahim Abotaleb “The Influence Of Value Engineering And Sustainability Considerations On The Project Value” Procedia Environmental Sciences 34 ( 2016 ) 431 – 438 (2016)  Vivian W. Y. Tam “Cost Effectiveness Of Using Low Cost Housing Technologies In Construction” Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 156–160  Zarina Isnin, Rohaslinda Ramli “Sustainable Issues In Low Cost Housing Alteration Projects” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 36 ( 2012 ) 393 – 401 Book  Value Engineering Study, US ARMY Corps of Engineers
India is a 2nd most populous country in the world with more than 1.35 billion residents. Due to the rise in demographic trend in the population, there will be more demand in infrastructure especially social infrastructure. Analysis of accessibility of social infrastructure provision is useful for long term planning. This paper clarifies the relationship between the work can be done and previous work conducted on planning for social infrastructure facilities. The overview of measures to evaluate the provision of these facilities and methods to improve the social infrastructure provision is also reviews. Also describes an extensive literature study based on planning of social infrastructure through accessibility and how GIS techniques can be used for it.
Keywords : Social Infrastructure, Accessibility, Spatial Planning, Geographic Information System
 Adnan Diwan. (2009). Planning for Social Infrastructure through Accessibility for the City of Surat. cept Thesis.  Bhasker. V. Bhatt; Kevin Kapadia; Dr S. K. Dave. (2018). Dahej PCPIR – Opportunity Analysis for Social Infrastructure. Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering, (November), 20–28.  Charlington Leo. (2017). Current and Future Hospital Locations in Vanuatu: A GIS Contribution within Vanuatu Health Policy. Retrieved from https://sigarra.up.pt/fbaup/pt/pub_geral.pub_view?pi_pub_base_id=232661  Debra Revere; Anne M. Turner; Ann Madhavan; Neil Rambo. (2007). Understanding the Information Needs of Public Health Practitioners. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 2–3.  Dilip V. Mavalankar; K V Ramani; Amit Patel; Parvathy Sankar; (2010). Building the Infrastructure to Reach and Care for Poor: Trends, Obstacles and Strategies to overcome them. Ahmedabad.  Faisal Talib; Zillur Rahman; (2013). Current Health of Indian Healthcare and Hospitality Industries: A Demographic Study. International Journal of Business Research and Development, 2(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.24102/ijbrd.v2i1.242  Ilhamdaniah; Talat MunshiI; Sherif Amer; (2014). Evaluating the Planning of Social Infrastructures in Ahmedabad, India, 1–11.  Ilhamdaniah. (2005). The planning for social infrastructure provision casestudy: Ahmedabad, India. International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation Enschede.  Prof. Darshini Mahadevia; Dr. Talat Munshi; Mr. Rutul Joshi. (2014). A Methodology for Local Accessibility Planning in Indian Cities. Ahmedabad. Retrieved from https://cept.ac.in/UserFiles/File/CUE/Research Reports/A Methodology for Local Accessibility Planning in Indian Cities_Mahadevia et al.pdf  R K Patel; N B Rokad; B V Bhatt. (2018). Health Sector Opportunities, Planning and Prioritization in Surat.  Urban and Regional Development Plans Formulation and Implementation Guideline. (n.d.).  Wai, S. H., Yusof, A. M., Ismail, S., & Ng, C. A. (2013). Exploring success factors of social infrastructure projects in Malaysia. International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 5(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5772/55659
India’s Population is increases day by day and for that different land use practices and transportation facilities provided by government but rather than only focus on improving transport service or improving land use practice individually if we combine both transport and land use in such a way that public tends to use public transportation and walking, cycling as a primary mode of transport than this planning concept is known as “Transit Oriented Development”. TOD planning is done by everyone but measuring of existing TOD in quantitative form didn’t done by everyone which is most important aspect for successful implementation of TOD. TOD Index is a Quantitative form of measurement of existing level of TOD. More importantly, measurement of TOD is essential for TOD planning. For Finding TOD Index here literature review is done and various criteria and indicators were found out which give efficient TOD Index of the area.
Keywords : TOD, TOD Index, Criteria, Indicators, Land Use Density, Land use Diversity, Economic Development, Walkable and Cycle Able Distance
 Herika Taki, Mohamed Maatouk, Emad Qurnfulah (2018) Re-Assessing TOD index in Jakarta Metropolitan Region in Journal of Applied Geospatial Information  Sat Pal (2018), Measuring Transit Oriented Development (TOD) of Existing Urban Areas around Metro Stations in Faridabad City in International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability  Subekti Sulistyaningrum, Jachrizal Sumabrata (2018), Transit Oriented Development Index at the current transit nodes in Depok City, Indonesia in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science  TOD Guidance Document on TOD developed for Indian cities by Ministry of Urban Development under the Sustainable Urban Transport Project  Yamini Singh, Zuidgeest, Flacke, van Maarseveen (2012), A design framework for measuring transit oriented development in WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Vol 28  Yamini J. Singh, Pengwei He, Johannes Flacke, Martin van Maarseveen (2014), Measuring Transit Oriented Development (TOD) over a Region using an Index  Yamini Jain Singh, Pedram Fard, Mark Zuidgeest, Mark Brussel, Martin van Maarseveen (2014), measuring transit oriented development: a spatial multi criteria assessment approach for the City Region Arnhem and Nijmegen
For numerous years, economic indicators such as the gross national product and customer price index have been the improves the quality of life in social, economic, environment, health, political, education and infrastructural sense. It was also generally said that if a big industrial complex is recognized anywhere, it will lead to a marked change in the nearby area in terms of general changes in development and implement in employment opportunities, income generation and consequently in the quality of life of people. But unluckily small towns have not attracted industries or people and have not served as counter magnets to the growth of big cities; as such there is decline in the quality of life of dwellers of big cities due to this very reason. Also, the current patterns of the urban development are based on the ideas imported from western countries and they use systems that are highly capital and natural resources intensives. Capital intensity divided the urban population in to urban rich and urban poor while the resource intensity destroys the rural hinterland. The end result is that while there is an effluent class with a very high quality of life, the majority of urban dwellers face a very poor environment quality. The urban population in India has increased significantly from 62 million in 1951 to 285 million in 2001 and is estimated to grow to around 540 million by the year 2021.it would be touching 37% of the total population next 15 years. India’s urban population has growth rate nearly 41% in last decade. This directly affects the quality of urban life. In this study, an attempt has been made to find factors affecting QOL Index from the various study.
