Modular multiplication forms a key operation in many public key cryptosystems. Montgomery Multiplication is one of the well-known algorithms to carry out the modular multiplication more quickly. Carry Save Adders are employed to avoid carry propagation at each addition operation. To reduce the extra clock cycles, Configurable carry save adder either with one full-adder or two half-adders can be employed. In addition to that, a mechanism used to skip the unnecessary carry-save addition operations in the one-level CCSA while maintaining the short critical path delay had been developed. In the proposed architecture, maximum worst case delay is analyzed to enhance the throughput. In the path, additional buffers are introduced so that the clock is synchronized to reduce the worst case delay. As a result, pipelining concept is introduced which increases the speed and achieves a high throughput. The pipelined architecture is applied in RSA public key algorithm to increase the throughput of RSA cryptosystem.
Keywords : Carry save addition, Montgomery modular multiplier, Pipelining, RSA
 Bunimov, V.,Schimmler, M. and Tolg, B. (2002).A complexity-effective version of Montgomery’s algorithm.Proc. Workshop complex Effective Designs.  Kim, Y.S., Kang, W.S. and Choi, J.R. (2000).Asynchronous implementation of 1024-bit modular processor for RSA cryptosystem.Proc. 2nd IEEE Asia-Pacific Conf. ASIC, pp.187-190.  Kuang, S.R., Wang, J.P., Chang, K.C. and Hsu, H.W. (2013). Energy-efficient high-throughput Montgomery modular multipliers for RSA crytosystems.IEEE Trans, VLSI Syst. Vol.21, no.11, pp.1999-2009.  Kuang,S.R., Kun-Yi Wu, and Ren-Yao Lu.(2015). Low-Cost High-Performance VLSI Architecture for Montgomery Modular Multiplication.IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., Volume:PP , Issue:99.  McIvor, C.,McLoone, M. and McCanny, J. V. (2004).Modified Montgomery modular multiplication and RSA exponentiation techniques.IEE Proc.-Comput.Digit.Techn, Vol. 151, no. 6, pp. 402–408.  Montgomery, P.L. (1985).Modular multiplication without trial division Math.Comput., Vol. 44, no. 170, pp. 519–521.  Rivest, R.L., Shamir, A. and Adleman, L. (1978).A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystemsCommun. ACM, Vol. 21, no. 2,pp. 120–126.  Walter, C.D. (1999), ‘Montgomery exponentiation needs no final subtractions’, Electron. Lett., Vol.35, no.21. pp.1831-1832.  Zhengbing, H., Al Shboul, R.M. and Shirochin, V.P. (2007).An efficient architecture of 1024-bits cryptoprocessor for RSA cryptosystem based on modified Montgomery’s algorithm. Proc. 4th IEEE Int. Workshop Intell.Data Acquisition Adv. Comput.Syst., pp.643-646.
The typical nonlinear process such as conical tank and spherical tank process has the difficulty in controller design because of a change in system dynamics and valve nonlinearity. All industrial processes are almost nonlinear with wide operating range; the use of conventional PID controller becomes inefficient. For this reason the controller design for nonlinear system has become a very determinative and significant field of research. In a gain scheduled PI controller the controller gains are allowed to vary within a predetermined range and therefore eliminates the problem faced by the conventional PI controller. Gain Scheduling is the process through which the multiple local linear controllers are combined in order to control the process over the entire operating range. A main problem on the design of gain scheduling controller (GSC) is the design and implementation of the switching logic to have a smooth transition in plant response as the operating point changes. This difficulty is solved with the application of fuzzy logic controller (FLC). Fuzzy gain-scheduled (FGS) PI controller is a nonlinear controller which utilizes fuzzy rules and reasoning for determining the PI controller parameters. In this paper the illustration of FGS-PI controller is proposed to single input single output (SISO) nonlinear system namely conical tank process. The performances of the controllers are compared based on servo tracking using simulation results.
