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Deployment, coverage and energy efficiency are the main goals set in wireless sensor network. The network constituted by the small sensor nodes having the three main tasks of sensing, data processing and forwarding with the aim to reach base station. The base station works as the sink for the data which is generated by the sensor nodes in case of wireless sensor networks. The sensor networks have the limited battery supply for the use in sensor nodes. Each node can transmit data in its communication range. The communication range can be affected with the change in battery utilization. In this paper, the main focus is shifted to deployment, coverage and energy aware operation methodology which in term help to increase the efficiency of the overall network. The network resulted in the higher performance parameters. Obtaining optimal results remain the objective of the work throughout the process of simulation undertaken.
Keywords : Wireless sensor network, Coverage, Energy aware, Hierarchical routing protocol
 NitinGoyal, AlkaGaba, “A New Approach of Location Aided Routing Protocol Using Minimum Bandwidth in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network”, International Journal of Computer Technology & Applications, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 653-659, July 2013.  NitinGoyal, AlkaGaba, “A review over MANET-Issues and Challenges”, International Journal of Enhanced Research in Management & Computer Applications, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 16-28, April-2013.  TanujaKhurana, Sukhvir Singh, NitinGoyal, “An Evaluation of Ad-hoc Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 1 , Issue 5, July 2012.  NitinGoyal, Maynak Dave, Anil Kumar Verma, “Fuzzy Based Clustering and Aggregation Technique for Under Water Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Conference on Electronics and Communication System (ICECS-2014), Feb 2014.  Harpreet Chawla, Nitin Goyal, “Quality of Service and Scalability in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, Vol. 3, Issue 3, May-June, 2015.  AlkaGaba, Nitin Goyal, “Review over Diverse Location Aided Routing”, Global Journal for Current Engineering Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 141-144, 2013.  Mohit Kumar, Nitin Goyal, “Reviewing Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensing Networks”, International Journal of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 5, Issue 2, June 2014.  Pratibha Kamboj, Nitin Goyal, “Survey of Various Keys Management Techniques in MANET”, International Journal of Emerging Research in Management & Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 6, June 2015.  Radhika Chauhan, Nitin Goyal, “A Review on Tuning Of OLSR Routing Protocol IN VANET”, International Journal of Advanced Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, Vol. 2 , Issue 2, pp. 508-512, May 2016.  Nitin Goyal, Mayank Dave, Anil Kumar Verma, “Energy Efficient Architecture for Intra and Inter Cluster Communication for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks”, Wireless Personal Communications, SPRINGER, pp 1-21, April 2016, DOI: 10.1007/s11277-016-3302-0. ISSN: 0929-6212  Jehn-Ruey Jiang and Tzu-Ming Sung, “Energy-Efficient Coverage and Connectivity Maintenance for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Journal of Networks, Vol 4, No 6 (2009), 403-410, Aug 2009  Palak Agrawal, P.R. Pardhi, “Routing Protocols For WSN”, International Journal of Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2015.  NeerajJaggi and Alhussein A. Abouzeid , “Energy-Efficient Connected Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks”, The Forth Asia International Mobile Computing Conf. 2006.  Xuxun Liu, “A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network”, Sensors 2012, 12, 11113-11153; doi:10.3390/s120811113  Wang, Jiong, and SirishaMedidi. "Energy efficient coverage with variable sensing radii in wireless sensor networks" Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, 2007. WiMOB 2007. Third IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2007.  Dong, Yuping, et al. "An energy conserving routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks." International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking 4.1 (2011): 39-53.  Sharawi, Marwa, et al. "WSN's energy-aware coverage preserving optimization model based on multi-objective bat algorithm." Evolutionary Computation (CEC), 2015 IEEE Congress on. IEEE, 2015.  Wang, You-Chiun, Chun-Chi Hu, and Yu-Chee Tseng. "Efficient deployment algorithms for ensuring coverage and connectivity of wireless sensor networks." Wireless Internet, 2005. Proceedings. First International Conference on. IEEE, 2005.  J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Netw., Piscataway, NJ, USA, Nov./Dec. 1995,pp. 1942–1948.  Y. Del Valle, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, S. Mohagheghi, J.-C. Hernandez,and R. G. Harley, “Particle swarm optimization: Basic concepts, variants and applications in power systems,”IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 171–195, Apr. 2008.  R. V. Kulkarni and G. K. Venayagamoorthy, “Particle swarm optimization in wireless-sensor networks: A brief survey,” IEEE Trans.Syst., Man, Cybern. C, Appl. Rev., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 262–267,Mar. 2011. X. Wang, S. Wang, and J.-J. Ma, “An improved co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization for wireless sensor networks with dynamic deployment,” Sensors, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 354–370, 2007.
