This paper proposes a new fuzzy logic controller for seven-level hybrid cascaded H-bridge inverter. The inverter is used for on-grid application of PV a system. Here a Sinusoidal pulse width-modulation (SPWM) technique is applied for obtaining carrier signals. Multi-Level Inverter technology have been developed in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy scheme. It is because of their advantages such as devices of high dv/dt rating, higher switching frequency, unlimited power processing, shape of output waveform and desired level of output voltage, current and frequency adjustment. This topology can be used there by enabling the scheme to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for high voltage applications. The Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm is also used for extracting maximum power from the PV array connected to each DC link voltage level. The Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm is solved by Perturb and Observer method. It has high performance with low Total Harmonic Distortion and reduced by this control strategy.
Keywords : Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Multilevel Inverter, Fuzzy Logic Controller
 K. H. Hussein, I. Muta, T. Hoshino, and M. Osakada, “Maximum photovoltaic power tracking: An algorithon for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 1995.  C. Hua, J. Lin, and C. shen, “Implementation of a DSP-controlled photovoltaic system with peak power tracking,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 99–107, Feb. 1998.  O. F. Walker, Wind Energy Technology. New York: Wiley, 1997.  K. Amei, Y. Takayasu, T. Ohji, and M. Sakui, “A maximum power control of wind generator system using a permanent magnet synchronous generator and a boost chopper circuit,” in Proc. Power Conv., 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1447–1452.  X. S. Li, et al., "Analysis and Simplification of Three-Dimensional Space Vector PWM for Three-Phase Four-Leg Inverters," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, pp. 450-464, Feb 2011.  D. Zhang, et al., "Common Mode Circulating Current Control of Interleaved Three-Phase Two-Level Voltage-Source Converters with Discontinuous Space-Vector Modulation," 2009 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Vols 1-6, pp. 3906-3912, 2009.  Z. Yinhai, et al., "A Novel SVPWM Modulation Scheme," in Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2009. APEC 2009. Twenty-Fourth Annual IEEE, 2009, pp. 128-131.  J. H. R. Enslin and D. B. Snyman, “Combined low-cost, highefficient inverter, peak power tracker and regulator for PV applications,” IEEE Tran. Power Electron. vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 73–82, Jan. 1991.  K. H. Hussein, I. Muta, T. Hoshino, and M. Osakada, “Maximum photovoltaic power tracking: An algorithon for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 1995.  C. Hua, J. Lin, and C. shen, “Implementation of a DSP-controlled photovoltaic system with peak power tracking,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 99–107, Feb. 1998.  K. Amei, Y. Takayasu, T. Ohji, and M. Sakui, “A maximum power control of wind generator system using a permanent magnet synchronous generator and a boost chopper circuit,” in Proc. Power Conv., 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1447–1452.  R. Cardenas, R. Pena, G. Asher, and J. Cilia, “Sensor less control of induction machines for wind energy applications,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, 2002, pp. 265–270.  T.-F. Wu, C.-H. Chang, Z.-R. Liu and T.-H. Yu, “Single-Stage converters for photovoltaic powered lighting systems with MPPT and charging features,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 1998, pp. 1149–1155.  M. Kolhe, J. C. Joshi, and D. P. Kothari, “Performance analysis of a directly Coupled photovoltaic water-pumping system,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 613–618, Sep. 2004.  A. M. De Broe, S. Drouilhet, and V. Gevorgian, “A peak power tracker for small wind turbines in battery charging applications,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1630–1635, Dec. 1999.
Smart dust is a tiny dust size device with extra-ordinary capabilities. Smart dust combines sensing, computing, wireless communication capabilities and autonomous power supply within volume of only few millimeters and that too at low cost. These devices are proposed to be so small and light in weight that they can remain suspended in the environment like an ordinary dust particle. These properties of Smart Dust will render it useful in monitoring real world phenomenon without disturbing the original process to an observable extends. Presently the achievable size of Smart Dust is about 5mm cube, but we hope that it will eventually be as small as pack of dust. Individual sensors of smart dust are often referred to as motes because of their small size. These devices are also known as MEMS, which stands for micro electro-mechanical sensors.
Keywords : Smart Dust, Millimeters, MEMS
 Yunbin Song: ”Optical Communication Systems for Smart Dust”  J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, K. S. J. Pister: Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for “Smart Dust”  An Introduction to Microelectromechancal System Engineering: Nadim Maluf, Kirt William  B.A. Warneke, M.D. Scott, B.S. Leibowitz: Distributed Wireless Sensor Network  http://www.coe.berkeley.edu/labnotes
PHEV is a hybrid electric vehicle that uses rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device that can be recharged by plugging it into an external source of electric power. By using the PHEVs with grid connection we can decrease the fossil fuel consumption, therefore it provides stability, voltage control and frequency control. Uncoordinated charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will produce a series of negative effects on the electric grid. To solve this problem, we have to make smart-charging strategy by knowing PHEV charging characteristics. Here we use a bidirectional ac-dc converter and a bidirectional dc-dc converter. The main objective is to use bidirectional switching converter for PHEV to obtain high energy density, low volume and low weight. With the help of these bidirectional converters the excess charge in battery after charging PHEV can be fed back to the grid which can be utilized for load demands. This bi-directional charger must have the capability to charge a PHEV’s battery pack while producing minimal current harmonics and also have the ability to return energy back to the grid in accordance with regulations. There are two modes of operations i.e. charging and discharging modes of battery. The ac-dc controller act as a regulator during charging mode and as an inverter during discharging mode. Also, we use integrated controller for both modes to obtain performance of battery.