Keywords : Conical Tank Process, GSC, FGS, SISO
 Karl Johan Astrom, Bjorn Wittenmark Adaptive Control (2nd Edition)  Zhen-Yu Zhao, Masayoshi Tomizuka, and Satoru Isaka “ Fuzzy gain Scheduling of PID controllers”, IEEE transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics,1392-1398,1993.  Madhubala, T.K., M. Boopathy, J. Sarat Chandra Babu and T.K. Radhakrishnan “ Development and tuning of fuzzy controller for a conical level system” Proceedings of International Conference Intelligent Sensing and Information Processing, Tiruchirappalli, India,pp. 450-455,2004.  R.Anandanatarajan and M. Chidambaram. ”Experimental evaluation of a controller using variable transformation on a hemi-spherical tank level process”, Proceedings of National Conference NCPICD, pp. 195-200, 2005.  Leehter Yao and Chin-Chin Lin, “Design of Gain Scheduled Fuzzy PID Controller”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1 ,pp.714-718,2007.  S.Nithya, N.Sivakumaran , T.K.Radhakrishnan and N.Anantharaman, “ Soft Computing based controllers implementation for nonlinear process in real time”,Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science , October 20-22, SanFrancisco, USA, 2010.
The Ball and Beam system is a nonlinear unstable system due to this property it is used as a bench mark problem for many researchers. The proposed work focuses on the design of a digital pole placement controller for a Ball and Beam system (BBS) connected with servo motor which is an open loop unstable system due to the presence of multiple poles at the origin. A one degree of freedom (DOF) and 2-DOF digital pole placement controller is designed using the discrete transfer function for the specified constraints namely peak overshoot and rise time. The digital controller designed is capable of providing system stability and also provides good set point tracking and disturbance rejection. The simulation result shows the feasibility of using the proposed controller for control of an unstable Ball and Beam system.
Keywords : BBS, 1 DOF Controller, 2 DOF Controllers, Pole Placement
 J. Hauser, S. Sastry, and P. Kokotovic, “Nonlinear control via approximate input-output linearization the ball and beam example,” Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 392–398, 1992.  Z.H Pang, G. Zheng and C.X. Luo, “Augmented State Estimation and LQR Control for a Ball and Beam System”, Proc. of the 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications., pp.1328-1332, June 21-23, 2011.  H. Verrelst, K. Van Acker, J. Suykens, B. Motmans, B. De Moor and J. Vandewalle, “Neural Control Theory: Case Study for a Ball and Beam System”, Proc. of the European Control Conference Brussels, Belgium, July –4, 1997.  S.K Oh, H.J. Jang and W. Pedrycz, “The Design of a Fuzzy Cascade Controller for Ball and Beam System: A Study in Optimization with the Use of Parallel Genetic Algorithms”, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 22, pp. 261–271, 2009.  Y.H. Chang, C.W. Chang, C.W. Tao, H.W. Lin and J.S. Taur, “Fuzzy Sliding-mode Control for Ball and Beam System with Fuzzy ant Colony Optimization”, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 3624-3633, 2012.  S. Nagammai, S.V. Prasanna Kumar, S. Latha, “Design of Digital Controller for an Unstable CSTR Process” Journal of Electronic Design Technology, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp.235-240, 2014.  “Ball and Beam Experiment and Solution,” Quanser Consulting, 1991
In conventional technology, CMOS logic circuits are used. This technology suffer from high power issues due to long traffic delay and leakage current. After that, Hybrid logic-in memory architecture using Magnetic Tunnel Junction(MTJ) to overcome these limitations. Magnetic Tunnel junction is a non-volatile device to achieve high access speed and infinite endurance. Recently, 1-bit non-volatile full adder using MTJ have been proposed to build low-power high- density arithmetic/logic unit for processor. However, this method has partial non-volatile property because MTJ is used as one of their operands. For this purpose, extending 1-bit to multi bit structure offers full non-volatility. Synchronous 8-bit non-volatile full adder presented in this paper, the input signals are stored in MTJ instead of CMOS register. MTJ with CMOS logic circuits three possible structures are proposed with respect to different location of NV data. The design is simulated in 180nm CMOS technology using cadence EDA tool.
Keywords : 3-D integration, 8-bit flip-flop, 8-bit full adder, full non-volatility, STT-MTJ
Nowadays ration card is very important for every home and used for various field such as family members details, to get gas connection, it act as address proof for various purposes etc. All the people having a ration card to buy the various materials (sugar, rice, oil, kerosene, etc) from the ration shops. But in this system having two draw backs, first one is weight of the material may be inaccurate due to human mistakes and secondly, if not buy the materials at the end of the month, they will sale to others without any intimation to the government and customers. In this paper, proposed an Automatic Ration Materials Distribution Based on embedded technology instead of manual system. To get the materials in ration shops need to enter the ration card number, then system check the customer details and details of allotment in the card. Then customers need to enter the required materials by using keyboard. It is possible to send the details of distribution to the government. This system provides the safe, secure and accurate distribution of materials automatically.