Keywords : Education, Environment, Health, Infrastructure, Quality of Life, Urban Development
 Edward kironji, (2015), measuring quality of life in South Africa: household -based development index approach, university of pretoria.  DNA Quality of Life Report (2018), www.dna.com  Edward kironji, (2015), measuring quality of life in South Africa: household -based development index approach, university of pretoria.  Fahraji Azad,Maryam karimiyan Bostani, Mahmod Reza Anvari, (2015), IOSR, Vol. 05, Issue 07 (July. 2015), ||V4|| PP 31-36  Mercer, Quality of life Report (2018), www.mercer.com  Numbeo, Quality of Life Report (2018), www.numbeo.com  Partha Dasgupta, (2000), Valuation and Evaluation: Measuring the Quality of Life and Evaluating Policy, Spring 2000. Discussion Paper 00–24  S. Puskorius, (2015), The Methodology of Calculation the Quality of Life Index, International Journal of Information and Education Tech Vol. 5, No. 2, Feb 2015
The seismic response of shear type multi storey building isolated with variable friction pendulum system (VFPS) is investigated under horizontal component of near fault ground motion motions and artificial accelarogram. The VFPS, an advanced sliding type isolator, is proposed as an alternative for FPS. The governing equation of motion of building isolated with VFPS are derived and solved in the incremental form by using Newmark’s (step-by-step) Beta method assuming linear variation of acceleration of the VFPS over small time interval, as the force-deformation behaviour of the VFPS is non-linear. To verify the effectiveness of VFPS, seismic performance of friction pendulum system (FPS) is compared with the same building isolated by FPS.
Keywords : Base Isolation, Variable Friction Pendulum System, Near Fault Ground Motions, Friction Pendulum System, and Friction Coefficient
 Calvi P.M. and Ruggiero D.  “Numerical Modeling of Variable Friction Base Isolators”, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(2), 549568.  Calvi P.M. et al ,”Seismic isolation devices based on sliding between surfaces with variable friction coefficient”, Earthquake Spectra 2016; 32(4):2291–315.  Calvi P.M. and Calvi G.M.  “Historical development of friction-based seismic isolation systems,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 106, 14-30.  Murnal P. and Sinha R.  “VFPI: an isolation device for a seismic design”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 29, 603-627.  Panchal V.R. and Jangid R.S.  “Variable friction pendulum system for near-fault ground motions,” Structural Control Health Monitoring 15(4), 568584.1545-2263.  Timsina S. and Calvi P.M. ,“Damping properties of variable friction base isolation systems.” 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, June 18–21 2018, Thessaloniki Greece.
Earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. After 26th January 2001, Gujarat Earthquake and other earthquakes in India, there is a nation-wide attention to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings. The buildings with soft storey are very susceptible under earthquake load which create disasters. Due to uses of vehicles and their movements at ground levels infill walls are generally avoided in parking plot, which creates soft storey effect. For proper assessment of the storey stiffness of buildings with soft storey, different models were analyzed using software.
Keywords : Seismic Analysis, Soft Ground Storey, Storey Drift
 Wakchaure MR, Ped SP. Earthquake Analysis of High Rise Building with and Without In filled Walls. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology. 2012; volume 2; 89-94.  Prakashvel J, UmaRani C, Muthumani K, Gopalakrishnan N. Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Open Ground Storey. Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science. 2012; Volume 2; 91-101.  IS 456:2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete- Code of Practice; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India  IS 1893 (Part IV): 2005, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India  IS 13920: 1993, Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India  Jaswant NA, Sudhir KJ, Murty CVR. Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur. Seismic Response of R.C. Framed Buildings with Soft First Stories. Proceedings of the CBRI Golden Jubilee Conference on Natural Hazards in Urban Habitat, New Delhi, 1997; 13-24.  IS 1893 (Part I): 2002, 6th Edition, Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
The supplementation of shape memory alloy (SMA) to rubber bearing has been propounded to be a greater alternative to the conventional high damping rubber bearings (HDRB) under near-fault earthquakes. A comparison between responses of a building subjected to HDRB without SMA and with SMA is demonstrated for near-fault, far-fault and fling type of ground motions. The present study substantiates the significant reduction in the residual base isolator displacement and base shear of a multi storeyed building when subjected to SMA supplemented HDRB isolator under considered ground motions.
Keywords : Base Isolation, Earthquake, High Damping Rubber Bearings, Shape Memory Alloy
 Anderson TL, Bachman RE, Grant PR (1992) Base isolation response to extreme ground motions. Proceedings of the Tenth World Conference of Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, Spain: 19-24.  Berton S, Infanti S, Castellano MG, Hikosaka H (2007) Self-centering capacity of seismic isolation systems. Structural Control and Health Monitoring: 895–914.  Dezfuli FH, Alam,MS (2013) Shape memory alloy wire based smart natural rubber bearing. Smart Material Structures.  Ghodke S, Jangid RS (2016) Influence of high austenite stiffness of shape memory alloy on the response of base isolated benchmark building. Structural Control and Health Monitoring.  Ghodke S, Jangid RS (2016) Equivalent linear elastic-viscous model of shape memory alloy for isolated structures. Advances in Engineering Software 9:1-8.  Gur S, Mishra SK, Chakraborty S (2014) Performance assessment of buildings isolated by shape memory alloy rubber bearing: Comparison with elastomeric bearing under near-fault earthquakes. Structural Control and Health Monitoring 21:449-465.  Jangid RS, Datta TK (1995) Seismic behaviour of base-isolated buildings: a state-of-the-art review. Structures and Buildings: 186–202.  Jangid RS, Kelly JM (2001) Base isolation for near fault motions. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics: 691–707.  Kalkan E and Kunnath SK (2006) Effects of fling step and forward directivity on seismic response of buildings. Earthquake spectra 22:367-390.  Matsagar VA, Jangid RS (2003) Seismic response of base-isolated structures during impact with adjacent structures. Engineering Structures: 1311–1323.  Ozbulut OE, Hurlebaus S, Desroches R (2011) Seismic response control using shape memory alloys: a review. Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 22:1531-1549.