Keywords : PHEV, Grid Connection, Bidirectional AC-DC Converter, Integrated Controller
 Mohammad Jahani, AmirHosein Akbari, Jafar Milimonfared, Javad Shokrollahi Moghani “A new bidirectional switching converter structure for PHEV", 8th Power Electronics, Drive Systems & Technologies Conference (PEDST), 2017 IEEE.  Zhang, Zhiwei; Gu, Danzhen "Impacts of charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the electric grid and its charging strategies", Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM), 2012 IEEE.  Y. Yang, T. Li, l Liu, and H. Li, "A comprehensive analysis of coupled inductors in 4 phases interleaving bidirectional DC/DC converter" in 3rd IEEE PEDG, Jun. 2012, pp. 603 - 607.  V. Monteiro, l G. Pinto, Joao C. Ferreira, Henrique Gon9alves, Joao 1. Afonso "Bidirectional Multilevel Converter for Electric Vehicles," Annual Seminar on Automation, Industrial Electronics and Instrumentation 2012 - SAAEI'12, pp.434- 39,Guimaraes, Portugal, .lui 2012, ISBN: 978-972-98603-5.  D. C. Erb, O. C. Onar, and A. Khaligh, "Bi-directional charging topologies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles," in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo., Feb. 2010, pp. 2066-2072.  G. Y. Choe, l Kim, B. K. Lee, C. Y. Won, and T. W. Lee, "A bidirectional battery charger for electric vehicles using photovoltaic PCS systems," in Proc. IEEE Veh. Power Propulsion Conf., Sep. 2010, pp. 16.  T. Odun-Ayo, M. Crow, "An Analysis of the Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Power System Stability"[C).// Proceedings of the North American Power Symposium (NAPS), 2009: 1-5.  V. K. Sood, D. Fischer, l M. Eklund, and T. Brown, "Developing a communication infrastructure for the smart grid," presented at the IEEE Elect. Power Energy Conf. (EPEC), Montreal, QC, Canada, 2009.
The main aim of developing this Solar based Robot for garden grass cutting and watering Plants IoT project is to provide an easy way of cutting grass and watering methods to the formers without much manual interaction. A Solar grass cutter is a machine that uses sliding blades to cut a lawn at an even length. Even more sophisticated devices are there in every field. Power consumption becomes essential for future. Solar grass cutter is a very useful device which is very simple in construction. It is used to maintain and upkeep lawns in gardens, schools, college’s etc. We have made some changes in the existing machine to make its application easier at reduced cost. Our main aim in pollution control is attained through this. Unskilled operation can operate easily and maintain the lawn very fine and uniform surface look. In our project, solar grass cutter is used to cut the different grasses for the different application.
Keywords : Solar Energy, Grass Cutter, Robot
 The solar entrepreneur’s handbook, Wise publications  A project report on―solar tracking system using hydraulic damper ‖ (MeRITS)  Non - Conventional Energy sources by G.D.RAI, Khanna Publishers  A project report on solar powered bicycle‖ (MeRITS)  www.solar grass powered grass cutter.com [online]  www.merits.tech.in
This paper describes a very simple & generic model of evaluating the overall performance of approved vendors in respect of an engineering industry. A product consists of thousands of parts and some parts need to be procured from outside vendors based on “Make or buy” decision. Thus manufacturing & vendor development are two sides of the same coin. The vendors of regular inventory are considered for evaluation. A poor performance by even a single vendor will have a telling impact on the production in the company. Hence vendor evaluation/rating assumes significance. This method takes into account five criteria such as Quality, Price, Delivery, Service & Support. The first three are objective in nature & last two are subjective in nature. The provision of negative marks is also indicated here. The overall performance rating is a numerical value. Based on this value, vendors are graded into three categories such as high, mediocre & poor performers. This gives an opportunity for the company management where to focus and also vendors will come to know where they stand & how to improve. This model is widely accepted in mechanical engineering industries. This will ultimately result in good vendor relations which is the need of the hour.
Keywords : Approved Vendor, Quality, Price, Delivery, Vendor Grading, Vendor Relations
 Robert, Edward & Betty (1991), Industrial Marketing: Analysis, Planning & Control, 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall International, London.  R Panneerselvam (2012), Production and Operations Management, 3rd edition, PHI Learning (P) Ltd., New Delhi.  H A Mandave & P M Khodke (2010), “Vendor Rating: A Tool for Quality in Supply Chain Management”, The IUP Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol. VII, No. 3, pp. 40-48, September 2010.  Quality System Procedure (QSP) of Kerala Agro Machinery Corporation Ltd, (KAMCO) Athani (An ISO 9001: 2015 Certified Company).  Supplier Evaluation, Approval & Review Procedure of BHEL, New Delhi.
We all know that electricity is a part of our day today life and its demand has increased considerably due to the rise in the population. In order to supply power to the consumers, it has to be transmitted with minimum amount of losses such that the power system provides better efficiency. For this purpose, generation, transmission and distribution must be efficiently carried out considering all the factors in order to reduce losses and increase the power outcome. Transmission line (TL) plays an important role in transmitting electrical power. This paper deals with the maintenance of overhead (OH) TL by using a robot, which monitors the TL and detects any fault if present, so that electricity is transmitted with minimum amount of losses. Maintenance and detection of any kind of faults in the TL is a difficult task we face then and now because of risky factor while dealing with high voltages. Usually inspectors carry line inspection by aviation method which includes an observer who observes the TL by a helicopter driven by a pilot which is indeed a costly one and the video images provided from the helicopter is out of focus. Hence in order to achieve the same a robot is used which travels on the TL with the help of rollers on it. The robot inspects the TL and transfers the data regarding the line faults directly to the control room. In this method, the robot is equipped with a voltage and current sensor for the measurement of voltage and current, a RF module for communication purposes and a visual camera to capture images to be sent to the control room. This method is so advantageous in reducing cost, increasing efficiency and enhancing safety.
Keywords : Bundled Conductors, ACSR, Corona
 J. Sawada, K. Kusumoto, T. Munakata, Y. Maikawa, and Y. Ishikawa, “A mobile robot for inspection of power TLs,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 309-315, 1991.  K. Toussaint, N. Pouliot, and S. Montamboult, “Transmission line maintenance robots capable of crossing obstacles: state of the art review and challenges ahead,” Journal of Field Robotics, vol. 26. no.5, pp. 477-499, 2009.  S. Aoshima, T. Tsujimura, and T. Yabuta, “A wire mobile robot with multi-unit structure,” IEEE/RSJ International Workshop on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 414-421, 1989.  L. Wang, S. Cheng, and J. Zhang, “Development of a line walking mechanism for power transmission line inspection purpose,” in: Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 3323-3328, 2009.