An analysis of the effect of orientation on the heat transfer in a scaled model pin fin heat sink utilized in Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting has been carried out using numerical method. The present study involves natural convective heat transfer that takes place in particular heat sink. A pin fin type heat sink has been studied since they are widely used in LED lighting systems which in turn are facing a lot of thermal challenges when they are integrated with high power lighting system. The numerical study is carried out using ANSYS FLUENT software package. The modeling and meshing has been generated using ANSYS GAMBIT v.2.3.16 module which one later imported into ANSYS FLUENT v.6.3.26 module for analysis. In order to carry out a detailed analysis various parametric studies are conducted for different LED power wattages such as 10 W considering different orientations obtained by changing the angles from 0° to 45° has been carried out. From the results it can be concluded that the dissipation of heat in the heat sink is dependent on the orientation of the heat sink. The particular study will be useful to optimize the heat sink used in the LED lighting system.
Keywords : Light emitting diode (LED) ,FLUENT and GAMBIT,HEAT SINKS
 World consumption of primary energy by energy type and selectedcountry groups,1980-2006, U.S. Department of Energy  Qie Shen, Daming Sun ⇑, Ya Xu, Tao Jin and X. Zhao, "Orientation effects on natural convection heat dissipation of rectangular fin heat sinks mounted on LEDs," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer , vol. 75, pp. 462-469, 2014.  Daeseok Jang, Seung-Jae Park, Se-Jin Yook and K.-S. Lee, "The orientation effect for cylindrical heat sinks with application to LED light bulbs," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer , vol. 71, pp. 496-502, 2014.  Vítor A.F. Costa and A. M. Lopes, "Improved radial heat sink for led lamp cooling," Applied Thermal Engineering , vol. 70, p. 2014, 131-138.  Senol Baskaya, Mecit Sivrioglu and M. Ozek, "Parametric study of natural convection heat transfer from," International Journal of Thermal Science, vol. 39, pp. 797-805, 2000.  Daeseok Jang, Seung-Jae Park and K.-S. Lee, "Thermal performance of a PCB channel heat sink for LED light bulbs," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 89, pp. 1290-1296, 2015.  Adam Christensen and S. Graham, "Thermal effects in packaging high power light emitting diode arrays," Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 29, pp. 364-371, 2009.
Internet usage is increasing day by day as well as the attacks on the sites. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) is one of the such type of attacks. DDoS disable the server by flooding invalid requests with invalid or spoofed addresses, due to this the server’s buffer gets overloaded and bandwidth of server get exhausted and server stop its services. Left undetected, can be very dangerous to the entire network. If organizations can detect these types of attack in advance then organizations will be saved from loss of these attacks, there is much prevention techniques which can detect these types of attack but while choosing one of these technique questions arise which technique should be used? Which is the best? IP Traceback technique is a DDoS detection technique, which is used to trace the path of an IP packet to its origin so one can find out the true identity of the attacker and can detect the path characteristics. Different types of IP Traceback Techniques are available. In this paper we study different IP Traceback techniques.
