Publication for Volume-2 Issue-12, November 2017
The most common way to produce bio-ethanol is fermenting raw materials using suitable micro organism. For this fermentation process to produce ethanol from Artocarpus Heterophyllus which is generally known as jack fruit, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae is used as a micro organism. Saccharomyces is used to produce high yield of ethanol due to its naturally adopting property and its high tolerance rate of ethanol and chemical inhibitor. Ethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel that contains 35% of oxygen, which reduces particulate and Nitrogen Oxide emission from combustion. Ethanol can be made synthetically from petroleum or by microbial conversion of biomass through fermentation process. The main types of raw materials for ethanol production using biological method are cellulose, carbohydrate and sugar. Ethanol production procedures from biomass which are rich in carbohydrates, consists of feedstock preparation or pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and product separation and purification. In this work, jackfruit peel is taken as a substrate due to its high carbohydrate content. The essential hydrolysis and fermentation step, which provides fermentable sugar and ethanol, can be carried out by using enzyme or microorganism. This is carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae generally known as bakery yeast which has been used traditionally for fermented food and alcoholic drink production.
Keywords : Ethanol, Artocarpus Heterophyllus, fermentation, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, micro organism.
 Perspectives Alya Limayem, Steven C. Ricke, (2012) ‘Lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production:current, potential issues and future prospects’, April 2012 pp 449-467.(process in energy and combustion science 38)  AmeraGibreel, James R.Sandercock, JinguiLan, Laksiri A. Goonewardene, Ruurd T. Zijlstra, Jonathan M. Curtis, and David C. Bressler, (2009) ‘Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products’, Applied and Environmental Microbiotechnology vol.75,pp 1363-1372  AnneliPetersson_, Mette H. Thomsen, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anne-Belinda Thomsen, (2007) ‘Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean’, Biomass and Bioenergy vol.31 pp 812–819.  Annette Sorensen, Philip J.Teller, TroelsHilstrom, Birgitte K. Ahring, (2008) ‘Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment’, Bioresource Technology vol.99, pp 6602-660  Badger, (2002) ‘Ethanol From Cellulose: A General Review’, Trends in new crops and new uses vol.14 pp  Bruce S. Dien , Eduardo A. Ximenes , Patricia J. O’Bryan , Mohammed Moniruzzaman , Xin-Liang Li , VenkateshBalan , Bruce Dale , Michael A. Cotta, (2008) ‘Enzyme characterization for hydrolysis of AFEX and liquid hot-water pretreated distillers’ grains and their conversion to ethanol’, Bioresource Technology vol.99, pp 5216-5225.  S. Chongkhong, B. Lolharat and P. Chetpattananondh, (2012) ‘Optimization of Ethanol Production from Fresh Jackfruit Seeds Using Response Surface Methodology’, Journal of Sustainable Energy & Environment vol.3 pp 113-119  DuangjaiOchaikul, NisakornNoiprasert, WipawadeeLaoprasert and SasimaPookpun, (2012) ‘Ethanol Production on Jackfruit Seeds by Selected Fungi and Yeast from Loog-pang’, KMITL Sci. Tech. J. Vol. 12 pp 1-6.  Foo, B.H. Hameed, (2012) ‘Potential of jackfruit peel as precursor for activated carbon prepared by microwave induced NaOH activation’ Bioresource Technology vol.112 pp 143–150.  Itelima, A. Ogbonna, S. Pandukur, J. Egbere, and A. Salami, (2013) ‘Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Corn Cobs to Bio-Ethanol by Co-Culture of Aspergillus Niger and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae’, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 4 pp 239-243.  Itelima, F. Onwuliri, E. Onwuliri, Isaac Onyimba, and S. Oforji, (2013) ‘Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process’, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 4,pp213-217.  Jasvinder Singh, SaiGu, (2010) ‘Commercialization potential of microalgae for biofuels production’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews vol.14, pp 2596–2610.  Krishnan Vijayaraghavan, (2007) Desa Ahmad, ChristiantoSoning, () ‘Bio-hydrogen generation from mixed fruit peelwaste using anaerobic contact filter’,Bioresources Technology vol.13, pp 4754-4761.  Linde, M.Galbe, G.Zacchi, (2008) ‘Bioethanol production from non-starch carbohydrate residues in process streams from a dry-mill ethanol plant’, Bioresource Technology vol.99, pp 6505-6511.  Mazharuddin khan, M. Munawer khan, Naiman Ali Mir, (2011) ‘Production of ethanol by submerged fermentation from cellulosic substrates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae’, Trends in new crops and new uses vol.14 pp 4635-4640.  Oscar J. Sanchez, Carlos A. Cardona, (2008) ‘Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks’, Bioresources Technology vol.99, pp 5270-5295  Per Sassner_, Mats Galbe, Guido Zacchi, (2008) ‘Techno-economic evaluation of bioethanol production from three different lignocellulosic materials’, Biomass and bio energy vol.32, pp 422 – 430.  