Grid connection capability of distributed generation attracts researchers due to the cumulative demand for electricity and environment pollution concern as a new emerging technology for providing reliable and clean power supply. A microgrid comprises distributed generation, energy storage, loads, and a control system that is capable of operating in grid-tied mode and/or islanded mode. As operation modes are shifted, the microgrid should successfully manage the voltage and frequency adjustment in order to protect the grid and any loads connected to the system. Facilitation of the generation-side and load-side management and the resynchronization process is required. This paper presents an overall description and typical distributed generation technology of a microgrid. It also adds a comprehensive study on energy storage devices, microgrid loads, interfaced distributed energy resources (DER), power electronic interface modules and the interconnection of multiple microgrids. Details of stability, control and communication strategies are also provided in this study. This article describes the existing control techniques of microgrids that are installed all over the world and has tabulated the comparison of various control methods with pros and cons. Moreover, it aids the researcher in envisioning an actual situation using a microgrid today, and provides insight into the possible evolvement of future grids. In conclusion, the study emphasizes the remarkable findings and potential research areas that could enrich future microgrid facilities.
Keywords : Microgrid, Power Quality, Distributed Energy Resources
 International Referred Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES), A Review of Recent Developments in Micro Grid, Mr.Rudresh.B.Magadum1, Smt.Shobha.S.Kumbar2 (Electrical Department, Sanjay Ghodawat Group of Institutions, Atigre, Maharashtra, India)  International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Enhancing Power Quality to Sensitive Loads with Microgrid Using Fuzzy Logic Controller, Vol. 5, Issue 10, October 2016  Power Quality Improvement for Microgrid in Islanded Mode, Gao Xiaozhi*, Li Linchuan*, Chen Wenyan*, Key  Laboratory of Power System Simulation and Control of Ministry of Education,Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.  Juan Carlos, “Decentralized Control Techniques Applied to Electric Power Distributed Generation in Microgrids”, A dissertation submitted for the degree of European Doctor of Philosophy, June 10, 2009  Ming Ding; Yingyuan Zhang; Meiqin Mao, "Key technologies for microgrids-a review," International Conference on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, 2009. SUPERGEN '09, pp.1,5, 6-7 April 2009 , Nanjing China.  Fast Market Research “Microgrid Market, Global Forecast & Analysis (2012 - 2022) - Focus on Renewable Power Generation, Solar Photo-voltaics, Wind Micro-Turbines, Battery, Energy Storage & Control Systems, By Types, Components & Technologies”.
Wireless power transmission technology enables flexible comfortable supplying energy needs to electric devices. However, the wireless power transmission technologies that use the magnetic field resonance method have various problems. Much of the research is often focused on the efficiency between resonators. The relationship between the internal resistance and efficiency is not clear. The efficiency at high output power is not well understood. Practically adding an internal resistance as an equivalent of both of rectifier and inverter losses is important for efficiency calculation. Even if the wireless power transmission has high efficiency it is not suitable for practical use if the output power rating is very small. We can increase transmission power in accordance to the principles of the LC cancellation by using the resonance phenomenon even at a small coupling coefficient.
Keywords : Wireless Power Supplies, LC Cancellation, Magnetic Resonance, Total Efficiency
 Kurs, A. et ai., "Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances," Science Magazine, vol. 317, No. 5834, pp. 83- 86, Jan. 2007.  H. Sakamoto, and E. Sakai, "Current Status and Issues of wireless power," in Energy Electronics Laboratory, pp. 96-104, Oct. 2010.  T. Imura, T. Uchida, and Y. Hari, "A Uni fied Explanation of Electromagnetic Induction and Electromagnetic Resonant Coupling for Contactless Power Transfer," in proceeding of Technical Meeting on Vehicle Technology, pp. 35-40, Jan. 2009.  H. Abe, K. Furukawa, F. Nishimura, T. Ota, and H. Kitamura, "Etliciency and Standby Power of Wireless Energy Transfer System," in lEICE Technical Report, Yo1.lll, No.223, pp.31-36, EE2011-23, Sept. 2011  T. Yoshimura, and M. Shoyama, "Electromagnetic Resonance Techniques for Wireless Power Supplies," in IEICE Technical Report, Yo1.lll, No.400, pp.1 03-1 08, EE 2011-49, Jan. 2012.
An experimental implementation of a standalone microgrid topology based on a single voltage source converter (VSC) and brushless generators. The microgrid system is energised with different renewable energy sources namely wind and solar PV array. However, a diesel generator (DG) set and a battery energy storage system (BESS) are also used to maintain the reliability of the system. The proposed topology has the advantage of reduced switching devices and simple control. The implemented topology has DG set as an AC source. The wind generator and the solar PV array are DC sources which are connected to the DC link of the VSC. The BESS is also used at the DC link to facilitate the instantaneous power balance under dynamic conditions. Two controllers for generator, PV and Wind are explained in which one is simulated using Matlab Simulink and Output is obtained.
Keywords : Power Flow Control, Control Strategy, Equalized Output of All Sources
 Katiraei,F.,Iravani, M.R., Lehn, P.W., 2005. ”Micro-grid autonomous operation during and subsequent to is landing process”. IEEE Trans.PowerDelivery20 (January (1)), 248–257  Loi Lei Lai and Tze Fun Chan, Distributed Generation - Induction and Permanent Magnet Generators, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.  Wei Li and Géza Joós McGill University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering” A Power Electronic Interface for a Battery Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Wind Applications” 978-1-4244-1668-4/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE  Katiraei, Farid, Iravani, Reza, Hatziargyriou Nikos, Dimeas, Aris, 2008.”Microgrids management”. IEEE Power Energy Mag.6 (May/June (3)), 54–65.  A. Elmitwally, Member, IEEE, and Mohamed Rashed, Member, IEEE” Flexible Operation Strategy for an Isolated PV-Diesel Microgrid without Energy Storage” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 26, NO. 1, MARCH 2011  Haihua Zhou, Student Member, IEEE, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Duong Tran, Tuck Sing Terence Siew, and Ashwin M.  Khambadkone, Senior Member, IEEE “Composite Energy Storage System Involving Battery and Ultra capacitor With Dynamic Energy Management in Microgrid Applications” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 26, NO. 3, MARCH 2011  M.A. Tankari, M.B. Camara, B. Dakyo and G. Lefebvre, “Use of Ultra capacitors and Batteries for Efficient Energy Management in Wind–Diesel Hybrid System,” IEEE Trans. on Sustainable Energy, vol.4, no.2, pp.414-424, April 2013.  B. Singh and S.R. Arya, “Composite observer-based control algorithm for distribution static compensator in four-wire supply system”, IET Power Electronics, p. 251-260, 2013.
