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To figure out the best baffle cut to obtain the maximum overall heat transfer coefficient for the better performance of shell and tube heat exchanger. Methods: To identify the best relation between the baffle cut and overall heat transfer coefficient, six different baffle cut varies from 15% to 40% were taken at the same mass of fluid. To analyze thermal design and overall heat transfer coefficient HTRI was used. To find out the relation between the baffle cut to overall heat transfer coefficient, we generated 2d profile corresponding to length and 3d profile for local heat transfer coefficient. We compared all six design variations to analyze the variation in overall heat transfer coefficient. After comparison of all six variations we figured out optimum relationship between Baffle cut and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. Result shows that at a particular cut the rate of heat transfer is the maximum. We found that 25% baffle cut is the optimum cut for single segmental baffle, this provides best combination of shell side velocity and B stream and generate enough turbulence for better heat transfer coefficient. It is also demonstrating good distribution of heat transfer in all localities of heat exchanger. If we decrease the baffle cut, it may increase turbulence but leads to decrease the shell side velocity and B stream, this results the less heat transfer coefficient. Similarly, by increasing the baffle cut there is increase in shell side velocity and B stream, but due to less turbulence less heat transferred. So there is less heat transfer coefficient. Thus for beat the performance of heat exchanger and optimum heat transfer coefficient, there should be best combination of all effective variables
Keywords : Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger, Baffle, Segmental Baffle, Helical Baffle, Overall Performance
 Li, H., Kottke, (2017), “Effect of baffle spacing on pressure drop and local heat transfer in shell and tube heat exchangers for staggered tube arrangement”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 41 10, pp. 1303–1311.  Aceves-Saborio, S., Ranasinghe, J., and Reistad, G. M., (2017), “Extension to the Irreversibility Minimization Analysis Applied to Heat Exchangers,” ASME J. Heat Transfer.  Bin Gao, Qincheng Bi & Miao Gui (2016), “Experimental performance comparison of shell-side heat transfer for shell-and-tube heat exchangers with different helical baffles”, Journal of Heat Transfer Engineering, 1151300.  Yonghua You, Yuqi Chen, Mengqian Xie, Xiaobing Luo, Lan Jiao, Suyi Huang (2015), “Numerical simulation and performance improvement for a small size shell-and-tubeheat exchanger with trefoil-hole baffles” Journal of applied thermal engineering.06.012  Jie Yang, Wei Liu (2015), “Numerical investigation on a novel shell-and-tube heat exchanger with plate baffles and experimental validation” Journal of Heat Transfer Engineering, 1150471  Jian Wen, Huizhu Yang, Simin Wang, Yulan Xue, Xin Tong (2014), “Experimental investigation on performance comparison for shell-and-tube heat exchangers with different baffles” Journal of applied energy, 11.47.271  J.J. Liu, Z.C. Liu, W. Liu (2014), “3D numerical study on shell side heat transfer and flow characteristics of rod-baffle heat exchangers with spirally corrugated tubes” International journal of thermal sciences.  Qiuwang Wang, Qiuyang Chen, Guidong Chen, Min Zeng (2013), “Numerical investigation on combined multiple shellpass shell-and-tube heat exchanger with continuous helical baffles” International journal of thermal sciences. 0017-9310  Mehdi Bahiei, Morteza Hangi, Mahdi Saeedan (2012), “A novel application for energy efficiency improvement using nanofluid in shell and tube heat exchanger equipped with helical baffles”Journal of energy. 0360-5442  Professor Sunilkumar Shinde, Mustansir Hatim Pancha (2012) ,“Comparative Thermal performance of shell and tube heat Exchanger with continuous helical baffle using” ,International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA).  Jian-Feng Yang, Min Zeng, Qiu-Wang Wang (2012) “Numerical investigation on shell-side performances of combined parallel and serial two shell-pass shell-and-tube heat exchangers with continuous helical baffles” Journal of energy.  