Keywords : Ration Dispenser, Public Distribution System (PDS)
 A.N.Madur, Sham Nayse,” Automation in Rationing System Using Arm 7,” International journal of innovative research in electrical, electronics, instrumentation and control engineering, vol.1, Issue 4, Jul 2013.  Rajesh C. Pingle, P. B. Borole “Automatic Rationing for Public Distribution System (PDS) using RFID and GSM Module to Prevent Irregularities” in International Journal of Technology Innovations and Research, Vol 2,March 2013.  S.Valarmathy, R.Ramani” Automatic Ration Material Distributions Based on GSM and RFID Technology”, International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, Vol.5,No.11, October 2013.  K.Balakarthik,” Cloud-Based Ration Card System using RFID and GSM Technology”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology,Vol-2,Issue 4,April 2013.  Dhanojmohan, Rathikarani, Gopukumar,”Automation in ration shop using PLC’’, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research,Vol 3, Issue 5, September 2013.  S.Sukhumar, K. Gopinathan, “Automatic Rationing System Using Embedded System Technology” International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering, 2013, Vol. 1, Issue 8.  Mahammad Shafi et.al. Suggested the “e–Ration Shop: An Automation Tool for Fair Price Shop under the Public Distribution System”  Umang Sharma, Vaibhav Kumar, Vikalp Chauhan,” Electronic Ration Distribution system,”International Journal of Computer applications.
A 2GHz carrier recovery Costas Loop based BPSK detector is designed using CMOS 0.18μm technology. The designed BPSK detector consists of single to differential conversion circuit, phase/frequency detector, Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO), differential to single conversion circuit, first order loop filter and a third multiplier. Different architectures available for each block have been discussed along with the design methodology adopted. The schematics were simulated in analog design environment. These papers present a CMOS Voltage Controlled Oscillator with high oscillation frequency and low power consumption. It also describes the performance comparison of a current starved VCO and source coupled VCO for BPSK Costas Loop Filter. The designed Costas loop for BPSK detection is able to detect and demodulate data rates up to 50Mbps. The loop can track within the VCO frequency range of 1.99GHz to 2.01GHz. The lock range achieved for this loop is 20MHz. The power consumption of the Costas Loop BPSK detector was found to be 0.25mW.
Keywords : Costas loop, PLL, voltage controlled oscillator
 Haripriya Janardhan,Mahmoud Fawzy Wagdy, “Design of a 1GHz Digital PLL Using 0.18μm CMOS Technology” in IEEE 2006 Third International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG'06).  Roland E. Best, “Phase-locked loops: design, simulation, and applications,Fifth Edition”, McGraw-Hill, New York, C2003.  D. P. Bautista and M.L. Aranda, ―A low power and high speed CMOS Voltage-Controlled Ring Oscillator, Circuits and Systems, 2004. ISCAS '04.Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on Volume 4, 23-26 May 2004 Page(s): IV - 752-5 Vol.4.  J.J Spilker, Digital Communication by Satellite, Belmont CA, Prientice Hall Inc, 1977.  Simon Haykin,”Communication Systems Fourth Edition”, Wiley publication.  B .Razvi, Design of ANALOG CMOS Integrated Circuits, McGraw- Hill, 2001.  William Shing, Tak Yan, and Howard Cam Luong, ―A 900-MHz CMOS low-phase- noise voltage-controlled ring oscillator, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and System II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing,, vol. 48, pp. 216-221, Feb. 2001.  T. H. Lee and A. Hajimiri and, ―Oscillator Phase noise: A tutorial, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, pp. 326–336, March 2000.  T. C. Weigandt, B. Kim, and P. R. Gray, ―Analysis of timing jitters in cmos ring oscillators, In Proc. ISCAS, pp. 27-30, June 1994