Keywords : DDoS attack, Types of DDoS attack, IP Traceback techniques, link testing, PPM, DPM
 J. Mirkovic, and P. Reiher, “A Taxonomy of DDoS Attack and DDoS defense Mechanisms,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review, Volume 34, Number 2, April 2004.  ISC Domain Survey jan 2016” https://www.isc.org/network/survey/”  K. Kumar, R.C. Joshi and K. Singh, “An Integrated Approach for Defending against Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attacks”, iriss, 2006, IIT Madras.  G.Florance, “Survey of IP Traceback Methods in Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 7, July 2015.  Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, Stephen Wolff. A Brief History of the Internet. Internet Society. http://www.isoc.org.  Stephen M. Specht, and Ruby B. Lee, “Distributed Denial of Service:Taxonomies of Attacks, Tools andCountermeasures”Avilableat: http://palms.ee.princeton.edu/PALMSopen/DDoS%20Final%20PDCS%20Paper.pdf.  Felix Lau, Stuart H. Rubin, Michael H. Smith Ljiljana Trajkovic, “Distributed Denial of Service Attacks”Avilableat:http://www2.ensc.sfu.ca/~ljilja/ENSC833/Spring01/Assignments/smc00_edited.pdf  Christos Douligeris *, Aikaterini Mitrokotsa, “DDoS attacks and defense mechanisms: classification and state-of-the-art”Avilable at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.103.7118&rep=rep1&type=pdf  Vijayalakshmi Murugesan, Mercy Shalinie, and Nithya Neethimani, “A Brief Survey of IP Traceback Methodologies”, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Thigarajar College of Engineering, Thiruparankundram, Madurai – 625015, Tamilnadu, India  Christos Douligeris *, Aikaterini Mitrokotsa, “DDoS attacks and defense mechanisms: classification and state-of-the-art”, Department of Informatics, University of Piraeus, 80 Karaoli and Dimitriou Str, Piraeus 18534, Greece October 2003  S. Savage, D. Wetherall, A. Karlin, and T. Anderson, “Practical network support for ip traceback,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, ser. SIGCOMM ’00. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2000, pp  B.B gupta ,R. C. Joshi and Manoj Misra, Member, IEEE”Disrtibuted Denial of Service Prevention Technique” International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, April, 2010 1793-8163.  Darshan Lal Meena, Dr. R. S. Jadon” Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and Their Suggested Defense Remedial Approaches International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2014.
Solar energy is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy for the future. This solar energy can be extracted by PV system. Many methods for PV installation are carried out, such as roof top PV system, dam top PV system; floating PV, canal top PV system etc. In canal top system, PV panels are placed above the water canal which saves installation area and reduces evaporation loss. The performance of any PV system depends mainly on the light intensity, so by a concentrating PV system power output can be increased. The usage of concentrated PV system can bring down the investment cost per kWh. In this paper canal top PV system with reflectors in the inter array spacing are studied. The expected advantage of such a system is that the evaporation loss can be further reduced and additional cooling system may not be required. To get uniform availability of light and to avoid shading on the panels, tilt angle of the panel, inter array spacing and orientation of the reflectors are calculated optimally.
