Publication for Volume-3 Issue-2, January 2018
This study was carried out on the site of oil palm agro-industrial exploitation in South-East Gabon. The aim was to evaluate effectiveness of three herbicides: Roundup (glyphosate), Finish (c) and Ally (metsulfuron methyl) on the weed flora. An inventory weed flora was conducted to estimate abundance-dominance, post-treatment patch coverage, weed recurrence time, and the optimal herbicide application rate. The results obtained show that the weed flora is composed of 22 dominant species, divided into 20 genera and 15 families. The three predominance families are Rubiaceae, Poaceae and Cyperaceae. A mixture of two herbicides, specifically Finish Ally (glyphosate-metsulfuron methyl and metsulfuron methyl), is the most effective, with 85% of weeds eliminated by day 30 and 74 days of recurrence.
Keywords : Glyphosate, Methyl Metsulfuron, Oil Palm, Weeds
 N. Soltani et al., “Perspectives on Potential Soybean Yield Losses from Weeds in North America,” Weed Technol., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 148–154, 2017.  F. Nurdiansyah, Y. Clough, K. Wiegand, and T. Tscharntke, “Local and Landscape Management Effects on Pests, Diseases, Weeds and Biocontrol in Oil Palm Plantations-A Review,” Local Landsc. Manag. Biol. Pest Control Oil Palm Plant., p. 14, 2016.  F. Gillet, “La phytosociologie synusiale intégrée Guide méthodologique,” Univ. Neuchâtel, Inst. Bot. Doc Labo Ecol Vég, vol. 1, 2000.  T. Le Bourgeois, “Les mauvaises herbes dans la rotation cotonnière au Nord-Cameroun(Afrique)- amplitude d’habitat et degré d’infestation- phénologie.” 1993.  J. Salamero, P. Marnotte, T. Le Bourgeois, and A. Carrara, “Détermination pratique de 14 rubiacées, adventices d’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre,” Agric. développement, no. 11, pp. 68–76, 1996.  E. C. Pielou, The interpretation of ecological data: a primer on classification and ordination. John Wiley & Sons, 1984.  C. F. Henderson and E. W. TILTON, “Tests with Acaricides against the Brown Wheat Mite 1 2,” J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 157–161, 1955.  P. Y. Kouadio, M.-S. Tiébré, J. N. Kassi, and E. K. N’Guessan, “Diversité floristique et déterminants de l’enherbement des bananeraies industrielles de Dabou au sud de la Côte d’ivoire,” J. Appl. Biosci., vol. 68, pp. 5404–5416, 2013.  C. W. Agyakwa and I. O. Akobundu, A handbook of West African weeds. IITA, 1987.  C. Carême and T. Saghier, “Conséquences de la nuisibilité des mauvaises herbes sur la production du blé d’hiver en Tunisie: les seuils d’intervention et la rentabilité du désherbage,” Tropicultura, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 53–57, 1991.  N. Song, D. Wang, Z. Shan, and L. Shi, “Influence of pH and dissolved organic matter on photolysis of metsulfuron-methyl,” Procedia Environ. Sci., vol. 18, pp. 585–591, 2013.  P. T. Fernandez-Moreno, A. M. Rojano-Delgado, J. Menendez, and R. De Prado, “First Case of Multiple Resistance to Glyphosate and PPO-inhibiting Herbicides in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in Spain,” Weed Sci., pp. 1–9, 2017.  A. Mangara, M. T. Kouame, K. Soro, A. A. A. N’Da, G. M. Gnahoua, and D. Soro, “Test d’efficacité d’un herbicide en culture d’ananas, à la station d’expérimentation et de production d’Anguédédou en Côte d’Ivoire,” J. Appl. Biosci., vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 7161–7172, 2014.  G. Couture, J. Legris, and R. Langevin, Evaluation des impacts du glyphosate utilise dans le milieu forestier. Direction de l’environnement forestier, Service du suivi environnemental, 1995.  C. Gauvrit, “The efficacy and selectivity of herbicides,” Effic. Sel. Herbic., 1996.  W. R. Harris, R. D. Sammons, R. C. Grabiak, A. Mehrsheikh, and M. S. Bleeke, “Computer simulation of the interactions of glyphosate with metal ions in phloem,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 60, no. 24, pp. 6077–6087, 2012.
We know that a chassis to an automobile is like a skeleton to a body. Chassis stiffness is what separates a great car to drive from what is merely Ok. Every chassis is a compromise between weight, component size, complexity, vehicle intent and ultimate cost. And even with a basic design method, strength and stiffness can vary significantly, depending on the details. This paper lists some techniques which could be used to further strengthen the chassis of a car. A stiff and rigid chassis ensures enhanced controlling of the vehicle along with imparting higher safety and comfort levels to the occupants.