Standby power refers to the electrical energy that is used by devices even when they appear to be turned off. Standby power allows electronics to turn on quickly, but means that they are constantly drawing some power from the electrical grid. Many electronic appliances consume standby power, which as per IEC definition is the equipment’s' lowest level of power intake while in switched on but idle state. The users of these devices are often unaware of such continuous power drain. Computers, that enable better productivity and accuracy, are in common use today. Personal Computers (PC) need stable power inputs that can deliver rigidly regulated and isolated DC outputs of high power quality at different levels. However, the standby power associated with Personal Computers is substantial. Therefore, the primary objective of the project is to develop a Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) that integrates with a battery that is charged by solar energy. The battery provides standby power of the requisite quality to the Pc. Power factor is improved using buck-boost PFC converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode at the front end. Simulation of the suggested model implemented in Matlab/Simulink Software has demonstrated improved performance for the proposed Hybrid SMPS.
Keywords : Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS), IEC, Personal Computers (PC), Matlab/Simulink Software
 Chi a-Hung Lien, Ying-Wen Bai, and Ming-Bo Lin, "Remote Controllable Power Outlet System for Home Power Management," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, pp. 1634-1641, Nov. 2007.  Ju-Yong Kim, June-Whan Choi, and Yong-Sul Kim, "Hybrid SMPS(Switched-Mode Power Supply) system using the solar cell," in Corif', International Conference on Engineering and Industries (ICEI), 20 II  Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions, International Electro technical Commission Standard, 61000-3-2, 2004  J. B. V Reddy, G. Bhuvaneswari and Bhim Singh, "Multiple Output SMPS using a single cuk converter", in Proc. of lASTED International Corif', on Power and Energy Systems, October 24 - 26, 2005  J. B. V Reddy, S. Nagaraju, G. Bhuvaneswari, B. Singh, "A Simple control Technique for SEPIC converter based Multiple Output SMPS with Fully Regulated and Isolated Outputs," International Journal of Electronics, vol. 94, no. 11-12, pp. 1005-1014, 2007.  A. Martinez, D. Abud and J. Arau, "150 watts switched mode power supply for personal computers applications with power factor correction," in 3rd International con! on Power Electronics Congress, CIEP'94, 1994, pp. 8-14.  Shikha Singh, G. Bhuvaneswari, Bhim Singh, "A power factor corrected two stage switched mode power supply," in Con! 16- 19 December 2012 on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems.  K. Matsui, I. Yamamoto, T. Kishi, M. Hasegawa, H. Mori and F. Ueda, "A comparison of various buck-boost converters and their application to PFC," in 2811. coif. 2002 IEEE IECON'02, vol. I, pp. 30-36.  J. M. Kwon, W. Y. Choi, H. L. Do and B. H. Kwon, "Single stage half bridge converter using a coupled inductor," in Proc. 2005 lEE Electric Power Applications, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 748- 756.  Woo-Young Choi and Joo-Seung Yoo "A bridgeless single stage half bridge ac/dc converter," IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3884-3895, Dec. 2011.  Kyu-Min Cho, Won-Sik Oh, Keun-Wook Lee and Gun-Woo Moon, "A new half bridge converter for the personal computer power supply," in IEEE Con! 2008 Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC '08, pp. 986-99.  Singh, S.; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Singh, B. "Power factor corrected SMPS using Sheppard-Taylor converter," IEEE Students' Conference on, Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science (SCEECS),2014.
Automatic monitoring of vehicle has become a very essential scenario in the recent years and it can become possible by implementing the following technology. The beginning of the 21st century was the time when importance for Environmental awareness was instigated. One of the major concerns regarding the environment is air pollution. The main pollutants from the vehicles are the oxides of carbon and nitrogen, which can be easily detected these days with the help of semiconductor gas sensors. The system consists of a global positioning system, an IoT module and a GSM board. The gas sensor detects the gas produced due to over pollution and the micro-controller board determines the proportion and if it is higher than the stated limit as per the Bharat Stage 6 norms, the GPS system sends the co-ordinates to the nearby RTO. The warnings received will be saved and if the warnings exceed more than three times or if the pollution level raises drastically the vehicle automatically provides navigation to a nearby safe zone. The safe zones are detected automatically with the help of IoT and GPS technologies. A vehicle speed monitoring sensor is used and is coupled with the IoT so as to reduce the speed of the vehicle at specific places, say school zones, hospitals, accident prone zones etc,. If this technology is employed the parameter of safety and reduction in pollution levels as well as prevention of accidents can be achieved.
Keywords : Automobile Speed Sensing, Smoke Detecting System, IoT Module, GPS Technologies, GSM Board
 ARDUINO application via ARDUINO COOKBOOK EDITION II by MICHAEL MARGOLIS.  Advanced programming for ARDUINO from the ARDUINO ROBOTICS by JOHN-DAVID WARREN, JOSH ADAMS and HARALD MOLLE.  AN INTELLIGENT AIR POLLUTANT VECHICLE TRACKER SYSTEM USING GAS SENSOR AND GPS (IJCSIET--International Journal of Computer Science information and Engg., Technologies ISSN 2277-4408 || 01102014-049)
Recently, many researches has been carried out to save the energy in many aspects such as producing a device which consumes very less energy or designing a system which helps to reduce the power consumption using the existing devices. In this paper, a room light control system is proposed which is named as light control system (LCS). This proposed system will able to provide the needed light which provides the satisfaction of users and will provide energy saving and management. In this paper the Lighting Control System and the decision making algorithm, are discussed. As per the algorithm the system will first check any occupant is there in the room. If so then the system will check the intensity of light in the room and if it is low then it will switch on the light. Our proposed system can able to minimize the energy consumed for lighting in a room and can able to provide it efficiently.