In this bench mark testing sequential circuit S27 is tested by using Built in Self Repair concept. This paper describes an on-chip test generation method for functional broadside tests. The hardware is based on the application of primary input sequences initial from a well-known reachable state, therefore using the circuit to produce additional reachable states. Random primary enter sequences are changed to avoid repeated synchronization and thus differed various sets of reachable states. Functional broadside tests are two-pattern scan based tests that avoid over testing by ensuring a circuit that traverses only reachable states in the functional clock cycles for a check. This consist of the input vectors and the equivalent responses. They check the proper operation of a verified design by testing the internal chip nodes. This test is useful to cover a very high percentage of modeled faults in logic circuits and their generation is the main topic of this method. Often, functional vectors are understood as verification vectors, these are used to verify whether the hardware actually matches its specification. Though, in the ATE world, any one vectors applied are understood to be functional fault coverage vectors applied during developing test, then the fault coverage area easily detected. This paper shows S27 circuit is used in Multiplier Circuit for Testing Application and it is done by Verilog Programming and simulated by Modalism 6.5version and Synthesis by Xilinx Tool
Keywords : BISR, BIST, LFSR, S27
 V. Dabholkar, S. Chakravarty, I. Pomeranz, and S.M. Reddy, “Techniques for Minimizing Power Dissipation in Scan and Combinational Circuits during Test Application,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design, vol. 17,no. 12, pp. 1325-1333, Dec. 1998.  R. Sankaralingam, R.R. Oruganti, and N.A. Touba, “Static Compaction Techniques to Control Scan Vector Power Dissipation,” Proc. VLSI Test Symp., pp. 35-40, 2000.  L. Whetsel, “Adapting Scan Architectures for Low Power Operation,” Proc.Int’l Test Conf., pp. 863-872, 2000.  K.-J. Lee, T.-C. Huang, and J.-J. Chen, “Peak-Power Reduction for Multiple-Scan Circuits during Test Application,” Proc. Asian Test Symp., pp. 453-458,2000.  J. Saxena, K.M. Butler, and L. Whetsel, “An Analysis of Power Reduction Techniques in Scan Testing,” Proc. Int’l Test Conf., pp. 670-677, 2001.  S. Kajihara, K. Ishida, and K. Miyase, “Test Vector Modification for Power Reduction during Scan Testing,” Proc. VLSI Test Symp., pp. 160-165, 2002. 7] A. Chandra and K. Chakrabarty, “Reduction of SOC Test Data Volume,Scan Power and Testing Time Using Alternating Runlength Codes,” Proc. Design Automation Conf., pp. 673-678, 2002.  D. Xiang, S. Gu, J.-G. Sun, and Y.-L. Wu, “A Cost-Effective Scan Architecture for Scan Testing with Nonscan Test Power and Test Application Cost,” Proc. Design Automation Conf., pp. 744-747, 2003.  J. Saxena, K.M. Butler, V.B. Jayaram, S. Kundu, N.V. Arvind, P.Sreeprakash, and M. Hachinger, “A Case Study of IR-Drop in Structured at-Speed Testing,” Proc. Int’l Test Conf., pp. 1098-1104, 2003.  W. Li, S.M. Reddy, and I. Pomeranz, “On Test Generation for Transition Faults with Minimized Peak Power Dissipation,” Proc. Design Automation Conf., pp. 504-509, 2004.  P. Rosinger, B.M. Al-Hashimi, and N. Nicolici, “Scan Architecture with Mutually Exclusive Scan Segment Activation for Shift- and Capture-Power Reduction,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1142- 1153, July 2004.  K.M. Butler, J. Saxena, A. Jain, T. Fryars, J. Lewis, and G. Hetherington,“Minimizing Power Consumption in Scan Testing: Pattern Generation and DFT Techniques,” Proc. Int’l Test Conf., pp. 355-364, 2004.  K. Lee, S. Hsu, and C. Ho, “Test Power Reduction with Multiple Capture Orders,” Proc. Asian Test Symp., pp. 26-31, 2004.  X. Wen, Y. Yamashita, S. Morishima, S. Kajihara, L.-T. Wang, K.K. Saluja,and K. Kinoshita, “Low-Capture-Power Test Generation for Scan-Based Testing,” Proc. Int’l Test Conf., pp. 1019-1028, 2005.Chakrabarti C., Vishwanath M., and Owens R., “Architectures for Wavelet Transforms: A Survey,”Journal VLSI Signal Process, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 171-192, 1996.