Patrascuelena, ‘Bioethanol production from molasses by different strains of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae’, Food Technology vol.3 pp 49-57.  piotrOleskowicz-popiel, PrzemyslawLisiecki, Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen, Anne Belinda Thomsen, MetteHedegaard Thomsen, (2008) ‘Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure’, Bioresource Technology vol.99, pp 5327-5334  Ritslaid1, A. Kuut2 and J. Olt,(2009) ‘State of the Art in Bioethanol Production’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews vol.13, pp 2450-2469.  Ronghou Liu, FeiShen, (2008) ‘Impacts of main factors on bioethanol fermentation from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae’,Bioresource Technology vol.99, pp 847-854.  Ronghou Liu, Jinxia Li, FeiShen, (2008) ‘Refining bioethanol from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by immobilized yeast fermentation’, Bioresource Technology vol.33, pp 1130-1135.  RiaMillati, KeikhosroKarimi, (2007) ‘Overview ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials’, Bioresources Technology vol.32, pp 220-230.  SiriphatrChamutpong, NednapitNoitim, ChanyaWongjan, and DuongruitaiNicomrat, (2013) ‘Comparative High Alcohol Production in the Fermentation of Durian Peels and Jackfruit Wastes’, Science and Technology for Better Life vol.pp 457-461.  SininartChongkhong, BanchaLolharat,(2013) ‘Bio-ethanol from Prebiotic extracted jackfruit seeds’,Conference on Engineering and Technology vol.13 pp 1-5.  Suhas V Bhandari, ArunPanchapakesan, Naveen Shankar, H G Ashok Kumar, (2013) ‘Production of Bioethanol from Fruit Rinds by Saccharification and Fermentation’, International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology Volume 2 Issue 6 pp 362-365.  Tae Hyun Kim, Frank Taylor, Kevin B. Hicks, (2008) ‘Bioethanol production from barley hull using SAA (soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment’, Bioresource Technology vol. 99 pp 5694–5702.  Tutt, T. Kikas and J. Olt, (2012) ‘Influence of different pretreatment methods on bio-ethanolproduction from wheat straw’, Agronomy Research Biosystem Engineering Special Issue 1, pp 269-276.  VesnaM.Vucurovic, RadojkaN.Razmovski, StevanD.Popov, (2009) ‘Ethanol production using saccharomyces cerevisiaecells immobilized on corn stem ground tissue’ Bioresource Technology vol.35, pp 315-323.  Ye Sun, Jiayang Cheng, (2002) ‘Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review’, Bioresource Technology vol.83 ,pp 1–11
The tradition of videos over mobile networks has been increasing staggeringly in such however that the wireless networks cannot keep up with the rigorous traffic. Poor quality of videos (long buffering time, intermittent disruptions) are transmitted over the mobile networks owing to the restricted capability of wireless link and increasing traffic demand. Efficient video streaming and sharing can be achieved by using an AMES cloud framework, wherever a personal agent is employed to regulate the streaming flow with a Scalable Video Coding technique based on the feedback of wireless link capacity and prefetching the videos in advance to reduce the buffering time. In this paper, unauthorized access of videos uploaded by one user and other cloud service providers can be prevented by using Homomorphic and Incremental encryption techniques.
Keywords : Scalability, Adaptability, Streaming, Scalable Video Coding, Prefetching
 AMES-Cloud: A Framework of Adaptive Mobile Video Streaming and Efficient Social Video Sharing in the Clouds Xiaofei Wang, Student Member, IEEE, Min Chen,Senior Member, IEEE, Ted “Taekyoung” Kwon, Senior Member, IEEE, Laurence T. Yang, Senior Member, IEEE, Victor C.M. Leung, Fellow, IEEECISCO.  “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2011-2016,” Tech. Rep., 2012.Y. Li, Y. Zhang, and R. Yuan, “Measurement and Analysis of a Large Scale Commercial Mobile Internet TV System,” in ACM IMC, pp. 209–224, 2011.  T. Taleb and K. Hashimoto, “MS2: A Novel Multi-Source Mobile-Streaming Architecture,” in IEEE Transaction on Broadcasting, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 662–673, 2011.  T. Taleb, K. Kashibuchi, A. Leonardi, S. Palazzo, K. Hashimoto, N. Kato, and Y. Nemoto, “A Cross-layer Approach for An Efficient Delivery of TCP/RTP-based Multimedia Applications in Heterogeneous WirelessNetworks,” in IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 3801–3814, 2008.  X. Wang, S. Kim, T. Kwon, H. Kim, Y. Choi, “Unveiling the BitTorrent Performance in Mobile WiMAX Networks,” in Passive and Active Measurement Conference, 2011.  A. Nafaa, T. Taleb, and L. Murphy, “Forward Error Correction Adaptation Strategies for Media Streaming over Wireless Networks,” in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 72–79, 2008.  J. Fernandez, T. Taleb, M. Guizani, and N. Kato, “Bandwidth Aggregation-aware Dynamic QoS Negotiation for Real-Time Video Applications in Next-Generation Wireless Networks,” in IEEE Transaction on Multimedia, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1082–1093,2009.  Z. Huang, C. Mei, L. E. Li, and T. Woo, “Cloud Stream: Delivering High-Quality Streaming Videos through A Cloud-based SVC Proxy,” in IEEE INFOCOM, 2011.