Keywords : Lighting Control System, Energy Saving, LDR, PIR Sensor
 CIBSE. Reasoning about naming systems. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 2002.  Intelligent Energy Conservation System Design Based on Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network Hung-Cheng Chen Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taiwan, Teng-Fa Tsao Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan Kai University of Technology, Taiwan , Chun-Liang Hsu Department of Electrical Engineering, St. John’s University, Taiwan IPCSIT vol. 23 (2012).  Evaluation of Energy-Efficiency in Lighting Systems using Sensor Networks Declan T. Delaney, Gregory M.P. O’Hare, and Antonio G. Ruzzelli CLARITY: Centre for Sensor Web Technologies University College Dublin  Intelligent Lighting System Using Wireless Sensor Networks A.A.Nippun Kumaar , Kiran.G ,Sudarshan TSB Department of Computer Science &Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, School Of Engineering, Bangalore Campus, India IJASUC Vol.1, No.4, December 2010  Microchip Technology Inc. PIC16F877A Datasheet, RevisionC, 2003.  http://www.parallax.com/detail.asp?pro d uctid=555-28027  Datasheet of NORP 12 LDR
This paper represents an effective technique for the user to monitor and control the house/office appliances and other equipment’s via the mobile phone. The home automation improves the lifestyle of control of the home device. Our work is based on embedded system. In this project, we propose a unique System for Home automation utilizing Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) that is paired with a wireless module to provide seamless wireless control over many devices in a house. We can operate our robot from any distant or remote area. It is a wireless robot but instead of using a separate wireless module (transmitter and receiver) we are using the cell phones for this purpose. The principle used for mobile controlled robot is the decoding of DTMF tone.
Keywords : DTMF Decoder, Microcontroller, Embedded System, Mobile Phone Etc
 N. Sriskanthan and T. Karand, Bluetooth Based Home Automation System, Journal of Microprocessors and Microsystems, 26, 2002, 281- 289.  M. I. Ramli, M. H. AbdWahab and N. Ahmad, Towards Smart Home: Control Electrical Devices Online, International Conference on Science and Technology: Application in Industry and Education 2006.  Al-Ali, (Member, IEEE) & M. AL-Rousan, Java-Based Home Automation System R. IEEE Transactions on Consumer lectronics, 50(2), may 2004.  G.B.Pradeep, B.SanthiChandra, M.Venkates-warao, Ad-Hoc Low Powered 802.15.1 Protocol Based Automation System for Residence using Mobile Devices, Dept.of ECE, K L University, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India, IJCST, 2, SP 1, December 2011.  E. Yavuz, B. Hasan, I. Serkan and K. Duygu. Safe and Secure PIC Based Remote Control Application for Intelligent Home. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 7(5), May 2007.
The purpose of stress meter is to assess the emotional pain of human being. The stress can cause hair to fall, acne to break out and many other problems. These manifestations of stress can cause even more anxiety. This stress monitor lets you assess your emotional pain. If the stress is very high, it gives visual indication through a light-emitting diode LED display along with warning beep. The gadget is small enough to be worn around the wrist. The LM3915 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analog voltage levels and drives ten LED's, LCD's or vacuum fluorescent displays, providing a logarithmic 3db/step analog display.
Keywords : Stress Meter, LED, Circuit Diagram, LCD
 Roberto Bonomi, “Stress and Mind Control”, dated 21/03/2008  Joseph Edminster and Mahmood Nahvi, Electric circuits, Schaum's Futline, 2003  Richard ( Jaegar and Travis 7 )laloc+, "icro electronic circuit design, Third Edition Errata , 0112
SmartMonitor is an intelligent security system based on image analysis that combines the advantages of alarm, video surveillance and home automation systems. The system is a complete solution that automatically reacts to every learned situation in a pre-specified way and has various applications, e.g., home and surrounding protection against unauthorized intrusion, crime detection or supervision over ill persons. The software is based on well-known and proven methods and algorithms for visual content analysis (VCA) that were appropriately modified and adopted to fit specific needs and create a video processing model which consists of foreground region detection and localization, candidate object extraction, object classification and tracking. In this paper, the “SmartMonitor” system is presented along with its architecture, employed methods and algorithms, and object analysis approach. Some experimental results on system operation are also provided. In the paper, focus is put on one of the aforementioned functionalities of the system, namely supervision over ill persons.
Keywords : SmartMonitor, Visual Content Analysis (VCA), Intelligent Security
 Frejlichowski D., Forczmański P., Nowosielski A., Gościewska K., Hofman R. SmartMonitor: An approach to simple, intelligent and affordable visual surveillance system. In: Bolc L., Wojciechowski K., Tadeusiewicz R., Chmielewski L.J., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 7594. Springer; Berlin, Germany: 2012. pp. 726–734.  Frejlichowski D., Gościewska K., Forczmański P., Nowosielski A., Hofman R. SmartMonitor: Recent progress in the development of an innovative visual surveillance system. J. Theor. Appl. Comput. Sci. 2012; 6:28–35  Frejlichowski D., Gościewska K., Forczmański P., Nowosielski A., Hofman R. Extraction of the foreground regions by means of the adaptive background modelling based on various colour components for a visual surveillance system. In: Burduk R., Jackowski K., Kurzyński M., Woźniak M., Żołnierek A., editors. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Volume 226. Springer Publishing; Berlin, Germany: 2013. pp. 351–360.  Frejlichowski D., Gościewska K., Forczmański P., Nowosielski A., Hofman R. The removal of false detections from foreground regions extracted using adaptive background modelling for a visual surveillance system. In: Saeed K., Chaki R., Cortesi A., Wierzchoń S., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 8104. Springer; Berlin, Germany: 2013. pp. 241–252  Gil G.B., Bustamante A.L., Berlanga A., Molina J.M. ContectCare: Autonomus video surveillance system using multi-camera and smartphones. Manag. Intell. Syst. 2012; 171:47–56.  Nourizadeh S., Deroussent C. Maisons vill'age: Smart use of home automation for healthy aging. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Toward Useful Services for Elderly and People with Disabilities: Smart Homes and Health Telematics (ICOST'11); Montreal, QC, Canada. 20–22 June 2011; pp. 271–275.