The Content addressable Memory (CAM) is high speed memories that are used in high speed networks, lookup tables and so on. The data to be searched will be compared with the data stored in the CAM cell and the address of the cell will be returned for the matched data. The parallel search operation in the memory is the important feature which improves the speed of search operation in CAM cells. However this parallel search operation will have its impact on the power dissipation, delay and various other parameters. This paper discusses the various low power CAM cells and analysis of its important parameters.
Keywords : XOR cell, XNOR cell
 Byung-Do Yang and Lee-Sup Kim, “A Low-Power CAM Using Pulsed neither NAND–NOR Match-Line and Charge-Recycling Search-Line Driver,” IEEE journal of solid-state circuits, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1736 – 1744, August 2005.  Jian-weizhang, Yi-zheng ye, and bin-da liu, “a current-recycling technique for shadow-match-line sensing in content-addressable memories,” IEEE transactions on very large scale integration (vlsi) systems, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 677 - 682, June 2008.  Kostas pagiamtzis, “Content Addressable Memory circuits and architectures: A tutorial and survey”, IEEE journal of solid state circuits, Vol 41, No. 3, March 2006.  Yen-Jen Chang and Tung-Chi Wu, “Master–Slave Match Line Design for Low-Power Content-Addressable Memory” IEEE Transactions On Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, pp. 1-10 August 2014.  L. Frontini, S. Shojaii , A. Stabile , V. Liberali, “A New XOR based Content addressable memory Architecture”, IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems, pp. 701-703, December 2012.  Kuo-Hsing Cheng, Chia-Hung Wei, Yu-Wen Chen, “Design of Low power content addressable memory cell”, IEEE symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 1447 - 1450 Vol. 3, December 2003.  Sreenivasa Rao, B. S. N. S. P. Kumar, S. Raghavendra, V. Malleswara Rao “Design and Implementation of CAM architecture memory cell” Trends in Network and Communication, Vol. 197, pp 159-166, October 2011.
Channel coding is commonly incorporated to obtain sufficient reception quality in wireless mobile communications transceiver to counter channel degradation due to inter-symbol interference, multipath dispersion, and thermal noise induced by electronic circuit devices. High speed and high throughput hardware for encoder and decoder could be useful in communication field. Due to the channel achieving property, the GOLAY code has become one of the most favorable error-correcting codes. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed for CRC based encoding scheme, which devoid of any linear feedback shift registers (LFSR). In this architecture, our work is to design a GOLAY code based encoder and decoder architecture using CRC processing technique. The other approach is to design a Bloom filter with hamming distance based fast error detection and correction methodology and this work is to improve the secure data transmission. The bloom filter system is to identify the error bit location using the redundant bits add process and to correct the error for XOR based distance calculation process. The Bloom filter architecture is used to set the hash value for allocated transmitted data sequence and to improve the fault identification methodology. This method is to optimize the decoder structure and effectively identify the error location, then to correct to error using bit reverser logic process.
Keywords : Golay Code, Extended Goaly Code, Bloom Filter
 M. J. E. Golay, “Notes on digital coding,” Proc. IRE, vol. 37, p. 657, Jun. 1949.  X.-H. Peng and P. G. Farrell, “On construction of the (24, 12, 8)Golay codes,”IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 3669–3675,Aug. 2006.  B. Honary and G. Markarian, “New simple encoder and trellis decoderfor Golay codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 25, pp. 2170–2171,Dec. 1993.  B. K. Classon, “Method, system, apparatus, and phone for error controlof Golay encoded data signals,”U.S. Patent 6 199 189, Mar. 6, 2001.  M.-I. Weng and L.-N. Lee, “Weighted erasure codec for the (24, 12) extended Golay code,” U.S.Patent 4 397 022, Aug. 2, 1983  S.-Y. Su and P.-C. Li, “Photoacoustic signal generation with Golaycoded excitation,” in Proc. IEEE Ultrason. Symp. (IUS), Oct. 2010, pp. 2151–2154.  M. Spachmann, “Automatic generation of parallel CRC circuits,” IEEEDes. Test. Comput., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 108–114, May/Jun. 2001.  G. Campobello, G. Patane, and M. Russo, “Parallel CRC realization,”Trans. Comput., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1312–1319, Oct. 2003.  R. Nair, G. Ryan, and F. Farzaneh, “A symbol based algorithm forhardware implementation of cyclic redundancy check (CRC),” inProc.VHDL Int. Users’ Forum, Oct. 1997, pp. 82–87.  P. adde and R. le Bidan, “A low-complexity soft-decision decoding architecture for the binay extended Golay code,” in proc. 19th IEEE Int. Conf. Electron, Circuits, Syst. (ICECS), Dec. 2012, pp.705-708.  F Chang, J dean, S, Ghemawat, “Bigtable: A distributed storage system for structured data”, WC Hsieh, 2014.  Michael Mitzenmacher, “Compressed Bloom Filters”, 2002.  Taskin Kocak and Ilhan Kaya, 2006. “Low-Power Bloom Filter Architecture for Deep Packet Inspection”,  Michael Paynter and Taskin Kocak, “Fully Pipelined Bloom Filter Architecture”, 2008  Haoyu Song, Sarang Dharmapurikar, “Fast Hash Table Lookup Using Extended Bloom Filter: An Aid to Network Processing”, 2005.