Investigation of past years shows seismic pounding between successive bridge segment which is usually only of a few centimeters resulting significant structural damage. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using semi-active control systems such as magnetorheological (MR) damper to reduce the impact between the adjacent segments of the highway bridges in severe seismic event. In this study, a highway bridge with five segments is evaluated numerically for semi-active control system by installing MR dampers in between adjacent girders. Fuzzy logic control strategy is used as control algorithm to command MR damper. The structural response parameters such as displacement, acceleration and pounding force are evaluated for controlled and uncontrolled bridge using MATLAB (SIMULINK) under earthquake excitations. The results show that semi-active control strategy using fuzzy logic controller reduces the acceleration response and pounding force of adjacent bridge deck in a highway bridge.
Keywords : Earthquake, FLC, Highway Bridge, Simulation, MR Damper
 Erkus B, Abe M, Fujino Y (2002) Investigation of semi-active control for seismic protection of elevated highway bridges. Engineering Structures, 24:281-293.  Goldsmith W (2001) Impact: The Theory and Physical Behavior of Colliding Solids. New York: Dover Publication.  Guo A.X. Li H (2008) Pounding reduction of highway bridges with pounding effect by using Magnetorheological dampers under earthquake excitation. Advances in Structural Engineering, 11:317-334.  Guo A.X, Li Z, Li, H, et al (2009) Experimental and analytical study on pounding reduction of base-isolated highway bridges using MR dampers. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 38:1307-1333.  Jankowski R, Wilde K, Fujino Y (1998) Pounding of superstructure segments in isolated elevated bridge during earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 27:487-502.  Jankowski R, Wilde K, Fujino Y (2000) Reduction of pounding effects in elevated bridges during earthquake. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 29:195-212.  Jankowski R (2006) Pounding force response spectrum under earthquake excitation. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 27:1149-1161.  Jansen L. M and Dyke S.J (2000) Semi-active control strategies for MR dampers: comparative study. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 126:795-803.  Lee T. Y and Chan P. C (2011) Experimental and analytical study of sliding mode control for isolated bridges with MR dampers. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 55:564-581.  Liu Y, Gordaninejad F, Evernsel C.A, et al (2001) An experimental study on fuzzy logic vibration control of a bridge using fail-safe magneto-rheological fluid damper. Proceeding of SPIE on Smart Materials and Structures, Newport Beach, California, 4330(2001), 281-288. doi: 10.1117/12.434135.  Shrimali M. K., Bharti S.D., Dumne S. M (2015) Seismic response analysis of coupled building involving MR damper and elastomeric base isolation. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 6:457-470.  Spencer Jr. B. F, Dyke S. J, Sain M.K, et al (1997) Phenomenological model of a Magnetorheological damper. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. ASCE, 123:230-238.  Wilson C.M.D, Abdullah M (2005) Structural vibration reduction using fuzzy control of magnetorheological damper. ASCE Structures Congress, New York.
Reinforced concrete structural walls with coupling beams are widely used as the primary lateral load bearing elements in high rise buildings. This paper describe a study deals with effect of depth variation of coupling beam at different story intervals Many researchers shown that there is uncertainty in the estimation of the effective stiffness of RC coupling beams. So here the analysis of high rise building with different story height namely 15 stories & 25 stories with symmetry is considered with the effect of span / depth ratio 1,3,5,&6 and aspect ratio of high of building to width of building 4.6,7.65,& 10.7 effect on coupling beam. The analysis will be carried out by preparing different models in ETABS 2016 software in this study. Medium soil is considered in this study. The behavior of coupled shear wall is mainly due to coupling beam.
Keywords : Base Moment, Base Shear, Coupling Beam, Coupling Degree, Coupled Shear Wall, High Rise Building, Max Displacement Story Drift, Time Period
 “Nursiah chairunnisa, iman satyarno, muslikh, akhmad aminullah. “Analysis and design of shear wall coupling beam using hybrid steel truss encased in reinforced mortar.” Science Direct. Procedia Engineering 171 (2017) 940 – 947”  Islam M. Ezz EL-Arab (Dec. 2012). “Seismic Analysis of Monolithic Coupling Beams of Symmetrical Coupled Shear Wall System.” International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.2, No.4”  Akash K. Walunj, Dipendu Bhunia, Samarth Gupta, Prabhat Gupta “Investigation on the Behavior of Conventional Reinforced Coupling Beams.” International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:7, No:12, 2013”  M.R. Campbell and D. Naish “A Parametric Study of Coupling Beam Strength and Stiffness on System Performance.”ASCE Structures Congress 2015, Pg 1987-1998”.  Indian standard code of practice for design loads for building and structures IS 875 (part II):Rev.2, 1987  Indian standard code of practice for design loads for building and structures IS 875 (part III): 2015.  Indian standard criteria for Earthquake resistant design of structures (IS 1893) :2016.
This study investigates the performance of the setback building with open ground storey using nonlinear static pushover analysis. Such type of building possess vertical geometric and mass irregularity as well as stiffness irregularity. In this paper, plan irregular setback building with open ground storey resting on plain and sloping ground which makes the building so weak to survive during earthquake. An attempt has made to alleviate effects of these irregularities during earthquake by replacing OGS columns by Reinforced concrete filled steel tube columns. RCFST columns increases the stiffness of the OGS which offset the soft storey effect as well as reduce storey displacement, drift and torsional response significantly. From hinges results, it can be observed that performance of the building is improved significantly.
Keywords : Setback Building, Soft Storey, Pushover Analysis, Irregularity, RCFST Column, ETABS Etc.
 T. Choudhury and H. B. Kaushik, “Seismic fragility of open ground storey RC frames with wall openings for vulnerability assessment,” Eng. Struct., vol. 155, no. August 2017, pp. 345–357, 2018.  S. Mahmoud, M. Genidy, and H. Tahoon, “Time-History Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings with Soft Storeys,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 1201–1217, 2017.  H. B. Kaushik, D. C. Rai, and S. K. Jain, “Effectiveness of Some Strengthening Options for Masonry-Infilled RC Frames with Open First Story,” J. Struct. Eng., vol. 135, no. 8, pp. 925–937, 2009.  D. Khan and A. Rawat, “Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Masonry Infill RC Buildings with Eccentric Bracings at Soft Storey Level,” Procedia Eng., vol. 161, pp. 9–17, 2016.  R. Ghosh and R. Debbarma, “Performance evaluation of setback buildings with open ground storey on plain and sloping ground under earthquake loadings and mitigation of failure,” Int. J. Adv. Struct. Eng., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 97–110, 2017.  IS 1893 (Part-1), “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures,Bureu of Indian standards,” 2016.  P. Naik and S. Annigeri, “Performance Evaluation of 9 Storey RC Building Located in North Goa,” Procedia Eng., vol. 173, pp. 1841–1846, 2017.  M. Inel, B. T. Cayci, and E. Meral, “Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analyses of RC Buildings,” Int. J. Civ. Eng., vol. 0, no. 0, p. 0, 2018.  FEMA 356, “Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings,” Fed. Emerg. Manag. Agency, no. 1, pp. 1–518, 2000.  Nagarjuna and Patil S, “Lateral Stability of Multistorey Building on Sloping,” Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol., pp. 1662–1669, 2015.