In modern society, an increasing number of electrical loads in buildings, such as computers, consumer electronics, light emitting diodes (LEDs), or variable speed motors, are supplied by dc power. At the same time, distributed renewable sources such as photovoltaics (PV), as well as batteries for electric vehicles and on-site storage, are based on dc. To integrate these technologies into existing ac power systems, complicated dc/ac inverters and controllers are required to synchronize with ac systems and to provide high-quality ac currents without harmonics. DC power systems can integrate dc renewable generation, storage, and building electrical loads easier and more efficiently than conventional ac based systems. A key challenge for the successful market adoption of these systems is the integration with existing electrical loads and power grids in buildings. Hybrid ac/dc microgrids combine advantages of both ac and dc systems and may facilitate the integration process of dc power technologies into existing ac systems. In this work, the performance of a hybrid building microgrid coupling on-site PV generation with ac and dc loads of a residential building is investigated in simulation. An experimental dc network prototype, coupling PV electricity generation to LED lighting in a building, has been built and tested. Theoretical and experimental results are used for the design of a hybrid microgrid, planned to be implemented together with the PV system of a residential research buildings.
Keywords : Hybrid Microgrid, Solar PV, Battery Storage Integration
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Microgrids are local small scale electricity systems that can operate independently and separated from the main electricity grid. This paper presents a novel unidirectional DC/DC converter that can be used to transfer power from distributed resources such as Solar PV or Fuel Cells into a DC microgrid. The converter is based on the LLC topology but designed to operate in a specific region of the gain curve that provides several benefits to integration of renewable energy sources into a constant DC bus. The isolated converter shows very high efficiency, full range of zero current switching, and simple control. The novel topology also has the inherent attribute of balancing the voltage on a bipolar DC bus by automatically shifting the processed power to the pole with the lower voltage.
Keywords : Unidirectional DC/DC Converter, Microgrids, LLC Topology
 N. Hatziargyriou, H. Asano, R. Iravani, C. Marnay, “Microgrids” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, Vol. 6, Issue 3, pp 78-97, July 2007  Y. Ito, Y. Zhongqing, H. Akagi, ‘‘DC microgrid based distribution power generation system,’’ IEEE The 4th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC), Vol. 3, 2004, pp.1740-1745.  R. L. Steigerwald, “A comparison of half-bridge resonant converter topologies,” IEEE Transactions in Power Electronics, pp. 174-182, Apr. 1988.  H. Choi, “Analysis and Design of LLC Resonant Converter with Integrated Transformer,” Twenty Second Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference APEC 2007, pp. 1630-1635, February 2007.  J. F. Lazar and R. Martineli "Steady-state analysis of the LLC series resonant converter, APEC 2001, 728-735.  H. Kakigano, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, “Low-voltage bipolar-type DC microgrid for super high quality distribution,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3066–3075, Jan. 2010.
Solar energy is very important means of expanding renewable energy resources. In this paper is described the design and construction of a microcontroller based solar panel tracking system. Solar is a nonconventional source of energy, considering this we have developed solar panels so that we can fulfill our electricity need. But due to revolution of the earth, solar source i.e. sun does not face the panel continuously hence less electricity is produced. The energy panel should face the SUN till it is present in a day. The problem above can be solved by our system by automatic tracking the solar energy. The block diagram below shows system architecture it consist of a LDR sensor senses max solar power which is being given to the Microcontroller through the ADC which digitizes the LDR output. Controller then takes the decision according to then algorithm and tilts the panel towards the direction of the max energy given by LDR with the help of DC Motor.
Keywords : Solar Energy, LDR, ADC, Solar Tracking System, DC Motor, Automatic Solar Tracking System (ASTS)
 A.K. Saxena and V. Dutta, “A versatile microprocessor based controller for solar tracking,” in Proc. IEEE, 1990, pp. 1105 – 1109.  Muhammad Faheem Khan and Rana Liaqat Ali “Automatic Sun Tracking System (ASTS)”, Faculty of Electronics Engineering, Air University.  T, Esram and P.L. Chapman, “Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques,” IEEE Transactions  Chong, K.K.; Wong, C.W. General formula for one-axis sun tracking system and its application in improving tracking accuracy of solar collector “Solar Energy. 2009, 83, pp.298-305.  Al-Mohamad, A.” Efficiency improvements of photo-voltaic panels using a sun tracking system”. Applied Energy 2004, 79, pp.345-354.  Roth, P., Georgieg, A., Boudinov, H. “Design and construction of a system for sun-tracking”, Renewable Energy. 2004, 29, pp.393- 402.  Saxena,A.K.; Dutta, V.“A versatile microprocessor based controller for solar tracking,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1990. Conference Record of the Twenty First IEEE, 21-25 May 1990, Page(s):1105 -1109 vol.2  Pritchard, D., “Sun tracking by peak power positioning for photovoltaic concentrator arrays,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Volume 3, Issue 3, August 1983, pp. 2 – 8  Reddi Chandra sekhar,”Automatic sun tracking system”
Nowadays electricity is one of the basic necessities of mankind. As the demand of electricity is increasing day by day, there is need to exploit renewable sources of energy. In the current era of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent. Considering the high cost of solar panels, our project addresses to analyses, design and implement an efficient algorithm for power extraction from solar panel using dc-dc converter and then utilizing that power for the electricity requirement of off-grid system. Moreover this project also address to the study of boosting efficiency of solar system by two dimensional sun tracking.