Nonlinear effects in optical fibers occur due to the refractive index changes in the medium with optical intensity and inelastic-scattering phenomenon. Four Wave Mixing (FWM) is caused by the third-order nonlinear susceptibility in Single-Mode Fibers (SMF). Optical Phase Conjugate (OPC) is an efficient technique to compensate the phase related impairments. OPC in the center of the channel defines especially a relationship between two coherent optical beams propagating in opposite directions with reversed wave front and identical transverse amplitude distributions. The most unique feature of OPC is that it automatically removes the aberration influenced on the forward beam passed through the disturbing medium. We design the dense WDM system with CO-OFDM signals at central wavelengths in the region of 1548 nm. This method offers almost negligible FWM by reducing the power level in optical spectrum. Through numerical simulation we report utilizing multiple OPC modules along fiber spans, which further improves the performance of communication systems in long-haul fiber-optic channels also it reduces the average power of FWM.
Keywords : Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (CO-OFDM); Four-Wave Mixing (FWM); Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM); Optical Phase Conjugate (OPC)
 Morteza H. Shoreh, “Compensation of Nonlinearity Impairments in Coherent Optical OFDM Systems Using Multiple Optical Phase Conjugate Modules”. IEEE, VOL. 6, NO. 6/JUNE 2014/J. OPT. COMMUN. NETW.  BU Rindhe, D Shah and SK Narayankhedkar. “OFDM and MCCDMA for 4G Networks”. International Journal for Computer Application, IJCA-2011. March 4, 2011; 6(6): 30-37; ISBN: 978-93-80747-69-0.  BU Rindhe, SK Narayankhedkarand and SV Dudul. “Modeling of SMF link for Optical Networks”. International Journal for Computer Application, IJCA-2012. March 9, 2012; 2(6): 41-46; ISBN: 973-93-80864-52-3.  W Shieh and C Athaudage. “Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing”. Electronics Letters. 2006;42: 587-588.  W Shieh, H Bao and Y Tang. “Coherent Optical OFDM. Theory and Design” published in OSA. Jan 9, 2008.  A. Lowery, S. Wang, and M. Premaratne, “Calculation of power limit due to fiber nonlinearity in optical OFDM systems,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 20, pp. 13 282–13 287, Oct. 2007.  G. P. Agrawal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems, Wiley-Interscience, 1997.  Guang S.He, “Optical Phase Conjugate: Principles, techniques and applications”, Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000, USA.  Jansen, Sander L. “Optical phase conjugation in fiber-optic transmission systems”, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2006.  R. M. Jopson and R. E. Tench,Electron. “FWM in fibers with random birefringence”, Lett.29, 2216 (1993).  Bernhard Goebel, Bertram Fesl, Leonardo D. Coelho and Norbert Hanik, “On the effect of FWM in Coherent OFDM systems”, 2008 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060.4080) Modulation.