The reinforced concrete structures must be analyzed and designed according to the provisions of relative design standards. Design codes are the documents which are established for the design of a respective structure. Most of the countries have established their own design codes according to their local geographical, topographical and climatic conditions. However, such multiplicity in design criteria may lead towards the misperception of the structural engineers who are working on a global platform. Even though Indian Standards provides adequate guidelines for construction of buildings in India, there are some International standards which covers supplementary parameters that are not included in IS codes. Thus, the efforts are made to provide a comparative study on analysis and design parameters of R.C.C. beam according to the Indian code (IS456:2000) and European code (Eurocode 2 EN 1992-1-1). Such comparison will ensure the effectiveness in economical structural design worldwide.
Keywords : IS 456, Eurocode 2, Comparison, Effectiveness, Beam Design
 IS 456:2000 - Bureau of Indian Standards, Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.  Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.  Dr. V. L. Shah and Dr. S. R. Karve, Illustrated Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings (Design of G+3 Storeyed Buildings + Earthquake Analysis & Design), Seventh Edition, Structure Publications.  W. H. Mosley, R. Hulse and J. H. Bungey, Reinforced Concrete Design to Euroode 2.  Dr. B.C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun Kumar Jain, R.C.C. Designs (Reinforced Concrete Structures), Tenth Edition 2006, Laxmi Publications.  Tabish Izhar and Reena Dagar, Comparison of Reinforced Concrete Member Design Methods of Various Countries, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(4), 2018, pp. 637–646
Concrete is a widely used man-made complex material in the construction industry. Fresh properties of concrete have a tremendous effect on the durability and quality of structures. The workability is the crucial fresh property of concrete which is highly influenced by the composition of concrete. Cement paste being one of the most essential constituents of concrete, is highly discussed in this literature review paper. Hence, in order to obtain the desired mix of workable concrete, it is mandatory to determine the cement paste properties such as yield stress and plastic viscosity. This leads to determine the workability of cement paste which will be influenced by the various parameters such as the water cement ratio (W/C), type and dosage of admixtures, temperature and mixing methods. Excess addition of water leads to segregation and decrease the strength of the mix which demands the usage of superplasticizers. This state of art paper aims to describe the standard methods to investigate the cement paste characteristics, as well as the guidelines and vital parameters to rectify the errors during measurement of fresh properties of cement paste.
Keywords : Rheological Properties, Cement Paste Characteristics, Admixtures, Workability
 Banfill, P. F. G. (1991). Rheology of Fresh Cement and Concrete, 2006, 61–130. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203473290  Chindaprasirt, P., Hatanaka, S., Chareerat, T., Mishima, N., & Yuasa, Y. (2008). Cement paste characteristics and porous concrete properties. Construction and Building Materials, 22(5), 894–901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.12.007  Claisse, P. A., Lorimer, P., Omari, M. A., & Street, P. (2001). Workability of cement pastes. ACI Materials Journal-American Concrete Institute, 98(6), 476-482.  Ferraris, C. F., Obla, K. H., & Hill, R. (2001). The influence of mineral admixtures on the rheology of cement paste and concrete. Cement and Concrete Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00454-3  Feys, D., Cepuritis, R., Jacobsen, S., Lesage, K., Secrieru, E., & Yahia, A. (2017). Measuring Rheological Properties of Cement Pastes: Most common Techniques, Procedures and Challenges. RILEM Technical Letters, 2, 129–135. https://doi.org/10.21809/rilemtechlett.2017.43  Koehler, E. P., & Fowler, D. W. (2003). Summary of concrete workability test methods. International Center for Aggregates Research, 92.  Roussel, N., & Coussot, P. (2005). “Fifty-cent rheometer” for yield stress measurements: From slump to spreading flow. Journal of Rheology, 49(3), 705–718. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.1879041  Roussel, N., Stefani, C., & Leroy, R. (2005). From mini-cone test to Abrams cone test: Measurement of cement-based materials yield stress using slump tests. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(5), 817–822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.07.032  Tan, Z., Bernal, S. A., & Provis, J. L. (2017). Reproducible mini-slump test procedure for measuring the yield stress of cementitious pastes. Materials and Structures/MateriauxetConstructions,50(6),1–12. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-017-1103  Wong, H. H. C., & Kwan, A. K. H. (2008). Rheology of Cement Paste: Role of Excess Water to Solid Surface Area Ratio. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 20(2), 189–197. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2008)20:2(189)
At present demand of infrastructure is increasing day by day. The basic fundamental component for construction of any infrastructure is concrete. Concrete which is widely used in the building materials is popular for its strength and durability. The ratio of demand vs supply of material is increase rapidly. Thus, to overcome the demand of natural material such as aggregate and cement, it is necessary to find alternative of these materials. On the other hand, electronic waste generation is also an emerging issue posing serious problems to the environment. Generation of e-waste is very serious issue in the world. In year 2017 produce near about 79000 MT of electronic scrap in India. Disposal of e-waste is a typical task faced in many regions across the globe. Our aim is solving the disposal of large amount of electronic scrap, partial use in concrete industry is considered as the most feasible application. The e-waste like non-metallic part is PCB (printed circuit board) plate can be recovered and can be used as an ingredient in concrete. So, we can use this e-waste to achieve desire concrete terms of their properties.