Keywords : Photovoltaic cells, Concentrating PV (CPV), Photovoltaic, Solar panel cooling, Hydraulic canal, Solar panel temperature
 Ming-Tse Kuo, Wen-Yi Lo, “A Combination of Concentrator Photovoltaics and Water Cooling System to Improve Solar Energy Utilization” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 50, No. 4, July/August 2014  Maria Brogren, “Optical Efficiency of Low-Concentrating Solar Energy Systems with Parabolic Reflectors”, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 2004.  Subhash Kumar, ME Scholar, EED, Dr. Tarlochan kaur, Associate Professor, EED “Solar PV Performance- Issues and Challenges”, International Journal Of Innovative Research In Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp.2168-2172 November 2014.  David L. King, William E. Boyson. And Jay A., “Analysis of Factors Influencing the Anual Energy Production of Photovoltaic Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Photovoltaics, Vol. 5, No. 3, July 2002.  Filipa Reis, “Development of photovoltaic systems with concentration”, November 2013.  Omar Z. Sharaf, Mehmet F. Orhan, “Concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) solar collector systems: PartI Fundamentals,design considerations and current technologies”, Journal on Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, pp.1-66, July 2015.  Omar Z. Sharaf, Mehmet F. Orhan, “Concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) solar collector systems: Part II Implemented systems, performance assessment, and future directions”, Journal on Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, March 2014.  C. S. Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaics Fundamentals, Technologies and Applications”, text book, Second edition, July 2013.  Mehrdad Khamooshi, Hana Salati, Fuat Egelioglu, Ali Hooshyar Faghiri, Judy Tarabishi, and Saeed Babadi, “A Review of Solar Photovoltaic Concentrators”, International Journal of Photoenergy, February 2014.  Taylor Briglio, Jessica Galvan, Kelsey Ivan, “A Feasibility Analysis of Installing Solar Photovoltaic Panels Over California Water Canals”, UCLA Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, June 2014.  Antonio Colmenar-Santos, Angel Buendia Esparcia, Carlos de Palacio Rodrguez, David Borge Diez, “Water canal use for the implementation and efficiency optimization of photovoltaic facilities: Tajo-Segura transfer scenario”, Journal on Solar Energy, pp.168-194, January 2016.  Tina G M, Ventura C, “Numerical and Experimental Study of Enhanced Fixed Low Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems”, International Conference on Applied Energy, September 2013.  Parvathy Suresh, Jaimol Thomas, Anu A. G., “Performance Analysis of Standalone PV Systems Using PV Syst”, Proceedings of Second IRF International Conference, June 2014.
This paper describes three tests on small scale, transversely stiffened plate girder. The objective of the test was to observe collapse mechanism and to study post buckling behavior i.e.in particular to investigate the behavior of the transverse web stiffeners. A problem was selected to choose the dimensions and loads of the plate girder and design can be solved according to clauses of Indian Standers 800-2007. Model analysis technique was used to reduce the dimensions and loads of actual structure. Accordingly three small scale plate girder models were constructed with varying number of stiffeners and with constant dimensions of web, flange and stiffeners. The main objective of this experimental study was to study post buckling behavior. The observation given should facilitate future development of improved method of stiffeners.
Keywords : Longitudinal deflection, lateral deflection, web buckling, web crippling, tension field stress
 Alinia M. M., Gheitasi A. and Shakiba M. (2011). “Post buckling and ultimate state of stresses in steel plate girder”, Thin-walled structures 49, Science Direct, 455-464.  De Bejar L. A. and Younis M. A. (1991). “Shear strength of open-web plate girders with inclined tension bars”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE (26398), 2699-2719.  Franc S. (2013). “Moment-shear interaction of stiffened plate girder –Test and numerical model verification”, journals of constructional steel research 85, Science Direct, 116-129.  Graciano C. and Uribe-Henao A .F. (2014). “Strength of steel I-girder subjected to eccentric patch loading”, journals of engineering structure 79, Science Direct, 401-406.  Hassanein M. F. and Kharoob O. F. (2013). “Shear capacity of stiffened plate girder with compression tubular flanges and slender webs”, Thin-wall structure 70, Science Direct, 81-92.  Hwang S. C., Kyou H. and Tagawa Y. (2004). “Study on elastic rigidity of composite girder in steel structure”, 13World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Canada, 400.  Linzell D. G. and Geschwindner L.F.(2013) .“Computational studies of horizontally curved, longitudinally stiffened, plate girder web in flexure”, journals of constructional structure 93, Science Direct, 97-106.  Lucic D. (2003). “Experimental research on I-girders subjected to eccentric patch loading”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 59, Science Direct, 1147-1157.  Tang K. H. and Evans H. R. (1984). “Transverse stiffeners for plate girder webs-an experimental study”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 4, 253-280.  Chacon R. , Serrat M .and Real E. (2012). “The influence of structural imperfections on the resistance of plate girders to patch loading”, Thin-walled structures 53, Science Direct, 15-25.  IS 800: 2007 “General construction in steel-code of practice (Third Revision)”.