The continuous stirred tank reactor process (CSTR) process is uncertain and nonlinear in nature. It possess many challenging characteristics like multivariable interactions, unmeasured state variables, and time varying parameters. The three mode controller namely PID controllers are used in general and such simple feedback control will be very effective in compensating for changes in feed temperature and less effective in compensating for changes in jacket temperature. The response of the simple feedback control can be improved by measuring jacket temperature and taking control action before its effect has been felt by the reacting mixture. The single loop auto tuned PID controller is not best suitable for disturbance rejection. Cascade control scheme is mainly used to achieve fast rejection of disturbance before it propagates to the remaining parts of the plant. In this paper, Internal Model based cascade controller is designed to control the temperature of the reactor. Simulation shows that the Internal Model based cascade controller yields better results when compared with classical cascade control scheme.
Keywords : Jacketed CSTR, Cascade controller, Internal Model based cascade controller
 R. Vinodha, S. A. Lincoln, and J. Prakash, “Design and implementation of simple adaptive control schemes on simulated model of CSTR process,” International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 159–169, 2011.  Bequette,B.W., Process control: modelling, design, and simulation ,Prentice Hall, New York(1998)  Sigurd Skogestad, and Ian Postletwaite, “Multivariable Feedback control Analysis and design” John Wiley & sons,Ltd , pp. 344 – 347.  George Stephanopoulos “Chemical Process Control”-.An Introduction to theory and Practice PHI 2004.Process dynamics and control By Dale E Seborg, Mellichamp and Edgar.  U.Sabura Banu and G.Uma “Fuzzy Gain Scheduled CSTR With GA-Based PID” Taylor & Francis Volume 195, Issue 10, 2008.P.Albertos and A.Sala., “Multivariable control systems” Springer International Edition,pp.19-32  H. Man and C. Shao, “Nonlinear predictive adaptive controller for CSTR process,” Journal of Computational Information Systems, vol. 8, no. 22, pp. 9473–9479, 2012.  J. Prakash and R. Senthil, “Design of observer based nonlinear model predictive controller for a continuous stirred tank reactor,Journal of Process Control, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 504–514, 2008.
Hand gesture recognition system’s performance and accuracy are increased by one of the pre-processing techniques. i.e., gesture segmentation. In some real time applications, due to low accuracy in gesture matching process used to lead unexpected response. Earlier days, contour model based hand gesture recognition, accelerometer based hand gesture recognition and scene classifications based on the contextual semantic information of an image are the recognition techniques used in hand gesture recognition system. Here, these techniques arise many problems. They are lagging in focus on detecting hands, some of them directly use marker based motion capture devices, it cannot provide a rotation and scale invariance, it does not provide the hand parts segmentation, and it capture the same gestures and manually labelled them for each subject. These draw backs can be overcome by implementing the new image segmentation algorithm. The proposed algorithm uses binaryzation and K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithms. The binaryzation used for back ground subtraction. And KNN classifier for classifying the hand features. Here, a sample image is processed with the graph cut algorithm. And then the parameter is observed. The parameter has been compared with parameter observed in CSS (Curvature Scale Space) algorithm. Finally, the result shows that graph cut algorithm gave the better accuracy than CSS algorithm. In real-time application, the obtained contour descriptor will be matched with contour descriptor in the data base. Once it matched, then it will trigger an event to drive an application.
Keywords : Gesture Segmentation, Binaryzation, K nearest Neighbour (KNN)
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In the recent past, wireless controlled vehicles had been extensively used in a lot of areas like unmanned rescue missions, military usage for unmanned combat and many others. But the major disadvantage of these wireless unmanned robots is that they typically make use of RF circuits for maneuver and control. Essentially RF circuits suffer from a lot of drawbacks such as limited frequency range i.e. working range, and limited control. To overcome such problems associated with RF control, few papers have been written, describing methods which make use of the GSM network and the DTMF function of a cell phone to control the robotic vehicle. This paper although uses the same principle technology of the GSM network and the DTMF based mobile phone but it essentially shows the construction of a circuit using only 4 bits of wireless data communication to control the motion of the vehicle without the use of any microcontroller. This improvement results in considerable reduction of circuit complexity and of manpower for software development as the circuit built using this system does not require any form of programming. Moreover, practical results obtained showed an appreciable degree of accuracy of the system and friendliness without the use of any microcontroller.