Keywords : E-Waste, Compressive Strength, Workability Parameters, Disposal, PCB, Landfill, Toxic Chemicals
 Antoinette van sachik (2010) " Dynamic modelling of E-waste recycling system performance based on products design " minerals engineering 23, pp.192-210  A. Arora and U. Dave," Utilization of e-waste and plastic bottles waste in concrete ", International Journal of student’s research in technology &management, 1 (4), 2013, 398-406.  Ghosh. B, Ghosh .MK, Pari .Mukherjee. PS, Mishra B.K (2015) "Waste printed circuit board recycling an extensive assessment of current status “, Journal of cleaner Production 94, pp.5-19  Krishna prasanna, P, kanta Rao, M (2014), " strength variations in concrete by using e waste as coarse aggregate " IJEAR, Vol.4, issue spl-2,  Lakshmi and Nagan.S (2011)"Investigation on durability characteristics of e-plastic waste incorporated concrete " Asian journal of civil engineering, building and housing vol.12 No.6, pp.733-787
High demand of natural resources due to rapid urbanization and the disposal problem of agricultural wastes in developed countries have created opportunities for use of agro-waste in the construction industry. Many agricultural waste materials are already used in concrete as replacement alternatives for cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and reinforcing materials. Some of the agro-waste materials, which are used as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. It has been seen that the agro-waste concrete containing groundnut shell, oyster shell, cork, rice husk ash and tobacco waste showed better workability. Agro-waste concrete containing bagasse ash, sawdust ash and oyster shell achieved their required strength by 20% of replacement as fine aggregate, which were maximum among all agro-waste type concrete. Close relations were predicted among compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity and elastic modulus of agro-waste concrete. We can achieve every possible new types of constraints which are use for better type concrete block production system in which it includes all calculation.
Keywords : Agro-Waste Concrete, Quarry Dust, Waste Fiber, River Sand, Fine Aggregate, Rice Husk Ash, Saw Dust Ash, Cement
 Jnyanendra kumar prusty et al,” concrete using agro-waste as fine aggregate for sustainable built environment”, gulf organisation for research and development pp-1-22, 2016.  M.vignesh kumar1, keba lemessa,”behavior of concrete with agro and industry waste as a replacement for constitutive materials”, american journal of engineering research (ajer) e-issn: 2320-0847 p-issn : 2320-0936 volume-6, issue-3, pp-79-85 .  Ravande kishore1a et al,” study on strength characteristics of high strength rice husk ash concreteprocedia engineering 14 (2011) 2666–2672.  Sara sanarica et al,”use of agro-waste in building materials in the mediterranean area”, 72nd conference of the italian thermal machines engineering association, ati2017, 6-8 September 2017, lecce, italy.  Tomas u. Ganiron jr,,” sustainable management of waste coconut shells as aggregates in concrete mixture” , journal of engineering science and technology review 6 (5) (2013) 7-14.
Cement mortar comprises 50-90% of fine aggregates which has a significant effect on the fresh properties of the mix such as workability, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and density. The mix characteristics depend on the aggregate properties such as the shape, size, and surface texture. The most common method used on the construction site to check the quality of the aggregate is sieve analysis. Flakiness and elongation tests are used to measure the shape characteristics of coarse aggregates only. Currently, workability for mortar is adjusted to the need either by adding water or introducing superplasticizer. It is difficult to decide cement fine aggregate proportion and dosage of admixture for the desired workability of the mix. It is possible to design mix using the surface area of fine aggregates and many researchers are working in that area. Digital Image Processing (DIP) method gives accurate information about the shape morphology of fine aggregate. One can assess the behaviour of shape characteristics of aggregates on workability. The mix design of mortar can be optimized by calculating the surface area of fine aggregates. This research paper summarizes measurement techniques to evaluate the morphology of fine aggregates, wet packing density to obtain the desired mix, and rheological aspects of cement mortar.
Keywords : Digital Image Processing (DIP), Water Film Thickness (WFT), Paste Film Thickness (PFT), Workability, Rheology, Wet-Packing Density, Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ)
 C.F. Mora, A.K.H. Kwan1, and H. C. C. (1998). Particle size distribution analysis of coarse aggregate using digital image processing, 28(6), 921–932.  Allen, T. (2003). Particle size analysis by image analysis. Powder Sampling and Particle Size Determination, (November), 142–207.  You, Z., & Dai, Q. (2007). Dynamic complex modulus predictions of hot-mix asphalt using a micromechanical-based finite element model. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 34(12), 1519–1528. https://doi.org/10.1139/L07-064.  Chaudhari, S. N. (2016). Analysis of Aggregates By Image Processing Using Matlab, 4863(June), 41–48.  Wu, J., Wang, L., Hou, Y., Xiong, H., Lu, Y., & Zhang, L. (2018). A digital image analysis of gravel aggregate using CT scanning technique. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 11(2), 160–167.  Vangla, P., Roy, N., Mendu, K., & Latha, G. M. (2014). Digital Image Analysis for the Determination of Size and Shape Parameters of Sand Grains. Golden Jubilee Conference of the IGS Bangalore, Geo Innovations, (August 2015), 30–31.  Polat, R., Yadollahi, M. M., Sagsoz, A. E., & Arasan, S. (2013). The Correlation between Aggregate Shape and Compressive Strength of Concrete: Digital Image Processing Approach. Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg., 2(3), 2319–6009.  Yang, J., Yu, W., Fang, H.-Y., Huang, X.-Y., & Chen, S.-J. (2018). Detection of the size of manufactured sand particles based on digital image processing. PloS One, 13(12), e0206135. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206135  Thaker, P., & Arora, N. K. (2015). A critical review of aggregate shape characteristic assessment techniques. In UKIERI Concrete Congress- Concrete Research Driving Profit and Sustainability (pp. 1041–1054).  Fernlund, J. M. R. (1998). The effect of particle form on sieve analysis: a test by image analysis. Engineering Geology, 50(1–2), 111–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(98)00004-0  Kuo, C.-Y., Frost, J., Lai, J., & Wang, L. (1996). Three-Dimensional Image Analysis of Aggregate Particles from Orthogonal Projections. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1526, 98–103.  Kumara, J. J., Hayano, K., & Kikuchi, Y. (2017). Evaluation of area- and volume-based gradations of the sand-crushed stone mixture by 2D images. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 21(3), 774–781. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-016-1765-x  Kwan, A. K. H., Mora, C. F., & Chan, H. C. (1999). Particle shape analysis of coarse aggregate using digital image processing. Cement and Concrete Research, 29(9), 1403–1410. https://doi.org/10.3390/d4010033  Koehler, E. P., & Fowler, D. W. (2003). Summary of concrete workability test methods. International Center for Aggregates Research, 92.  Kwan, A. K. H., & Wong, H. H. C. (2008). The packing density of cementitious materials: Part 2-packing and flow of OPC + PFA + CSF. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 41(4), 773–784.  Kwan, A. K. H., & Li, L. G. (2008). Water Film Thickness and Paste Film Thickness : Key Factors for Mix Design of High-Performance Concrete.  Wong, H. H. C., & Kwan, A. K. H. (2008). The packing density of cementitious materials: Part 1-measurement using a wet packing method. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 41(4), 689–701.  Kwan, A. K. H., & Li, L. G. (2012). Combined effects of water film thickness and paste film thickness on the rheology of mortar. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 45(9), 1359–1374. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-012-9837-y.  Kotak, S., &Thaker, P. (2016). Assessment of Water Film Thickness, Paste Film Thickness and Fresh Properties of Cement Mortar. International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering, 2(12), 407–412.