Keywords : Maximum Power Point Tracking, PV Arrays, Solar Cell, Equivalent Circuit, PV Cells
 Global Agriculture, Industrial Agriculture and Small-scale Farming, [Online], 2018, https://www.globalagriculture.org/report-topics/industrial-agriculture-and-small-scale-farming.html.  D. Cervantes-Godoy and J. Dewbre, “Economic Importance of Agriculture for Poverty Reduction,” OECD Programme on Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Paper, vol. 27, no. 23, 2010. View at Google Scholar  A. D. Jones and G. Ejeta, “A new global agenda for nutrition and health: The importance of agriculture and food systems,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 228-229, 2016. View at Publisher • View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus  D. Byerlee, A. de Janvry, and E. Sadoulet, “Agriculture for Development: Toward a New Paradigm,” Annual Review of Resource Economics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–31, 2009. View at Publisher • View at Google Scholar  L. Christiaensen, L. Demery, and J. Kuhl, “The (evolving) role of agriculture in poverty reduction-An empirical perspective,” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 239–254, 2011. View at Publisher • View at Google Scholar • View at Scopus  Philippine Statistics Authority, Philippine Agriculture in Figures, 2016.  C. F. Habito and R. M. Briones, “Philippine Agriculture over the Years,” in Policies to Strengthen Productivity in the Philippines, p. 38, 2005. View at Google Scholar  Y. Xie, D. Xia, L. Ji, and G. Huang, “An inexact stochastic-fuzzy optimization model for agricultural water allocation and land resources utilization management under considering effective rainfall,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 92, pp. 301–311, 2018. View at Publisher • View at Google Scholar  D. Acheampong, B. B. Balana, F. Nimoh, and R. C. Abaidoo, “Asssesing the effectiveness and impact of agricultural water management interventions: the case of small reservoirs in northern Ghana,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 209, pp. 163–170, 2018. View at Publisher • View at Google Scholar  Y. Zou, X. Duan, Z. Xue et al., “Water use conflict between wetland and agriculture,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 224, pp. 140–146, 2018. View at Publisher • View at Google Scholar  P. F. Barba, “The Challenges,” in Water Resources Management in the Philippines, 2004. View at Google Scholar
This paper focuses on addressing the issue of portable water scarcity, prevalent in various part of the world. There is a need to employ various expensive methods to transform the brackish water to standard potable water. The traditional methods of brackish water desalination deployed, namely the Reverse Osmosis Technique (RO) and the distillation processes are expensive in implementation and operation. This paper introduce a new concept “CAPACITIVE DEIONIZATION” to solve this problem. It is an energy efficient technology that provide an ideal alternative solution to this problem. In this technique remove the salt ions from the brackish water instead of removing pure water from brackish water like in the conventional reverse osmosis system. Thin film composite membranes of AEM Type-1 and CEM Type-1 are employed for collecting the respective ions which are separated by means of application of low value of dc voltage. It requires the usage of significantly less direct current energy for operation. This introduced system is enhanced by the utilization of solar energy so as to incorporate the most abundant renewable energy source available. This model which exhibits extreme potential of application mainly in remote locations which are devoid of proper access to conventional sources of energy and WHO specified standard potable drinking water.
Keywords : Capacitive Deionization, AEM and CEM Type Thin Film Composite Membranes
 Shiue et al., US patent No. 6795298, “Fully Automatic and Energy Efficient Deionizer”, September 12th 2008.  T. J. Welgemoed and C. F. Schutte, “Capacitive deionization technology: An alternative desalination solution,”vol. 183, no. 1–3, pp. 327–340, Nov. 2005.  Allan M. Johnson et al., "The Electros orb Process for Desalting Water", The Office of Saline Water Research and Development Progress Report No. 516, U.S. Department of the Interior PB 200 056, March. 1970.  Capacitive Deionization based Water Desalination System using a solar Charge Controller Sai Shankar B1, K P Pranav2, Kiran Raj R3 Electrical and Electronics Engineering Sri Sai Ram Engineering College Anna University, Chennai, India SaiShankar.B.IN@ieee.org1, Pranav.K.P@ieee.org2, email@example.com  Ahmed Bin Halabi, Adel Abdennour, Hussein Mashaly, “Experimental Implementation of Microcontroller based MPPT for Solar Charge Controller”, IEEE International Conference on Microelectronics, Communications and Renewable Energy, 2013
The multilevel inverters are widely used in industries for medium and high voltage applications. This paper presents a study on various topologies of multilevel inverters along with a comparison between these topologies. In this paper circuit configuration, advantage, disadvantage and applications of these topologies are discussed.
Keywords : Cascaded H-Bridge, Current Source Inverters, Diode Clamped, Flying Capacitor, Multilevel Inverters, Voltage Source Inverters
 L. Gyugyi N. G. Hingorani, Understanding FACTS; Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (IEEE Press, New York, United States of America, 2000)  Tolbert Leon M. Khomfoi Surin, Handbook on Power Electronics (Elsevier, 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA, 2011)  Abdul Halim Mohamed Yatim Ehsan Najaf, Design and Implementation of a New Multilevel Inverter Topology, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 59(11), 2012, 4148 - 4154  Fang Z. Peng Leon M. Tolbert, Multilevel Converters for Large Electric Drives, Proc. 13th Annual Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, USA, 1998, 530-536  Pari R., Sivakumar R., Sivaranjani S. Murugesan M., Different Types of Multilevel Inverter Topologies - A Technical Review, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, 7(1), 2016, 149-155  T.A.Raghavendiran R.Umamageswari, Design and Development of Multi Level Inverter, Proc. International Conference on Engineering Technology and Science-(ICETS’14), Tamilnadu, India, 2014, 1391-1395
For energy, environment, and many other reasons, the electrification for transportation has been carrying out for many years. In railway systems, the electric locomotives have already been well developed for many years. A train runs on a fixed track. It is easy to get electric power from a conductor rail using pantograph sliders. However, for electric vehicles (EVs), the high flexibility makes it not easy to get power in a similar way. The problem for an electric vehicle is nothing else but the electricity storage technology, which requires a battery which is the bottleneck today due to its unsatisfactory energy density, limited life time and high cost. Wireless power transfer (WPT) using magnetic resonance is the technology which could set human free from the annoying wires. In fact, the WPT adopts the same basic theory which has already been developed for at least 30years with the term inductive power transfer. WPT technology is developing rapidly in recent years. The advances make the WPT very attractive to the electric vehicle (EV) charging applications in both stationary and dynamic charging scenarios. Here uses reviews of the technologies in the WPT area applicable to EV wireless charging. By introducing WPT in EVs, the obstacles like charging time, range, and cost can be easily mitigated thus battery technology will no longer be relevant in the mass market penetration of EVs. It is hoped that researchers could be encouraged by the state-of-the-art achievements, and push forward the further development of WPT as well as the expansion of EV.