Keywords : DTMF decoder, GSM network, Motor driver, Microcontroller, Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs)
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Enhancement of the images will be more helpful in surveillances and remote sensing applications. While increasing the size of the image the original image quality will be affected. In order to avoid the loss of quality while enhancing the image, Non Local Means (NLM) Optimized Sparse Method is used. The noises and the pixel differences occurring in the up sampling and down sampling of the images were identified and they were removed based on the proposed method. Finally the images were enhanced by the edge enhancement process. The performance of the proposed method is proved using the performance parameters. The input OCT images were taken as input. Noises were added to the input images producing a noisy images. The input images were denoised based on the K-SVD process. K-SVD is a generalization of the k-means clustering method, and it works by iteratively alternating between sparse coding the input data based on the current dictionary, and updating the atoms in the dictionary to better fit the data. It aims to partition n observations into few clusters in which each observation belongs to the cluster with the nearest mean, serving as a prototype of the cluster. The denoised images were then clustered and edges of the clusters were identified. The clusters were estimated based on the FCM clustering process. The performance of the process is then measured using the performance parameters like PSNR, MSE and SSIM.
Keywords : DE noising, Optical Coherent Tomography, Dual Tree, K-SV, Clustering, Prototype
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This paper discourses about the Internet of Things. In the Internet of Things (IOT), devices gather and share information directly with every other connected and the cloud, enabling it to record and analyze new data streams faster and more accurately. This article reports on the current state of research on the Internet of Things by examining the literature in healthcare. Role in Healthcare domain is mandatory, which focuses on intra body monitoring services as well as maintaining the Healthcare records of patients. Also in this survey, it reviews the intra body networks, wearable technologies that are implemented in the healthcare context.
Keywords : IONT, IOBNT, Healthcare, Wearable Technologies
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A living lab for Internet of Things vending machines. In D. Uckelmann, B. ScholzReiter, I. Rügge, B. Hong, & A. Rizzi (Eds.), The impact of virtual, remote, and real logistics labs, communications in computer and information science (Vol. 282, pp. 35–43). Berlin: Springer  Song, Z., Cárdenas, A.A., & Masuoka, R. (2010). Semantic middleware for the Internet of Things. Proceedings of the Internet of Things (IOT).  Speed, C. (2011). An Internet of Things that do not exist. ACM Interactions, 18(3), 18–21.  Shen, G., & Liu, B. (2011). The visions, technologies, applications and security issues of Internet of Things. Proceedings of the International Conference on E-Business and E-Government (ICEE).  UnitedHealthcare Puts Its Connected Health Plan in Motion. Life Insurer Peers Into Customer’s Health Habits Through Their Watches.[Online].Available: http://www.iotjournal.com/articles.view?14184/2  S.M. Riazul Islam, MD. Humaun Kabir, Mahmud Hossain, and Kyung-Sup Kwak, “The Internet of Things for Health Care: A Comprehensive Survey”, IEEE Access, June 1, 2015.
Subgame Perfect Equilibrium (SGPE) is a special refinement of Nash equilibrium used in sequential games. A couple of quantum algorithms is presented in this paper to compute SGPE in a finite extensive form game with perfect information. The quantum search tools, Grover’s operator and Discrete quantum walk, are used to design the algorithms. A full-width game tree of average branching factor b and height h has n = O(bh) nodes in it. It will be shown in this paper that our algorithm uses O(n/(b1/2)) oracle queries to backtrack to the solution. The resultant speed-up is O(b1/2) times better than the best known classical approach, Zermelo's algorithm.
Keywords : Quantum algorithm, discrete quantum random walk, Quantum game theory, Algorithmic game theory, Sequential game, Nash Equilibrium, Subgame Perfect Equilibrium, Backward induction
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Pregnancy is the most significant stage of a woman’s life. Natural labour is boon to a pregnant woman. Women who have natural childbirths are extremely empowered and feel much more confident. The system being designed aims at providing guidance towards safe natural labour. The key concept is to gather details about the individuals and maintain the database in the cloud and segregate the users into major groups based on various measurable medical parameters. Queries are made by the individuals, which is then answered by the users of the system. The suggested solution is commented by the medical practitioners and posted to be availed by others, on the group. Machine learning intelligence, decides the solution that is specific for a particular group. Thus the system guides the individuals towards safer natural labour, in case of emergency.
Keywords : Machine learning intelligence, medical parameters, cloud, Internet of Things
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