Indian sub-continent is vulnerable to natural disasters like earthquakes, cyclones, floods etc. Collapse of structures causes people to life loss that cannot be recovered. Elevated water tanks are considered lifeline structure during any calamities hence it must remain serviceable even after disaster so that domestic as well as incidental needs are fulfilled. Seismic response or behavior of such structures are necessary to be studied in order to meet safety objectives. According to IS 1893 (Part2): 2014 elevated water tank is considered as two mass model. In the present study, efforts are made to understand the behavior of RC intze tank supported on frame type staging, when it is subjected to dynamic pressure. Various parametric studies have been carried out to study the hydrodynamic response by varying the tank capacities they are 500m3, 750m3,1000m3, height to diameter ratio of cylindrical wall from 0.4 to 0.8, different seismic zones and soil types. Seismic analysis and design is carried out in excel sheet. Here configuration of staging was taken same for all the cases. It is observed that system responses such as time period, hydrodynamic pressure, base shear, overturning moment, sloshing wave height are highly influenced by geometrical parameters.
Keywords : Intze Water Tank, RCC Frame Staging, Sloshing Wave Height, Hydrodynamic Pressure, Impulsive and Convective Mode, Parametric Study
 Barve P, Barve R (2015) A parametric study to analyze the severity of hydro dynamic pressure for intze tank. International jounal of technical research and application, pp -127-129.  Hirde S, Bajare A, Hedaoo M (2011) Seismic performance of elevated water tank. International journal of advanced engineering research and studies vol.1, pp 78-77.  Housner GW (1963) The Dynamic Behaviour of Water Tanks. Bulletin of seismological society of America, 53, pp 381-387.  Mor VK, More VT (2016) Dynamic Analysis of RC Elevated Water Tank Frame Staging Supported. International Journal of Advanced Technology in Engineering and Science vol. no. 4, Issue no. 12, pp184-194.  Moslemi M, Kianoush M, Pogorzelski W (2011) Seismic response of liquid-filled elevated tanks. Engineering Structures, 33, pp 2074-2084.  Pandya VS, Joshi DM (2015) Seismic Analysis of RC Elevated Water Tanks. International Journal of Science and Research, Volume 6, Issue12, pp 247-252.
Nowadays, Multistorey Building which include Fitness centers, Parking garages, Super markets, offices, Food centers are trending worldwide. In which, Simple activities like walking, running skipping, jumping can generate vibration in the slab. This vibration can cause inconvenience in persons and questions about safety of structures and risk of collapse that is determined by its intensity of vibration. The objective of this paper is evaluating the behaviour of reinforced concrete waffle slab due to human rhythmatic activities and resonance. Waffle slab are modeled by element meshing method with ETABS with different plan aspect ratio. Here two types of dynamic analysis are performed: free vibration analysis for obtaining natural frequencies and mode shapes and forced vibration analysis to obtain Maximum displacement.
Keywords : Building Flexibility, Dynamic Behaviour
 Yuri Cláudio Vieira da Costa Tereza Denyse de Araújo “Evaluation of dynamic behaviour of waffle slab to gym center” Latin American Journal of Solid and Structures 11 (2014) 1114-1131  Allen, D. E.; Rainer, J. H.; Pernica, G. “Vibration criteria for assembly occupancies” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 12, 3, pp. 617-623, 1985-09  Pavic, A., Reynolds, P., Waldron, P., Bennet, K., (2001). “Dynamic modeling of post-tensioned concrete floors using finite element analysis” Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 37: 305-323.  Rainer, J.H., Pernica, G., (1986) “Vertical dynamic forces from footsteps”. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Canadian Acoustics, 14: 12-21.  C.M.R. Gaspar , J.G. Santos da Silva , L.F. Costa-Neves “vibration control of building steel–concrete composite floors submitted to human rhythmic activities” Computers and structures 165 (2016) 107-12  C.J. Middleton, J.M.W. Brownjohn “Response of high frequency floors: A literature review” Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 337–35  Indrajit Chowdhury and Jitendra P. Singh, “Analysis and Design of Waffle Slab with Different Boundary Conditions”, Indian Concrete Journal, vol.5, pp1-10 9, 2010  Alaa C. Galeb, Zainab F. Atiyah , “ Optimum design of reinforced concrete waffle slabs”, IJCSE, vol.1, n0 .4, pp862-880, 2011  Anjaly Somasekhar and Preetha Prabhakaran , “Analytical Investigation on Performance of Stiffened Waffle Slabs with Openings”, IOSR- JMCE, vol.4,pp8-13,2016  Bachmann, H., Ammann, W.J., Deischl, F., Eisenmann, J., Floegl, I., Hirsch, G.H., Klein, G.H., Lande, G.J., Mahrenholtz, O., Natke, H.G., Nussbaumer, H., Pretlove, A., Rainer, J.H., Saemann, E., and Steinbeisser, L., (1995). “Vibration problems in structures. Practical guidelines.” Berlin:Birkhauser  ABNT – Brazilian Association of Technical Codes (2003). NBR 6118: Projetos de estruturas de concreto: proce- dimentos. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) are used in constructions such as piles, caissons, columns, piers. Relative to conventional structural steel and reinforced concrete and provides huge tensile and compression capacities; the concrete fill prevents buckling of the steel tube and increases the capacity, stiffness and ductility of the section. Sometimes, reinforcement is used to strengthen and facilitate connection to adjoining members. Even though these properties are well favouring, the use of CFST in practice is rare because every design code gives different codal provisions. A study was carried out to enhance design norms for CFSTs without reinforcement bars under general loading. A model was made to reproduce test results subjected to both axial and combine loading and after validation model was used to study the strength and performance of CFSTs under general loading. The comparisons indicate that present design gives good resemblance of CFST capacity subjected only to bending or axial loads with experimental results by previous researchers but current provisions provide conservative values for the CFSTs under general combine loading.