Keywords : Electric Vehicles, Wireless Power Transfer, Inductive Power Transfer, Static and Dynamic WPT
 Alanson P. Sample, David A. Meyer “Analysis, Experimental Results, and Range Adaptation of Magnetically Coupled Resonators for Wireless Power Transfer” Alanson P. Sample, Student Member, IEEE, David A. Meyer.  D.M. Vilathgamuwa and J.P.K. Sampath Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) for Electric Vehicles (EVs)—Present and Future Trends.  Benjamin L. Cannon,, James F. Hoburg, , Daniel D. Stancil, and Seth Copen Goldstein Magnetic Resonant Coupling As a Potential Means for Wireless Power Transfer to Multiple Small Receivers.  Challenges in the development of advanced Li-ion batteries by Marom, R. Elazari, G. Salitra, and D. Auerbach
Distribution transformers of substation are one of the most important equipment in power system network. Because of the large number of transformers and various components over a wide area in power systems, the data acquisition, condition monitoring, automatic controlling are the important issues. This project presents design and implementation of automatic control circuits using power line communication to monitor as well as diagnose condition of transformers, like over voltage, over currents, temperature rise and oil level. The suggested power line communication monitoring system will help to detect internal faults as well as external faults of transformer and also diagnose these faults with the help of desired range of parameters which is setting by programmer.
Keywords : Distribution Transformer, Faults, PIC 16F877 Microcontroller
 Kerry John Moris “power line communication system for industrial control application”  Robert L Boy lestead “electronic circuit and circuit theory”  Daniel W Lewis “fundamentals of embedded software”  John B Pent man “embedded design with the PIC 18XX microcontroller”  M V Aleyas, Nishin Antony, Sandeep T, Sudheesh Kumar M, Vishnu Balakrishnan, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 3, Issue 5, May 2014.  Gowsalya, M.BarathiSelvaraj, S.E.Murthy,K.Yadhiri “Design and Analysis of a PLCC Based Home Automation System” International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015.  S. M Bashi, N. Mariun and A. rafa (2007). ‘Power Transformer protection using microcontroller based relay’, Journal of applied science, 7(12), pp.1602‐1607.
Agriculture has played an important role in the development of human civilizations through the ages. Yet it is one of the fields which is in need of technological intervention. Latest technologies like the Internet of Things are yet to reach the Agriculture market. By implementing intelligent monitoring techniques and enabling automatic sensing of the conditions on a farm, the farmer can ensure that the best possible practices are used in her/his farm and thus ensure maximum productivity and yield. The paper discusses a cost effective system that receives data about the conditions surrounding the plants & updates about any issues with their farms and can suggest best needs for the crops according to the data from the sensors. The proposed system is an IoT based monitoring of crop.
Keywords : GSM, Internet of things, Things Speak
 “Plant growth monitoring system, with dynamic user interface”, Jerrin James College of Engineering Trivandrum University of Kerala Trivandrum, India, IEEE Conference, 2015.  “GSM Activated Watering System Prototype”, N. S. Isaak, Aziati H. Awang, N. N. S. Bahri, A. M. M. Zaimi Faculty of Electrical Engineering University Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, IEEE International RF and Microwave Conference,2015.  “Automated Plant Watering System”, Drashti Divani Computer Engineering, SIES Graduate School of Technology, International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy Information and Communication,2016.  “Advanced Agriculture System using GSM Technology”, Arpit Mittal, IEEE International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, April, 2018.
In recent years, research on wireless power transmission technologies has been attracting more attention after MIT introduced the magnetic resonance technology in 2007. Wireless power transmission technology enables flexible comfortable supplying energy needs to electric devices. However, the wireless power transmission technologies that use the magnetic field resonance method have various problems. This method has been uniformly investigated from different directions. Therefore, it is difficult to understand the principle for such new technology phenomenon. Much of the research is often focused on the efficiency between resonators. Moreover, the relationship between the internal resistance and efficiency is not clear. Furthermore, the efficiency at high output power is not well understood. Practically, adding an internal resistance as an equivalent of both of rectifier and inverter losses is important for efficiency calculations. Even if the wireless power transmission has high efficiency, it is not suitable for practical use if the output power rating is very small. In this study, at first, the drawbacks of using the electromagnetic induction method for wireless power transmission are described in detail. Then, we indicate that we can increase the transmission power in accordance to the principles of the LC cancellation by using the resonance phenomenon even at a small coupling coefficient. After that, the difference between the overall efficiency considered of entire system and the transmission efficiency between the resonators is clearly distinguished. Then a theoretical formula has been developed for the overall efficiency and the output power in terms of the characteristic impedance. Finally, the theoretical results are compared with the experimental results and discusses in detail.
Keywords : Wireless Power Supplies, LC Cancellation, Magnetic Resonance, Total Efficiency
 Kurs, A. et ai., "Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances," Science Magazine, vol. 317, No. 5834, pp. 83- 86, Jan. 2007.  H. Sakamoto, and E. Sakai, "Current Status and Issues of wireless power," in Energy Electronics Laboratory, pp. 96-104, Oct. 2010.  T. Imura, T. Uchida, and Y. Hari, "A Uni fied Explanation of Electromagnetic Induction and Electromagnetic Resonant Coupling for Contactless Power Transfer," in proceeding of Technical Meeting on Vehicle Technology, pp. 35-40, Jan. 2009.  H. Abe, K. Furukawa, F. Nishimura, T. Ota, and H. Kitamura, "Etliciency and Standby Power of Wireless Energy Transfer System," in lEICE Technical Report, Yo1.lll, No.223, pp.31-36, EE2011-23, Sept. 2011.  T. Yoshimura, and M. Shoyama, "Electromagnetic Resonance Techniques for Wireless Power Supplies," in IEICE Technical Report, Yo1.lll, No.400, pp.1 03-1 08, EE 2011-49, Jan. 2012