Accumulation of dust on the surface of the solar panels is a natural phenomenon. These accumulated dust particles act as an obstrucle and obstruct the rays from reaching the panel. These particles act as external resistance. The amount of accumulated dust on the surface of the PV module effects the overall energy. Environment is one of the main contributing factor which affects the functioning of the panel. Shading of the panel can decrease the output reducing the overall solar photovoltaic performance of the cell. Hence by cleaning the module periodically can improve the efficiency by increasing the output by almost 50%.
Keywords : Dust, Photovoltaic, PV Module, Shading, Soiling Losses, Tracking
 Mohammad Reza Maghami, Hashim Hizam, Chandima Gomes, Mohd Amran Radzi, Mohammad Ismael Rezadad, Shahrooz Hajighorbani, Power loss due to soiling on solar panel : A review, in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016 p. 1307–1316.  Shaharin Anwar Sulaimana, Atul Kumar Singhb, Mior Maarof Mior Mokhtara, Mohammed A. Bou-Rabeec, Influence of Dirt Accumulation on Performance of PV Panels, in The International Conference on Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment, 2014 p. 50 – 56.  Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Haizatul H. Hussain, Nik Siti H. Nik Leh, and Mohd S. I. Razali, Effects of Dust on the Performance of PV Panels, in International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 5(10) 2011.  Herrmann W, Wiesner W, Vaassen W, Hotspot investigations on PV modules-new concepts for a test standard and consequences for module design with respect to bypass diodes. In: Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.1997, Conference RecordoftheTwenty-SixthIEEE; 1997.p.1129–1132.  Shirzadi S, Hizam H, Wahab N I A. Mismatch losses minimization in photo-voltaic arrays by arranging modules applying a genetic algorithm. Sol Energy 2014; 108:467–78.  Mousazadeh H, Keyhani A, Javadi A, Mobli H, Abrinia K, Sharifi A. A review of principle and sun tracking methods for maximizing solar systems output.RenewSustainEnergyRev2009; 13:1800–18.  Hajighorbani S, Radzi M, Ab Kadir M, Shafie S,Khanaki R,Maghami M.Eva- luation of Fuzzy Logic Subsets Effects on Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic System.Int J Photo energy 2014;2014.
In this paper we are proposing a semi-autonomous system. Semi-autonomous category falls in between manual and autonomous, which gives flexibility to users to move as per their choice. To avoid the risk of collision a group of monitoring sensors can be used. Ultrasonic sensors are simple, light, and inexpensive alternative to other range sensors. So here 4 Ultrasonic sensors have been used for detecting obstacle in forward, reverse, right and left direction. Android phone is used for wheelchair navigation and home automation purpose due its multiple advantages.
Keywords : Android Phone, Semi-Autonomous System, Ultrasonic Sensors, Wheelchair Navigation
 J. S. Nguyen, “A smart wheelchair system using a combination of Stereoscopic and spherical vision cameras,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Eng. and Inform tech., Sydney Uni., Sydney, 2012.  Q. Mourcou, A. Fleury, P. Dupuy, B. Diot, C. Franco, N. Vuilleme, “Wegoto: a smart phone based approach to assess and improve accessibility for wheelchair users,” 35th IEEE Annual International Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Osaka, 2013, pp. 1194-1197.  R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Yan, H. Zhang and S. Wu, “An intelligent Wheelchair based on automated navigation and BCI techniques,” 36th Annual IEEE International conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology society (EMBC), Chicago, IL, 2014, pp.1302-1305.  R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Yan, H. Zhang, S. Wu, T. Yu, and Z. Gu, “Control of a wheelchair in an indoor environment based on a brain-computer Interface and automated navigation,” IEEE Transaction on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. PP, issue: 99, ISSN:1534-4320, pp. 1534-4320, 2015.