Usman Ur Ehman , G¨oteborg, Sweden (2011), “Heat Transfer Optimization of Shell-and-Tube & Heat Exchanger through CFD”. Master’s Thesis.  Jian-Fei Zhang, Ya-Ling He, Wen-Quan Tao (2011), “3d numerical simulation of shell and tube heat exchanger with middle-overlapped helical baffle”, A journal, School of energy and power engineering  McClintock, F. A., (2010), “The Design of Heat Exchangers for Minimum Irreversibility,” Presented at the ASME Annual Meeting, Paper No. 51-A-108.  Bejan, A. (2010), “Concept of Irreversibility in Heat Exchanger Design: Counterflow Heat Exchangers for Gas-to-Gas Applications,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, pp. 374–380.  Khairun Hasmadi Othman,(2009)“CFD simulation of heat transfer in shell and tube heat exchnager”, A thesis submitted in fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor in chemical Engineering (Gas Technology).  Thirumarimurugan, M., Kannadasan, T., Ramasamy, E. (2008), Performance Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Miscible System, American Journal of Applied Sciences 5, pp. 548-552.  Fakheri, A. (2006), “Thermal Efficiency of the Cross Flow Heat Exchangers,” Proceedings of the 2006 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE), Chicago, IL, November 5–10.  Mohamed, H. A., (2006), “Entropy Generation in Counter Flow Heat Exchangers,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, pp. 87–92  Emerson, W.H., (2005), “Shell-side pressure drop and heat transfer with turbulent flow in segmentally baffled shell-tube heat exchangers”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 6, pp. 649–66.  Shah, R. K., and Skiepko, T., (2004), “Entropy Generation Extrema and Their Relationship With Heat Exchanger Effectiveness—Number of Transfer Unit Behavior for Complex Flow Arrangements,” ASME J. Heat Transfer,pp. 994–1002.  Ogiso, K., (2004), “Duality of Heat Exchanger Performance in Balanced Counter-Flow Systems,” ASME J. Heat Transfer,pp. 530–532.  Fakheri, A., (2003), “Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference and the Concept of Heat Exchanger Efficiency,” Proceedings of the 2003 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 21–23, Paper No. HT2003-47360.  Fakheri, A., (2003), “The Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Efficiency and its Relation to Effectiveness,” Proceedings of the 2003 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE), Washington, D.C., November 16–21.  Fakheri, A., (2003), “An Alternative Approach for Determining Log Mean Temperature Difference Correction Factor and Number of Shells in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers,” J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, pp. 407–420.  Haseler, L.E., Wadeker, V.V., Clarke, R.H. (2002), "Flow Distribution Effect in a Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger", IChemE Symposium Series , No. 129, pp. 361-367.  Diaper, A.D. and Hesler, L.E., (2000), "Crossflow Pressure Drop and Flow Distributions within a Tube Bundle Using Computational Fluid Dynamic", Proc. 9th Proc. 9th Heat Transfer Conf., pp. 235-240
The wearable devices have long been used for various factors like for personal security purpose, for detecting multiple health parameters such as sleep apnea, blood pressure etc. Smartphones have become one of the necessary gadgets of our daily routine. So we can use its potential to make our lives more efficient and advanced. This project is specially built considering the handicapped peoples’ needs which describes the Android Application that will continuously monitor the pulse rate of the user & collect the data. The user just needs to press the power button on the smartphone for the predefined time to send this data to the nearest people whenever he/she will feel insecure or weak. The location of the user will be sent through the text message in an emergency situation and also alarm will generate. This message includes the pulse rate details, contact number and changes in the location of handicapped people so that further emergency actions will be taken. The GPS system and KNN algorithm are be used to finding out the nearest people of the user.