Keywords : Concrete Filled Steel Tubes (CFST), ABAQUS, Combine Loading, Axial Loading
 Schneider, S, P. (1998), “Axially loaded concrete filled steel tubes”, journal of structural engineering, 1125-1138.  Hu, H, T.; Huang, S, C.; Chen, Z, L. (2005), “Finite element analysis of CFT columns subjected to an axial compressive force and bending moment in combination”, journal of constructional steel research, 61, 1692-1712.  Bukovska, P. (2012), “Influence of concrete strength on the behavior of steel tubular columns filled with concrete”, international journal of mechanics, volume 6, 149-157.  Chitawadagi, V, M.; Narsimahan, M, C.; Kulkarni, S, M. (2010), “Axial strength of circular concrete filled steel tube columns – DOE approach”, journal of construction steel research, 66, 1248-1260.  Dai, X, H.; Lam, D.; Jamaluddin, N.; Ye, J. (2014), “Numerical analysis of slender elliptical concrete filled columns under axial compression”, thin walled structures, 77, 26-35.  Dundu, M. (2012), “compressive strength of circular concrete filled steel tube columns”, journal of thin walled structures”, 56, 62-70.  El-Heweity, M, M. (2012), “On the performance of circular concrete filled high strength steel columns under axial loading”, Alexandria engineering journal, 51, 109- 119.  Jiho Moon, Dawn E. Lehman, Charles W. Roeder (2014), “Strength of Circular Concrete Filled Tubes with and without Internal Reinforcement under Combined Loading”, journal of structural engineering.
The Concept of providing pressure relief shelves on the backfill side of a retaining wall reduces the total earth pressure on the wall, due to which it reduces the thickness of the wall and ultimately gives more economical design. In the present study an attempt is made to analyse the cantilever retaining wall with pressure relief shelf by using finite element package (SAP-2000). Springs are assigned by discretising the model to simulate soil properties. The model is validated from the standard book. Using SAP-2000 optimized position of relief shelf is concluded for the single shelf cantilever retaining wall by considering top displacement of the wall and the maximum bending moment in stem and shelf, using those results further studies can be made for economy of the structure.
Keywords : Cantilever Retaining Wall, Pressure Relief Shelf, SAP-2000, Depth Ratio (h/H)
 Chaudhuri, P. R., (1973). “Design of retaining wall with relieving shelves.” IRC J., 35(2), 289–325.  Chougule, A.C., Patankar, J.P., and Chougule, P.A. (2017). “Effective Use of Shelves in Cantilever Retaining Walls”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. ISSN 2395 Volume  Patil, S.S., (2015), “Analysis and Design of Stepped Cantilever Retaining Wall”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 2(4).  Viggiani, G. M. B. (2013), “Some remarks on the seismic behaviour of embedded cantilevered retaining walls”, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 132(8): 1062-1070.  Gowda, K and Karthik, B. (2016). “Analysis of Counterfort Retaining Wall with and without Pressure Relief Shelf using Soft Computing Technique”, Science Insights: An International Journal, 6(1): 7-10.  Indian Standard of Plain and Reinforeced Concrete Code of Practice IS 456: 2000.  Design Aid for Reinforced Concrete SP: 16 to IS: 456-1978.  Pillai Menon., “Reinforced Concrete Design” Tata McGraw Hills Private Limited, New Delhi
Paper production generally yields a large quantity of solid waste. Paper fibers can only be recycled a few times before they are too short or weak to produce high - quality paper. This means that broken paper fibers of low quality are separated to become waste sludge. In order to reduce the problems of disposal and pollution resulting from these industrial waste, it is essential to develop profitable building materials. In view of this, investigations were carried out to produce low cost concrete by mixing different ratios of cement with lime sludge. The purpose of this project is to investigate the strength of concrete and the optimum percentage of partial substitution by replacing cement by 10 percent, 20 percent, 30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent, 60 percent of Lime sludge. Keeping all this view, the aim of investigation is the behavior of concrete while adding waste with different proportions of Lime sludge in concrete by compressive strength test.
Keywords : Concrete, Low Cost, Paper Industry Waste, Compressive Strength, Lime Sludge
 Balwaik, Sumit A., and S. P. Raut. "Utilization of waste paper pulp by partial replacement of cement in concrete." Int J Eng Res Appl 1, no. 2 (2011): 300-309.  Gallardo, Ronnaldo S., and Mary Ann Q. Adajar. "Structural performance of concrete with paper sludge as fine aggregates partial replacement enhanced with admixtures." In Symposium on infrastructure development and the environment, pp. 7-8. 2006.  IS-10262 (2009) Indian Standard Code of concrete mix proportioning guidelines. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  IS-383 (1970) Indian Standard Code of Specifications for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  IS-456 (2000) Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  M. L. Gambhir, Concrete Technology, 4th ed., Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, New Delhi.2009  Pitroda, Jayeshkumar, Dr LB Zala, and Dr FS Umrigar. "Hypo Sludge Management: Opportunities for Developing Low Cost Concrete with Glass Fibres." Global Research Analysis, ISSN (2012): 2277-8160.  Srinivasan, R., K. Sathiya, and M. Palanisamy. "Experimental investigation in developing low cost concrete from paper industry waste." Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Karumathan Patti, India (2010).
In the design industry different components of material handling equipment are generally manufactured by the steel section. In this article, we have tried to design the equipment in such a way that it consumes minimum steel. In this research of the economical design different components have been described. In this part of research, designing a stacker reclaimer in software STAAD PRO. By assuming dimensions, designing the stacker reclaimer of boom size 22m and capacity of 50 tons per hour. The basic requirement of design are taken as per Indian standard Code provision which is suitable. In this project, assumption are made for probable major load which is applied to stacker reclaimer when it is actually in use at site. In this project we get the steel section which have minimum weight and safe in transferring the probable load acting on it. And also we are interested in getting the most suitable shape which have maximum capacity to move bulk material with minimum cross section so, that we can minimize the material cost which is used in construction of the bucket wheel.