In this study, a new boost converter with an active snubber cell is proposed. The active snubber cell provides main switch to turn on with zero voltage transition (ZVT) and to turn off with zero current transition (ZCT). The proposed converter incorporating this snubber cell can operate with soft switching at high frequencies. Also, in this converter all semiconductor devices operate with soft switching. There is no additional voltage stress across the main and auxiliary components. The converter has a simple structure, minimum number of components and ease of control as well. The Fuzzy Logic (FL) controller with two inputs maintains the load voltage by detecting the voltage variations through d-q transformation technique that is connected in feedback of these converter. The operation principle and detailed steady state analysis of the Fuzzy based ZVT-ZCT-PWM boost converter is given. The presented theoretical analysis is measured in simulation results by 1kW converter. Here output power upto 400v is given Also, the overall efficiency of the new converter has reached a value of 97.8% at nominal output power.
Keywords : Soft Switching, Zero Current Transition, Zero Voltage Transition, DC-DC Converter, Fuzzy Logic Controller
 G. Hua, C. S. Leu, Y. Jiang, and F. C. Lee, “Novel Zero-Voltage-Transition PWM Converters,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., vol. 9, pp. 213-219, Mar. 1994.Applicat., vol. 36, pp. 558-566, Mar. / Apr. 2000.  T. W. Kim, H. S. Kim, and H. W. Ahn, “An Improved ZVT PWM Boost Converter,” in Proc. 31th Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC′00), Galway, Ireland, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 615-619.  H. Bodur and A. F. Bakan, “A New ZVT-PWM DC-DC Converter,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., vol. 17, pp. 40-47, Jan. 2002.  H. Yu, B. M. Song, and J. S. Lai, “Design of a Novel ZVT Soft-Switching Chopper,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electron. vol. 17, pp. 101-108, Jan. 2002.  D.Y., Lee, M.K., Lee, D.S., Hyun, and.,Choy, “New Zero-Current-Transition PWM
A smart helmet is to be developed that can detect hazardous events in mining industries, tunnel works, etc. These areas are subjected to many hazardous situations. Let’s considered the three main types of hazard that usually occur in mines such as poor air quality, helmet removal and collision with objects. The first type of hazard, i.e., poor air quality refers to the increase in concentration of hazardous gases such as CO, SO2, NO2 and particulate matter inside the coal mines which is dangerous for the mine workers. In order to handle this situation sensors are provided in the outer surface of the helmet which will detect the presence of any hazardous gases. Sensors are also provided to measure the mine temperature and humidity. If any hazardous situation is detected, an alert message will be sent to the base station. The second hazardous event is the situation in which the miners remove the helmet off their head. In order to tackle this situation, a switch is given in the strap of the helmet such that the switch is activated when the helmet is clipped. The third type of hazard is collision of the miner’s head with any objects or sudden fall of the miner. This can be detected with the help of a vibration sensor. When a vibration of comparatively higher magnitude is detected, the base station (BS) is notified about the situation. There is a unique identification (UID) tag given for each helmet. In case of an emergency situation, the unique tag is also sent to the base station so that it is easy to identify which mine worker is affected or is in danger.