Keywords : (K Nearest Neighbors) KNN, (Global Positioning System) GPS, heart rate, Arduino, photoplethysmography (PPG)
 Raluca Marinescu, Anișor Nedelcu, “Smartphone Application for Heart Rate Monitoring”, the 6th IEEE International Conference on E-Health and Bioengineering - EHB 2017  Jatin Arora1, Gagandeep2, Amandeep Singh1, Narinder Pal Singh1, Sarvesh S S Rawat3, Gurvinder Singh2, "Heartbeat Rate Monitoring System by Pulse Technique Using HB Sensor ", ICICES 2014  Xin Chen, Jian Weng, Wei Lu, Jiaming Xu, “Multi-gait Recognition based on Attribute Discovery ”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 2017  Salomi S. Thomas, Mr. Amar Saraswat, Anurag Shashwat, Dr.Vishal Bharti, "Sensing Heartbeat and Body Temperature Digitally using Arduino", International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Power and Embedded System (SCOPES)-2016  Aileni Raluca Maria1, Sever Pasca1, Rodica Strungaru1, “Heart Rate Monitoring by using Non-invasive Wearable Sensor”, The 6th IEEE International Conference on E-Health and Bioengineering - EHB 2017  Ramyar Saeedi∗, Navid Amini† and Hassan Ghasemzadeh∗, “Patient-Centric On-Body Sensor Localization in Smart Health Systems”, IEEE 2014  Simi Susan Thomas, Viswam Nathan, Chengzhi Zong, Karthikeyan Soundarapandian, Xiangrong Shi, Roozbeh Jafari, IEEE Senior Member, “Bio Watch: A Non-invasive Wrist-based Blood Pressure Monitor that Incorporates Training Techniques for Posture and Subject Variability ”, JBHI-00094-2015  Fariha Naaz, Nirmal Singh Grewal, "A SoC based wearable system for Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement", IEEE 2016  Johannes Schneider, Marc Schroth, Jorg Ottenbacher, “A novel wearable sensor device for continuous monitoring of cardiac activity during sleep”, IEEE 2018  Yaru Li, Guomin Li, Haoyu Zhang, “A Wireless Pulse Rate Monitoring Terminal”, IEEE 2018
Pressure vessels are leak proof containers, as the name implies, their main purpose is to contain a given medium under pressure and temperature. Pressure vessels are commonly used in industry to carry both liquid and gases under required pressure and temperature limit. This pressure and temperature comes from an external source or by the application of heat from a direct or indirect source or any combination of them. After the review of many research papers, we find out that basically the most of the pressure vessels diameter was taken was from 300 mm to 2000 mm. Initially, we designed three non-standard body flanged pressure vessels different diameters. Pressure and material of vessels were selected as per practical conditions. We took SA 516 as flange material. After the designing of all cases we figure out the various stresses, loads and deformation using ANSYS and Pv-Elite. After that we redesigned Pressure vessels using standard flanges and figure out the same parameters using Pv-Elite and ANSYS. To optimize the non-standard flange we compared results of both flanges. We found that at almost same operating bolt load in non-standard flange with diameter 500mm has considerable deformation and stress intensity. Whereas in standard flange, in the same case, there is less deformation and stress intensity. The value of deformation and maximum stress intensity in 500mm diameter non-standard flange was 0.044043mm and 107.8 Mpa respectively and in standard flange value of deformation and maximum stress intensity was merely 0.014641mm and 16.548 Mpa respectively. In other two cases, in both standard and non-standard flanges, there is very small difference in deformation and stress intensity. The operating bolt load is slightly higher in standard flange due to greater bolt circle diameter, which results as the slightly higher deformation and stress intensity in both 1000mm and 1500mm diameter flange. In non-standard flange we required more thickness as compared to standard flange. But if we compare the weight of standard and non-standard flange, we found standard flange is almost double in weight.