Keywords : CHASSIS, FLEX, ROLL CAGE, BARS, STIFFENING, SUSPENSION
 http://www.timeattack.co.uk/chassis-stiffening-basics/#sthash.FHJfaUGw.dpbs  http://www.roadkillcustoms.com/hot-rods-rat-rods/Chassis-Stiffening.asp#axzz53uN0zvcN  http://www.moderntiredealer.com/article/311198/chassis-stiffening  http://www.eurocarnews.com/19/0/773/3611/2011-volkswagen-jetta-chassis-safety/gallery-detail.html  https://www.redline360.com/garage/what-is-a-strut-bar-and-how-does-it-work
This paper reviews the PLC applications in the industry of cutting machines. This paper also reviews the PLC properties, different types of hacksaw used for cutting purposes. Today, there is lot of advancements in these fields as every industry is getting automated. For cutting materials for mass production conveyor systems are widely used. There are two types of conveyor: Belt type and Roller type. Feed of cutting materials is also done with the help of conveyor. Pneumatic System is used for smooth operation of hacksaw.
Keywords : PLC, Hacksaw, Feed, Conveyor, Pneumatic System
 Akhil Dixit, Rahul Mendiratta, Tripti Chaudhary, Naresh Kumari “Review Paper on PLC & Its Applications in Automation Plants” International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, Vol. 4 Issue 3, March 2015, pp: (63-66).  Pradnyaratna A. Meshram and Dr. A. R. Sahu “Design, Modelling and Analysis of conveyor system used for transportation of Cartons” International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, Vol.4, No.1, January 2016.  Rushikesh Gadale, Mahendra Pisal, Sanchit Tayade, S.V. Kulkarni “PLC based automatic cutting machine” International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, Volume-3, Issue-3, March 2015.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacksaw  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmable_logic_controller  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conveyor_system  http://www.technologystudent.com/equip1/phcksw1.htm
Plastics find the major application in automobile components and the interiors and exterior furnishings. There are many applications of plastics in automobile ranging from power trains, under the hood and chassis. Polypropylene (PP) is been widely used in the automobile sector in recent years. Polyurethane (PU), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene (PE) are the major plastics used that have been great demand in automobile engineering. But after certain period these plastics begin the degradation process, thus the use of the reinforced plastic is been on the large scale. These reinforced plastics are degradable in nature. Its high time need to test the reinforced plastic under impact load and energy levels.
Keywords : Impact, Fibre, Reinforced Plastic
 “Analysis of Automotive materials on impact test and energy levels” by Aditya Yadav, Prashant M Sagare volume 5, Issue 4, Decemeber 2017, ISSN 2347-4718 page no.3048 to 3051.  “Analysis of Corrugated Metal sheet roofing on impact loads and energy levels for building constructions. Volume 5, Issue 4, Decemeber 2017, ISSN 2347-4718. Page no.3044 to 3047.  “Design and Analysis of car bumper of various thickness” by Bilal Abdullah Baig and Hakimuddin Hussain ISSN 2321-0613.  Plastic Processing for the Automotive Engineer: Society of Automotive Engineers: 1967, 29P.  Automotive Engineering: Society of Automotive Engineers: V80 no-2-V105: Nov 1972- Dec 1997  “Plastics bounces Back in Automotive Fuel Tank”: Automotive News Jan 301995.
Leaf spring is a device used in automotive vehicles to carry unexpected impact loads. These leaf springs are generally made of steels i.e. Mild steel, cast steel etc. Mono leaf springs are generally preferred for vehicles with low load carrying strength and Light weight vehicles. The advance Mono leaf springs are manufactured using GFRP which are light in weigh and have low load carrying capacity as compared to Glass Composites i.e. E Glass, S Glass, Carbon Fiber etc. In this project work, Objective is to design a Mono Leaf spring Using Advance S-Glass Series composite Materials which will results into absorbing high Impact shocks. In this project work, Mono Leaf spring of Mahindra Model of Commander 650 Di is considered for design and Analysis. Concept of Reverse engineering is used to measure all the design parameters of the mono leaf spring. Theoretical Designing is done using standard Mono Leaf Spring Design process and 3D modelling is done using Solid works 2015 software. Finite Element Analysis software ANSYS Workbench 18.0 is used to study the static and dynamic Behavior of the spring under standard working conditions. ACP Analysis is done for Composite leaf spring to find Load Carrying capacity. S-Glass Composite series is used to manufacture mono leaf spring and Tested experimentally for actual load Capacity using Experiment Setup. The finite Element Analysis will show that Mono Leaf Spring Made of S-glass Composite will perform better as compared E Glass Composites and All the convectional Metals series Materials in terms of load capacity, Life, Performance, Impact Strength, Flexibility, Cost, Wear and Corrosion.