The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on emission and performance analysis of biomedical waste pyrolysis oil, plastic waste oil and its blends with diesel using diesel engine. This research describe a comparison of the use of pyrolysis oil i.e plastic pyrolysis oil which is extracted from biomedical wastes and normal diesel oil for different injection pressures in the assessment of engine performance, characteristics, and feasibility analysis. .The parameters like brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust emissions like NOx, CO2, CO, and mass fraction burned., were considered for comparing the performance of pyrolysis oil in various proportions and with varying loads at two injection pressure i,e 180 and 200 bar. The initial experiments were done at injection pressure of 180 bars, later the injection pressure was changed to 200 bars. It was observed that the brake thermal efficiency increased as the injection pressure increased from 180 bars to 200 bars. The NOx emission reduced as the injection pressure was increased to the CO emission gradually decreases as the injection pressure increased. It was observed that addition of oxygenates had improved the combustion process and reduced the emissions. The investigation revealed that blending of DEE with plastic oil increases the Cetyane rating which is superior to neat diesel. The economic analysis shows that the pyrolysis oil is able to replace diesel in terms of engine performance and energy output if the price of pyrolysis oil is not greater than 85% of diesel oil.
Keywords : Pyrolysis; waste plastic Pyrolysis Oil; Engine Performance, injection pressure, Feasibility Study Emission
 N. L. Panwar, Y. H. Shrirame, N. S. Rathore, S. Jindal and A. K. Kurchania, “Performance Evaluation of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methyl Ester of Castor Seed Oil,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 2-3, pp. 245-249, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2009.07.007  J.Janaun and N. Ellis. “Perspectives on Biodiesel as a Sustainable Fuel,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1312-1320. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2009.12.011  M. Lapuerta, O. Armas and J. R. Fernandez. “Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Diesel Engine Emissions,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2008, pp. 198-223. doi:10.1016/j.pecs.2007.07.001  J. Walendziewski, Engine fuel derived from plastics by thermal treatment, fuel 81 (2002) 473-481  M. Mani, G. NagarajaN, Influence of injection timing on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine running on waste plastic oil Energy 34 (2009) 1617–1623  “Clean Alternative Fuels – Biodiesel,” Environmental Protection Agency Fact Sheet, Document No. EPA420-F-00-032, March 2002.  M. F. Ali, S. Ahmed, M. S. Qureshi, Catalytic coprocessing of coal and petroleum residues with waste plastics to produce transportation fuels Fuel Processing Technology 92 (2011) 1109–1120  N. Miskolczi, A. Angyal, L. Bartha, I. Valkai, Fuels by pyrolysis of waste plastics from agricultural and packaging sectors in a pilot scale reactor  F. Murphy, K. M. Donnell, E. Butler, G. Devlin, The evaluation of viscosity and density of blends of Cyn-diesel pyrolysis fuel with conventional diesel fuel in relation to compliance with fuel specifications EN 590:2009.  "A Comparison of the Use of Pyrolysis Oils in Diesel Engine" written by C. Wongkhorsub, N. Chindaprasert, published by Energy and Power Engineering, Vol.5 No.4B, 2013"
Emotion Generation and Summarization form Affective Text deals with new aspect for categorizing the document based on the emotions such as Empathy, Touched, Boredom, Warmness, Amusement and Surprise. In order to predict the emotion contained in content a proposed model i.e. Emotion Topic Model is used. Using this it first generates a latent topic from emotions, followed by generating affective terms from each topic. First it separates emotion and word document and derived probabilities for it. The model which we proposed will utilize the complementary advantages of both emotion-term model and topic model. Emotion-topic model allows associating the terms i.e. words and emotions via topics which is more flexible. For classification we have used Naive Bayesian algorithm and Iteration based Nearest Neighbor Algorithm which will predict emotion accurately. For each emotion, we will be displaying emoticon and songs recommendation will be available for user. So that in future user can upload and enjoy their own choice of song based on their emotion which is detected from text.
