This research article proposes a novel Economical and Eco-Friendly (EEF) hybrid model of Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) energy integrated with In-Pipe Hydro Energy (HER) recovered from the High Head Water (HHW) flows in the pipelines for Stand-Alone Applications (SOA) in High-Rise Buildings (HRB) such as Residential Apartments. Although the SPV energy is considered as one of the most viable Renewable Energy Resources (RES) in the world, its limitation with off-grid applications is its intermittent nature of power generation. Even the integration of SPV with Battery Storage Backup (BSB) also has limitations such as capacity and peak load constrains, besides the requirement of high initial capital investments. These aspects motivated the authors to carry out the present research study for integrating the SPV with HER, which is the untapped energy of the HHW flows from overhead tanks to the point of consumption. The research study shows that integration of SPV with HER can deliver uninterrupted, reliable and environmental-friendly electric power supply for SOA at an optimal unit cost. A working model of the proposed system has been designed, installed in a typical multistoried apartment building and tested.
Keywords : Economical and Eco-Friendly (EEF), Solar Photovoltaic (SPV), Hydro Energy (HER), Stand-Alone Applications (SOA), Renewable Energy Resource (RES)
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In this paper, Firefly Algorithm (FA) based design of the optimal PID controller is proposed for the benchmark Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) system. The best possible solution (Kp, Ki, Kd) for the PID controller is obtained by minimizing the multi-objective cost function. In this work, the FA explores the three dimensional search space, till it discovers the optimal PID parameters. This paper also presents a comprehensive study various search assisted FA, such as Brownian, Levy and chaotic exploration. The simulation work is implemented using the traditional and modified form of PID controllers. The performance of PID is computed based on the time domain values and the error values. The performances of chosen FA are also assessed based on its run time. From this research work, it can be observed that, all the search techniques tender similar time domain and error values. The iteration time taken for the Chaotic FA is relatively lesser than other FAs. Proposed approach is also authenticated against the other related works existing in the literature and it is noted that, FA based PID controller offers better result.
Keywords : PID Controller; AVR; Firefly Algorithm; Performance Analysis
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With increasing competition in the global market continuous research are done to optimize the behavior of materials to be used in transformer. Since silicon (Si) comprises a very good crystallographic arrangement then that of iron (Fe), silicon is fused with iron for considerable reduction of leakage flux in it. A novel M19 high grade silicon steel core has been introduced for 1 KVA 415/230V delta to star connected distribution transformer and stray losses are estimated using Ansys Maxwell. The obtained results are validated by experimental test.
Keywords : M19 Silicon Core, Straylosses, Eddy Current, Distribution Transformer
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This paper addresses an improved PSO algorithm based PID controller tuning for a model biochemical reactor. Biochemical reactor is a highly nonlinear process and exhibits multiple steady states. To increase the productivity and to achieve the required performance, it is necessary to use optimised PID controller parameters. The work presented in this article, deals with the I-PD based controller design using PSO algorithm in order to minimise the effect of proportional and derivative kick. The gain (set point) scheduling is simulated with a switching unit controlled by a comparator. The simulation result shows a better performance for set point tracking and disturbance rejection.
Keywords : Biochemical Reactor, PID, PSO, Scheduling
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