Keywords : Base Station (BS), Unique Identification (UID) Tag
 Tanmoy Maity, Partha Sarathi Das, Mithu Mukherjee, "A Wireless Surveillance and Safety System for Mine Workers based on Zigbee", First International Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology, RAIT, 2012.  G.Ahalya, P.Suresh Babu, P.Prabhakar Rao, "Development Of Coal Mine Safety System Using Wireless Sensor Network", IJESAT, Jun-Jul 2013, Volume-3, Issue-3, pp 74-78.  Y. Zhang, W. Yang, D. Han and Y. Kim, “An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring,” Sensors 2014, Vol. 14, 2014, pp.13149-13170.  K. Archana and A. W. Mudasser, “Zig-Bee and Wi-Fi based Mine Safety Application,” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol. 4, No.1, 2014, pp.1-4  Beena M Varghese, Binisha Balan, Neethu Varghese, Reshma Ganga dharan,and ShaimaPK,”Intelligent safety system for coal miners” in International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 4, Issue 9, March 2015  Eric Weston, Mahiyar F. Nasarwanji and Jonisha P. Pollard“Identification of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Mining” in Journal of Safety, Health & Environmental Research , VOLUME 12, Issue 1 , 2016
An efficient and inexpensive energy source, coal provides stable and large scale electricity generation. Coal mining has some problem associated with it. Mine collapse, coal dust, mine explosion are a few such. Out of these coal mine explosion can be the most disastrous. Safety on site is all about removing the possible risk from the job and miner from hazardous operation. Fire accidents may occur due to explosive or flammable materials. They can be prevented by taking safety measures. Robots are best and efficient way for taking these safety measures. So we are developing a ROBOT to detect fire and rescue from fire. Various sensors like temperature, humidity, gas sensors are employed to measure temperature, humidity level and presence of toxic gases. All the sensed parameters are then transmitted to monitoring station through a microcontroller (ATMEGA328).so that information regarding the underground climatic condition is obtained. Image signal processing is used to detect the fire. Alarming and alerting unit is used for indication of fire. We use microcontroller in the control unit that tend to act as a brain.
Keywords : Robot, Coal, Sensors, ATMEGA328
 K. Sahulhameed, W. Newton David Raj, S. Samsudeen, K. Noorulhak & G. Sabarish Nagamani,’ Artificial Eye and Sensory based an Intelligent Robot for Fire Extinguishment Task’, Special Issue of International Journal on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (IJACTE).  Puneet Sharma, Chandni Goel, Sorabh Datta and Sukhwinder Singh Dhillon,’ Fully Automated Fire Fighting Robot with Radio Frequency Module’, Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR)Volume 3, Issue 7 December 2014.  G. Divya and B.A.Sarath Manohar Babu,’ Rescue System for Coal Mine Workers using Different Sensors Based on GSM and RF-PRO’, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2014  Sahil S.Shah1, Vaibhav K.Shah2, Prithvish Mamtora3 and Mohit Hapani4,’ FIRE FIGHTING ROBOT’, International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Volume 2, Issue 4, July – August 2013  Chee Fai Tan, S.M. Liew, M.R. Alkahari, S.S.S. Ranjit, 1M.R. Said, W. Chen, G.W.M. Rauterberg, D. Sivakumar and Sivarao’,’ Fire Fighting Mobile Robot: State of the Art and Recent Development’, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(10): 220-230, 2013 ISSN 1991-8178  Ren C. Luo and Kuo L. Su, Member “Autonomous Fire-Detection System Using Adaptive Sensory Fusion for Intelligent Security Robot”-IEEE/ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 3, JUNE 2007  William Dubel, Hector Gongora, Kevin Bechtold, Daisy Diaz “An Autonomous Firefighting Robot”-IEEE SOUTHEASTCON 2003 http://dubel.org/robots/dubel_firefighter_FIU_fcrar2003.pdf  Ching-Chih Tsai, Senior Member, IEEE, Hsu-Chih Huang, Member, IEEE, and Shui-Chun Lin- “FPGA- Based Parallel DNA Algorithm for Optimal Configurations of an Omni directional Mobile Service Robot Performing Fire Extinguishment” - IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 58, NO. 3, MARCH 2011
This paper is about a robotic vehicle. The main objective of this robotic vehicle is to design an efficient charging system of batteries by means of tracked solar panels. The charging and discharging cycles of the batteries based on the PIC microcontroller is the design concept elaborated in this paper. On the PIC micro-controller the concept of efficient charging system is designed. The energy system consists of two batteries and these of two batteries are, one for charging independently from the solar panel and the other battery gives the energy for the Robotic vehicle. By implementing this method the efficient power management becomes possible. The switching time between the batteries can also be reduced by the control algorithm programmed in the PIC micro-controller.