Keywords : Affective Text Mining, Emotional-Topic Model
 C.Yang, K.H.-Y. Lin, and H.-H. Chen, “Emotion Classification Using Web Blog Corpora,” Proc. IEEE/WIC/ACM Int’l Conf. Web Intelligence (WI ’07), pp. 275-278, 2007.  C. Strapparava and R. Mihalcea, “Learning to Identify Emotions in Text,” Proc. 23rd Ann. ACM Symp. Applied Computing (SAC ’08), pp. 1556-1560, 2008  D.M.Blei, A.Y.Ng,and M.I.Jorden, ”Latent Dirichlet Allocation,”j.Machine Learning Research,Vol.3,pp.993-1022,2003  Shenghua Bao,Shengliang Xu,Li Zhang, Rong Yan,Zhong Su, Dingyi Han, and Yong Yu “Mining Social Emotions from Affective Text” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING, VOL. 24, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012  Miss.Sayalee S. Raut, Prof.Kavita P. Shirsat, “Automatic Emotion Generation and Summarization form Perceptual Text – A Survey” International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Volume 4 Issue 10, October 2015  A. Esuli and F. Sebastiani, “Sentiwordnet: A Pub-Licly Available Lexical Resource for Opinion Mining,” Proc. Fifth Int’l Conf. Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC ’06), 2006.  T. Griffiths and M. Steyvers, “Finding Scientific Topics,” Proc. Nat’l Academy of Sciences USA, vol. 101, pp. 5228-5235, 2004.  C. Strapparava and R. Mihalcea, “Learning to Identify Emotions in Text,” Proc. 23rd Ann. ACM Symp. Applied Computing (SAC ’08), pp. 1556-1560, and 2008.  Tejasvini Patil and Sachin Patil, “Automatic Generation of Emotions for Social Networking using Text Mining” IEEE 2013  Mohammed Yassine and Hazem Hajj, “A Framework for Mining from Text in online Social Networks” IEEE 2010  D.M.Blei,A.Y.Ng,and M.I.Jorden, ”Latent Dirichlet Allocation,” j.Machine Learning Research,Vol.3,pp.993-1022,2003  Carlo Strapparava and Alessandro Valitutti,“WordNet Affect: an Affective Extension of WordNet.”, LREC, 2004 - hnk.ffzg.hr  M Hu, B Liu,” Mining and summarizing customer reviews”, Proceedings of the tenth ACM SIGKDD international 2004  Vairaprakash Gurusamy and Subbu Kannan, “Pre-processing Techniques for Text Mining”, Conference Paper • October 2014  http://gerardnico.com/wiki/data_mining/classification
The wheelchair is one of the most commonly used assistive devices for enhancing personal mobility, which is a precondition for enjoying human rights and living in dignity and assists people with disabilities to become more productive members of their communities. For many people, an appropriate, well-designed and well-fitted wheelchair can be the first step towards inclusion and participation in society. When the need is not met, people with disabilities are isolated and do not have access to the same opportunities as others within their own communities. Providing wheelchairs that are fit for the purpose not only enhances mobility but begins a process of opening up a world of education, work and social life . The development of national policies and increased training opportunities in the design, production and supply of wheelchairs are essential next steps. Every human being need to move from one place another to fulfill his requirements and to accomplish that requirements he will travel from one place to another place by walking which is a basic medium of transportation. But it is exceptional in case of physically disables (Persons don’t have both legs). In order to support and help such a person’s we designed a special manually lever operated wheel chair. This wheel chair helps the physically challenged persons to lead their normal life like normal being without the help of any one in their movements from one place to another place and to carry out their work. The wheels are of Special shock absorbing type. This device is designed in such a way that we can use for both indoor and outdoor applications.