Keywords : Pressure Vessel, ANSYS, PVElite Software, PRO-E,Mechanical Stresses, ABAQUS
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This paper gives details about monitoring the different parameters of a greenhouse farming namely temperature, soil moisture & humidity and it also describes how transportation surveillance is important for a proper business through internet of things (IOT). Majority farmers can not accurately detect the level of temperature, humidity, light and water level of the field. The monitoring is observed through the website. The proposed system is an embedded system which is used for microclimatic parameters of a greenhouse which helps in improving of quality of crops or specific plant species results maximum production over crop growth. It also diminishes the difficulties involved in the system by reducing human interrupt to the best possible level. The sensor like DHT11 sense the changing parameters and sends it to the digital pin of the Arduino microcontroller. From the Arduino the sensed parameters such as humidity and temperature values are uploaded to the website at regular interval of time through ESP8266 Wi-Fi module. The sensed parameters can be graphically or virtually made available to monitor by the website which results in becoming the system user friendly, fast in speed, reliable and low cost which eliminates existing setup drawbacks. The transport surveillance system uses GPS & GSM modules which enables the farmer to know the exact location of the vehicle carrying produce from the farm.
Keywords : IoT, Arduino, DHT11, ESP8266, GPS, GSM
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The vehicle chassis frame is an important part of an automobile. The chassis frame is the main structure of any vehicle. The main function of chassis frame is to support the body, different parts of an automobile and two longitudinal side members placed on it. The chassis frame has to withstand the stresses as well as deformation occurs in it and to withstand the shock, twist vibration and other stresses. The function is to carry the maximum load for all designed and operating conditions safely and it exists within a limit. On the chassis frame has maximum shear stress and deflection under maximum load. In this project, have calculated the stress (von mises) and shear stress, for the chassis frame also safety factor for safe design and the validation of design for martial, section of frame and shape on life periods will be calculated by fatigue life. Finite element analysis has been done for validation of the chassis frame model. We have taken material as Mild sheet steel for “C” Channel section, with varying the section of rectangular hollow box, “I” Section, and “O” Section to design chassis frame of an SUV. For Analysis using ANSYS 14.0. Software used in this project:-Solid work for design purpose and ANSYS 14 is used for analysis.
Keywords : Ladder Chassis Frame, Mild Steel, C Channel Section, Rectangular Box (Hollow), I Type and Tubular Type Cross Section
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicle_frame  Picard, A.; Beaulieu, D. (1987). "Design of Diagonal Cross Bracings: Part 1 Theoretical Study," Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 24, pp. 122-12  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite_element_method  https://www.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/.../Passenger-Car-Track-list-2.15.pdf  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Factor_of_safety  Mechanicalinventions.blogspot.com/2014/08/mild-steel-properties-of-mild-steel.htm  Nikhil Tidke1, D. H. Burande2”,” Analysis of HCV Chassis using FEA”,”IRIJ PGCON-MECH2017”  Priyanka Ranu 1, Rajeev Singh Chauhan2 Dr. V.N. Bartaria3”,” Mathematical Modelling and Analysis of Automotive Chassis with Composites Materials Using Fem” “ISSN: 2321-9653”,” June 2017”  Mr. Navnath V. Palde1, Prof. V.L.Kadlag2’’, ‘’ Deign Improvement and Analysis car chassis for Static and Dynamic Characteristics”, IISN 2348-7550”,”2016  S.Sivaraj#1, A.Hazemohzammed*1, M.Yuvaraj*2, N.Karthikeyan*3, V.Murugan,” Structural Analysis of Ladder Chassis Frame for car UsingAnsys” (IJ0SER), 3221 5687, (P) 3221 568X,’’2016  Pankaj Badhe 1, 2V.L.Firake,’’ Design and Development of Mini Tractor Trolley Chassis Using FEA Methord.,’’ijates(ins-2348-7550) 2016  Divyesh N. Chaudhari1, Vinod M. Makwana2, Dharmeet J. Patel,’’ Strength and rigidity analysis of heavy vehicle chassis for different frame cross section by analytically and FEA under various loading condition,’’ e-ISSN: 2393-9877, p-ISSN: 2394-2444,’’2016  Kamlesh Y. Patil1, Eknath R. Deore2’’, Stress Analysis of Ladder Chassis with Various Cross Sections,’’ (IOSR-JMCE),’’ 2015
Waste management and its disposal is one of the greatest challenges faced by the world today. It is of vital concern to manage the municipal waste. By effective handling of waste material and by proper recycling, a country can progress in the right direction. In this work, a smart waste sorting machine is developed. It can sort out a variety of waste materials like metal, glass, etc. by using an electro-mechanical system. Conventional sensors are used for sorting out metal and glass and for paper and plastic, LASER and LDR is used. A weight sensor and counter is used to find out the amount of waste sorted. By using this sorting procedure and with proper recycling, the problem of waste management will be solved to some extent. This smart system will, thus help to properly dispose waste and avoids any environmental problems.