Keywords : Stacker Reclaimer, Structural Optimization
 Michael G. Kay, Material Handling Equipment North Carolina State University January 2012.  Computer aided analysis of load/stress/dynamic behaviour for special bridge-type stacker-reclaimer by vlada gašic, nenad zrnic, srdan bošnjak in 2007.  Development and Structural Analysis of Masthead for a Twin Boom Stacker by K Vamsi Krishna, S Porchilamban Post Graduate Student, Assistant professor Mechanical and production engineering, Sathyabhama university, Chennai, India, IJEDR | Volume 2, Issue 1 | ISSN: 2321-9939.  Ghosal. S, Misra.D, Saha.T.K, Chakravorthy.D, Failure analysis of Stacker-cum-Reclaimer in ore handling plant, Journal of failure analysis and prevention, vol 8, pages 564-571, 2008.  Methodology to Calculate the Effective Reclaiming Capacity of Rail-Mounted Boom-Type Bucket Wheel Reclaimer and Stacker/Reclaimer By D. Komljenovic, J. Paraszczak, Fytas, Canada and C. Drebenstedt, Germany
Water storage structures are used to store water to tide over the daily requirement of water by localities, industries, campuses, towns, cities, etc. Especially elevated water tanks are used to supply water to a particular area so that the water can reach to the users by gravity and pressure. These elevated structures have large mass concentrated at the top and are behaving like a slender supporting structure, as an inverted pendulum. Hence, these structures are vulnerable to horizontal forces due to earthquake. From the very upsetting experiences of few earthquakes, like the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in India (Durgesh C. Rai 2003), RCC Elevated water tanks were heavily damaged or collapsed. This might be due to the lack of knowledge regarding the proper behavior of the staging part of the tank and due to dynamic effect and improper geometrical selection of staging. This paper deals with the analysis of different fame type staging patterns for RCC elevated tank (Intze type) with the help of STAAD Pro Vi8 (series 6) by using response spectrum method. In this paper, at first by studying the losses occurred in water tanks during past earthquakes and the reasons for these occurred damages, the analysis was done for different staging patterns to overcome these damages in these structure in coming future. It was determined while comparing different staging patterns that X type of frame staging have shown better seismic behavior to the resistance against lateral loads as they reduces most of displacement and time period but it increases the base shear due to the increase in volume of concrete.
Keywords : Intze Tank, Staging, Frame Staging, STAAD Pro Vi8 (series 6), Seismic Analysis, Response Spectrum Method, Base Shear, Nodal Displacement, Time Period
 IS 3370:2009 (Part 1), “Code of practice – concrete structure for storage of liquids General requirements”, BIS, 2009.  IS 3370:2009 (Part 2), “Code of practice – concrete structure for storage of liquids, Reinforced concrete structures will be used for design and analysis liquid retaining structures”, BIS,2009.  IS 1893:2016 (Part 1), “Criteria of earthquake resistant design of structures, General Provisions and Buildings”, BIS, 2016.  IS 1893:2016 (Part 2), “Criteria of earthquake resistant design of structures, Liquid Retaining Tanks”, BIS, 2016.  Dutta S. C.,Jain S. K.,Murty C. V. R., “Assessing the seismic torsional vulnerability of elevated tanks with RC frame-type staging”, Elsevier, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2000, 19, 183–197.  Moslemi M.,Kianoush M. R., “Application of seismic isolation technique to partially filled conical elevated tanks”, Elsevier, Engineering Structures,2016, 127, 663–675.  Soroushnia S.,Tafreshi S. T., Omidinasa F.,Beheshtian N.,Soroushnia S., “Seismic Performance of RC Elevated Water Tanks with Frame Staging and Exhibition Damage Pattern”, Science Direct Procedia Engineering, 2011, 14, 3076–3087.  Jain S. K., Sameer U.S., “Seismic Design Of Frame Staging for Elevated Water Tank”, Science Direct.1990.  Mhetre M. S.,Patil G. R., “Analysis of Elevated Water Storage Structure Using Different Staging System”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering.2015.  Jain S.K., Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Jaiswal O. R., Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, EQ08 IITK-GSDMA GUIDELINES for SEISMIC DESIGN OF LIQUID STORAGE TANKS.  H. J. Shah, Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Vol 2, 11th Edition, Chapter Publication, 2016.  Pankaj Agarwal and Manish Shrikhande, Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures.  Atul Jadhav, Yogesh More, Swapnil Shingote & Sujit Ghangale, A Review Paper on Analysis of Elevated Water Tank in High Seismic Zone by Using Staad Pro Software, ISSN 2277 – 5528, September 2015.
In recent years, in ground improvement technique, such as deep mixing (DM) column, Stone Colum (SC), vibro-concrete columns, geosynthetic-reinforced embedded stone columns and CFG Pile, have been more and more used to support superstructures and embankments when they are constructed on expansive soil. Now a day’s new improved technology has emerged, along with different concrete columns, Pile, and composite foundations. New technologies have been combined with other ordinary technologies. It is give a better result, work effective and economical solutions. Thought, the composite columns / CFG pile with the composite technologies can be presented difficulty geotechnical problems in design and construction. This paper summary different types of ground improvement technologies and their application, installation and function addresses design issues, and reviews recent research and development related to the CFG piles to improve soft foundations, including failure modes, load transfer mechanisms, bearing capacity, settlement, consolidation, and stability. Several theoretical solutions have been proposed for the rate of consolidation of column-reinforced soft foundations. Different failure modes should be evaluated for the stability of column-supported embankments. Limit equilibrium methods based on shear failure overestimate the factors of safety of embankments on rigid or semi-rigid columns in soft soil. CFG pile, DM, and Stone Column are with the proposed on the principle of optimal design under a flexible load.
Keywords : Soft Soils, CFG (Cement Fly Ash Gravel) Pile, DMC Deep Mixing Column, Stress Distribution
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Pedestrian is one of the important component in the urban transportation system and also vulnerable at un-protected mid-block locations under mixed traffic conditions. Crossing by pedestrians on midblock sections of urban roads is very common in developing countries such as India. The locations where the pedestrians cross the road are invariably undesignated with no pedestrian cross marks. These crossings at undesignated locations have two-fold effects. First, pedestrians put themselves at risk, and, second, traffic speed and capacity are adversely affected. At unprotected mid-block locations, some of the vehicles may yield to pedestrians who are already at crosswalk location. However, some of the pedestrians are using forced gaps to cross the road. Hence, while pedestrians use the mid-block crosswalk with forced gaps, which decreases the vehicular flow characteristics. The pedestrian sidewalks do not show a direct effect on the vehicular flow characteristics when the pedestrian has pleasant walking facilities. The present study has analyzed the effect of the pedestrian crossing on the characteristics of vehicular flow at the mid-block location under mixed traffic conditions.
Keywords : Pedestrian, Speed, Capacity, Midblock
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