Keywords : Mono Leaf Spring, S-Glass Composite, ACP Analysis, Design, Fabrication
 M.Venkatesan, D.Helmen Devaraj “Design And Analysis Of Composite Leaf Spring In Light Vehicle”, “International Journal Of Modern Engineering Research” ,2012  R M Patil, S M Hatrote, A K Pharale, V S Patil, G V Chiniwalar And A S Reddy “Fabrication And Testing Of Composite Leaf Spring For Light Passenger Vehicle”, “International Journal Of Current Engineering And Technology” ,2014  Mahmut Duruú, Levent Kõrkayak, Aykut Ceyhan, Kaan Kozan “Fatigue Life Prediction Of Z Type Leaf Spring And New Approach To Verification Method” , “Procedia Engineering” ,2015  Gulur Siddaramanna Shiva Shankar, Sambagam Vijayarangan “Mono Composite Leaf Spring For Light Weight Vehicle – Design, End Joint Analysis And Testing”, “Materials Science” ,2006  A.H. Al-Qureshi “Automobile Leaf Spring From Composite Materials”, “Journal Of Materials Processing Technology” ,2001  Gokul Prasad S “Design And Analysis Of Mono Leaf Spring For Automobile Application”, “International Journal Of Current Engineering And Technology” ,2015  P.Sainathan, K. Ajay “Modelling And Analysis Of A Hybrid Mono-Leaf Spring Using Fea”, “International Journal Of Current Engineering And Technology” ,2015  Karthik V, Chandan V “Modeling And Simulation Of Composite Mono Leaf Spring” , “International Journal Of Engineering Research & Technology” , 2015  Y. N. V. Santhosh Kumar & M. Vimal Teja “Design and analysis of composite leaf spring” , “Material science” , 2012  Mr. Tharigonda Niranjan Babu & Mr P. Bhaskar, Mr. S. Moulali “Design and Analysis of Leaf Spring with Composite materials” , 2014  Sagar B Mahajan, Prof M.C. Swami, Permeshwar patil “Design and Analysis of Mono Composite Leaf Spring by Varying thickness using FEA” ,“IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering” , 2015  Y. Venu & G.Diwakar “12.Static and Modal Analysis of Leaf Spring with Eyes Using FEA Packages” , “International Journal of Engineering Research and Development” , 2013
During transportation, there will be vaporization of LNG producing boil-off gas (BOG) and its re-liquefaction is required considering that large volume of BOG to be vented out. A cryogenic refrigeration cycle is utilized in order to re-liquefy the BOG and returns it to the cargo tank. Kapitza and claude are the usually used LNG re-liquefaction cycles. The developments in the processes adopted for the liquefaction of LNG boil-off will be addressed. Detailed study about the practical cycle like kapitza and claude cycle are performed. The experimental values of these re-liquefaction cycles at each state point are available. ASPEN HYSYS software is used to model these re-liquefaction cycles. Validating the ASPEN software result with experimental values and finding the error in the values of temperature and pressure at each state point. From this validation process it is found that simulation result using ASPEN software has very good agreement with experimental values.
Keywords : LNG, ASPEN, Exergy, Validation, Re-liquefaction
 Sarkar S.C., LNG as an energy efficient eco-friendly cryogenic fuel, 2005.  Satish Kumar , Hyouk-Tae Kwon , Kwang-Ho Choi , Wonsub Lim , Jae Hyun Cho , Kyungjae Tak ,Il Moon, LNG: An eco-friendly cryogenic fuel for sustainable development, 2011  Dr. K-D.Gerdsmeyer & W.H.Isalski, on-board reliquefaction for lng ships, 2005  Moon J.W., Lee Y. P., Jin Y. W., Hong E. S. and Chang H. M, Cryogenic Refrigeration Cycle for Re-Liquefaction of LNG Boil-Off Gas, Page 621-635, 2007  Younggy Shina,, Yoon Pyo Lee , Design of a boil-off natural gas reliquefaction control system for LNG carriers, 2008.  Thomas N. Anderson,a Mark E. Ehrhardt,a Robert E. Foglesong,b Tom Bolton,c David Jonesc and Andy Richardson, Shipboard Reliquefaction for Large LNG Carriers, 2009.  Hoseyn Sayyaadi, M. Babaelahi, Exergetic optimization of a refrigeration cycle for Re-liquefaction of LNG Boil-off gas, 2010.  Heinz C. Bauer, Linde Engineering, Pullach, Germany Hans Mattsson, Siemens, Finspång, Sweden Sven-Erik Brink, Siemens, Duisburg, Germany, World Scale Boil-Off Gas Reliquefaction, 2010.  Bongsik Chu, Daejun Chang, Hyun Chung, Optimum liquefaction fraction for Boil- off gas reliquefaction system of semi-pressurized liquid carbon dioxide carriers based on economic evaluation, 2012  Hoseyn Sayyaadi M. Babaelahi, Multi-objective optimization of a joule cycle for re-liquefaction of the Liquefied Natural Gas, 2011  [Sunil Manohar Dash, Study of cryogenic cycles with aspen - hysys simulations, 2008