Keywords : Physically challenged person, wheel chair, indoor and outdoor, shock absorber
 Batavia, M., PH. D (1998), “ The wheel chair evaluation a practical guide”, ISBN 0-7506-7037-1  Croteau, C. (1998), “Wheel chair mobility hand book”, Park press publishing  Nirmal T M M.Tech Embedded Systems Scholar, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering Sahrdaya College of Engineering and Technology, Kodakara, Kerala, India  J. Titlestad, M. Davie, A. Whittaker and S. Grant, “Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems”, Acta Polytechnica, Vol. 43, No. 5. Pp 15-2, 2003.  H.S. Macrae, K.J. Hise, and P.J. Allen,“Effects of Front and Dual Suspension Mountain Bike Systems on Uphill Cycling Performance”, Medicine and Sciencein Sports and Exercise, Vol. 32, No. 7, Pp. 1276- 1280, 2000.  Basileos Mavroudakis, Peter Eberheard. "Analysis of Alternative Front Suspension Systems for Motorcycles"Vehicle system dynamics, August 2005.  H. Paul Turner, “Bicycle with a Front Fork Wheel Suspension”, United States Patent, No. 4971344, Nov 20, 1990.
This paper proposed scheme for the Sensor-less BLDC motor drive fed by a Zeta based PFC converter operating in DICM. The front end Zeta DC-DC converter maintains the DC link voltage to a set reference value. Switch of the Zeta converter is to be operated at high switching frequency for effective control and small size of components like inductors. A sensor-less approach is used to detect the rotor position for electronic commutation. A blind startup is used for starting the BLDC motor. A high frequency MOSFET of suitable rating is used in the front end converter for its high frequency operation whereas an IGBT’s (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) are used in the VSI for low frequency operation. The proposed scheme maintains high power factor and low THD of the AC source current while controlling rotor speed equal to the set reference speed.
Keywords : Zeta Converter, BLDC,DICM, power factor correction
 Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (Equipment input current 16 A per phase), International Standard IEC 61000-3-2, 2000.  B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey and D.P. Kothari, “A review of single-phase improved power quality AC-DC converters,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962– 981, Oct. 2003.  T. Kenjo and S. Nagamori, Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1985.  T. J Sokira and W. Jaffe, Brushless DC Motors: Electronic Commutation and Control, Tab Books, USA, 1989.  R. Handershot and T.J.E Miller, Design of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994.  J. F. Gieras and M. Wing, Permanent Magnet Motor Technology – Design and Application, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2002.  N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design, John Wiley and Sons Inc, USA,1995.  S. Singh and B. Singh, "Voltage controlled PFC Zeta converter based BLDC MOTOR drive for an air-conditioner," 2010 International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), pp.550-555, 29th July 2010- 1st Aug. 2010.  Bhim Singh, B.P.Singh and Sanjeet Dwivedi, “AC-DC Zeta Converter for Power Quality Improvement of Direct Torque Controlled PMSMrive”, Korean Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp.146-162, April 2006.  J. Uceeda, J. Sebastian and F.S. Dos Reis, “Power Factor Preregulators Employing the Flyback and Zeta Converters in FM Mode”, in Proceedings of IEEE CIEP’96, 1996, pp.132-137.  D.C. Martins, “Zeta Converter Operating in Continuous Conduction Mode Using the Unity Power Factor Technique”, in Proceedings of IEE PEVSD’96, 1996, pp.7-11.
Biogas is one of beneficial and essential gas, which is widely used for the electricity, heat and transportation fuels. Biogas can be produced by digestion pyrolysis or hydro gasification. Digestion is a biological process that occurs in the absence of O2 and presence of anaerobic organisms. The container in which the digestion takes place is called digester. In this work, the Biogas was produced through anaerobic digestion process at atmospheric pressure and the best temperatures between 30 - 65°C. When the temperature is below 15°C almost no gas is made. In this experiment, the food waste was incubated with sludge water in a tightly sealed container. Aerobic decomposition occurs first and CO2 was produced while oxygen was consumed, once the oxygen has been depleted, the methanogen bacteria start growing and consumes the CO2 to produce biogas. Therefore, one should expect an initial increase in CO2 production followed by a decrease in CO2 and a steady increase in methane production. The biogas obtained at the end of the reaction will be a mixture of CO2 and CH4. The CO2 can be monitored using a CO2 detection probe. The methane can be identified by burning it. The methane gas was collected in the plastic bottle to measure it by water displacement and then test it by using a Bunsen burner.
Keywords : Biogas, Anaerobic Digestion, Methane, Food waste, CO2
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