Keywords : Microcontroller, Operational Amplifier, Sensor, Waste management, LDR
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Wireless mesh network is one of the most promising technologies in near future. WMN comes under the category of mobile ad-hoc networks to communicate with the internet through a single gateway or more than one gate way. It provides self-configuring, self-healing, and self-organized wires networks. In order to provide a multi-point communication within the wireless mesh networks, a multicast routing protocol is required. Multicast routing is a key technology for modern communication networks. Multicast Routing becomes a prominent technology for wireless communication networks various multicast routing protocols are developed for internet and ad-hoc communications this paper gives the overview of some of the existing proactive, reactive and hybrid multicast routing protocols over WMNs with its strengths and weaknesses. The following multicast routing protocols are selected for their performance comparison; they are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol(ODMRP), Multicast Ad hoc On Demand distance Vector (MAODV) Protocol, Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF), Ad hoc Multicasting Routing Protocol(AM Route) Among them, MOSPF and AM Route is a proactive routing protocol.
Keywords : AM Route, MAODV, MOSPF, ODMRP, OPHMR
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There is need to secure sensitive data and computer systems from intruders while allowing ease of access for authenticating the user is one of the main problems in computer security. Traditionally, passwords have been the usual method for controlling access to computer systems but this approach has many inherent flaws. Keystroke dynamics is a biometric technique to recognize and an analysis of his/her typing patterns. In the experiment, we measure mean, standard deviation and median values of keystroke features such as latency, duration, digraph and their combinations and compare their performance. The latest trend in authenticating users is by using the potentiality of biometrics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioral biometrics which captures the typing rhythms of users and then authenticates them based on the dynamics captured. In this paper, a detailed study on the evaluation of keystroke dynamics as a measure of authentication is carried out. This paper gives an insight from the infancy stage to the current work done on this domain which can be used by researchers working on this topic.
Keywords : Biometric, Digraph, Infancy, Keystroke Dynamics, Neurons
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This paper proposed a comparison of stepped impedance fractal low pass filters at 1 GHz with open stub and short-circuited stub. Sierpinski carpet fractals used to reduce filter size and develop low profile filters. Fractal elements or arrays are designed with the concept of self-similarity to achieve sharper cut off point. 1 GHz low pass filter is used for long range communication and smart phone communication for IOT application.
Keywords : Fractal, Chebyshev Response, Stepped Impedance Low Pass Filter, Open Circuited Stub, Short Circuited Stub
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The exhaust gases from the IC Engine caries away about 30% of heat of combustion. The energy available in the exit stream goes as waste, if not utilized properly. The major technical constraint that prevents implementation of ways to heat recovery system is due to its intermittent and time mismatched demand and availability of energy. In the present work, a storage container is integrated with IC engine setup to extract heat from the exhaust gases using a copper plate being heated by forced convection. The performance parameters pertaining to the heat recovery such as amount of heat covered, temperature achieved at every RPM, velocity of exhaust gases and flow curves will be evaluated, analyzed and reported. The feasibility, advantages and disadvantages of the project have also been discussed
Keywords : Exhaust, Silencer, Copper Plate, Convection, Conduction
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