Keywords : Robot, Photovoltaic (PV) System, PIC Controller
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Our aim is to create a SAFETY JACKET during accident in water. This jacket consist of an inflation unit which inflates when there occurs an accident in water which helps the user to float above water. The working mechanism is that, at the time when accident occur the salt used here get dissolved in water and make the co2 cylinder valve open. Then the gas get filled the inflating unit and thus the floating occurs. The wire connected adjacent to the jacket will release automatically its connection when the jacket get expand. The GPS and GSM module used here get activated and the location message will be reaching the emergency department. By this the rescue system is done more efficiently. Recent day’s people are using life jacket for water safety and this system does not consist of any GPS and GSM module. Our proposed system will efficiently help the emergency department in saving life. The main disadvantages of the recent life jacket is Bulky and uncomfortable also it does not consist of accruing location of the user for more efficient rescue methods. The safety jacket proposed here is compact in size and sent the location of the person who met with accident to emergency department and the life is saved without any fail.
Keywords : Smart Jacket, Water Safety, Inflating Unit, GPS Security System
 N. E. Miller, J. M. Adams Stevens Institute of Technology 1, Castle Point on Hudson Hoboken ‘Saving Navy SEALS: Pressure-Activated System for Personal Flotation Device’, IEEE international conference on safety navy system, Sept. 2014.  Dr. Yu-Lin Wang, Prof. Chung-Sing, Chin ,’A Research on Using Adjustable Buoyancy Assistive Device in Hydrotherapy for Cerebral Palsy Children Prototyping of the Adjustable Hydrotherapy Floatation Jacket’, IEEE international conference on Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology may 2011.  Mohammad Khalaj Amir Hosseini, Mohammad Taghi Ramezani, Mohammad Banae,’ Transportation and Float over Installation of South Pars Gas Field -Phase1 Living Quarters Platform in the Persian Gulf’, lEEE Conference, California, USA, September 22-26,2003.  Shahin Matin & Mohammad Hossein Namayandegi, ‘Desirability in design for safety: Developing life jacket through creative problem solving method of TRIZ’, 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group  Cole S. Simpson, Allison M. Okamura, and Elliot W. Hawkes,’ Exomuscle: An inflatable device for shoulder abduction support’, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) Singapore, May 29 - June 3, 2017
Single converter solar high mast lighting system is a project to design and implement a stand-alone MIMO converter solar power high mast light. The main focus of this project is to determine the options that are available to replace grid-powered street lamps with a stand-alone system that has the reliability to work under the worst conditions. The system’s main circuit is a MIMO converter which is able to accommodate arbitrary number of sources and loads. The system consists of two inputs and outputs i.e. inputs as solar cell and power grid and outputs as battery and high mast light. It only employs a single inductor, which can reduce the complexity and cost of the system as well as simplify the current sensing. By sensing the inductor current and monitoring the switching signals of the switches, the input and output currents can be determined without employing additional current sensing circuitry.
Keywords : MIMO Converter, High Mast Light
 Hamid Behjati and Ali Davoudi, “A Multiple-Input Multiple-Output DC-DC Converter”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 49, no. 3, May/ June 2013.  B. G. Dobbs and P. L. Chapman, “A multiple-input dc-dc converter topology,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6–9, Mar. 2003.  A. Khaligh, J. Cao, and Y.-J. Lee, “A multiple-input dc–dc converter topology,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 862–868, Mar. 2009.
This paper gives the idea about stability issue that mobile robot facing and a stable balancing robot that balance itself on a pair of wheels. To found out a solution for this issue ;we have designed a self-balancing robot based on the principle of Inverted pendulum, which is a two wheel vehicle which balances itself up in the vertical position with reference to the ground. It consist both hardware and software implementation. The mechanical model is based on the state space design of the cart, pendulum system. A Segway-type vehicle is a classic inverted pendulum control problem that is solvable in two degrees of freedom for the simplest models. The vehicle attempts to correct for an induced lean angle by moving forward or backward, and the goal is to return itself to vertical. Or at least not fall over.
Keywords : Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), Digital Motion Processor™ (DMP), Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs)
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