Beam is basic components in industrial structural design whose damping properties are often very important to reduce vibration. Viscoelastic materials are generally polymers; there is enormous variability in the composition of viscoelastic materials. Rubber is a unique material that is both elastic and viscous. Rubber parts can therefore function as shock and vibration isolators and/or as dampers. In this research Butyl rubber is viscoelastic material which is acting as the damping layer, steel and aluminum patches are used as constrained layer. Here, change in length of patch and damping layer is varied for constant length and thickness of base layer. The lengths of patches are varied as 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. These patches also arranged in segment and hybrid. Two sets of specimens are prepared for aluminium and steel constrained layer. Damping characteristics of beam are determined by experimental and analytically by using FFT analyzer and ANSYS software respectively.
Keywords : Vibration, Damping,CLD, Length of Patch,Viscoelastic
 Amichi, K., Atalla, N., & Ruokolainen, R. (2010). A new 3D finite element sandwich plate for predicting the vibroacoustic response of laminated steel panels. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 46(12), pp. 1131-1145. Elsevier.  Balamurugan, V., & Narayanan, S. (2002). Finite Element Formulation and ActiveVibration Control Study on Beams Using Smart Constrained Layer Damping (Scld) Treatment. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 249(2), pp. 227-250  Castel, a., Loredo, a., El Hafidi, a., & Martin, B. (2012). Complex power distribution analysis in plates covered with passive constrained layer damping patches. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(11),PP. 2485-2498  Dewangan, P. (2009). Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping For Structural Application Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer. England: John Wiley and Sons, LTD.  Gallimore, C. A. (2008). Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping Application for a Small Aircraft Landing Gear System Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping Application for a Small Aircraft Landing Gear System  Havriliak, S. Negami S.(1967), A complex plane representation of dielectric and mechanical relaxation processes in some polymers, Polymer 8 .pp. 161–210.  James Mark (2007) Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, Springer.  Jayasuriya, C. K., & Premachandra, J. K. (2006). CHAPTER 2 Names, Acronyms, Classes, and Structures of Some Important Polymers, (2), pp. 25-41.  Jeric, K. M., Cudney, H. H., Inman, D. J., & Jeric, K. M. (1999a). An Experimental Evaluation of the Application of Smart Damping Materials for Reducing Structural Noise and Vibrations for Reducing Structural Noise and Vibrations.  Johnson CD, et al. (1982) Finite element prediction of damping in structures with constrained viscoelastic layers. AIAA Journal; 20(9):pp. 1284-90.  Jones, D. I. G.( 2001). Handbook of Viscoelastic Vibration Damping. West Sussex,  Kumar, N., & Singh, S. P. (2009). Vibration and damping characteristics of beams with active constrained layer treatments under parametric variations. Materials & Design, 30(10), pp. 4162-4174.  Lin, C.-Y., & Chen, L.-W. (2003). Dynamic stability of a rotating beam with a constrained damping layer. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 267(2),pp. 209-225.  Shi, Y. M., Li, Z. F., Hua, H. X., Fu, Z. F., & Liu, T. X. (2001). The Modelling and Vibration Control of Beams with Active Constrained Layer Damping. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 245(5), pp. 785-800.  Singiresu S.Rao. (2004), The finite element method in engineering ,Heinemann-Butterworth  Sun, D., & Tong, L. (2002). Modelling and Vibration Control of Beams with Partially Debonded Active Constrained Layer Damping Patch. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 252(3), pp. 493-507.  Van Vuure, a. ., Verpoest, I., & Ko, F. (2001). Sandwich-fabric panels as spacers in a constrained layer structural damping application. Composites Part B: Engineering, 32(1), pp. 11-19.  Xie, Z., & Steve Shepard, W. (2009). Development of a single-layer finite element and a simplified finite element modeling approach for constrained layer damped structures. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 45(8-9), pp. 530-537.  Zeytounian, Rk. (2001). A historical survey of some mathematical aspects of Newtonian fluid flows. Applied Mechanics Reviews, 54(6), pp. 525
The atrocious food habit and modern life style stimulate the prevalence of stenosis. Stenosis of pulmonary artery branches is an anomaly characterized by narrowed segments of one or more of the main or peripheral branches of the pulmonary artery. This narrowing may force the heart to pump harder, leading to enlarged heart and high blood pressure in the right ventricle and it results in heart failure and lung related disease like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To analyze deviations in pressure and velocity in blood flow, the artificial 3D model of different stages of stenotic condition in pulmonary artery is to be created using ANSYS 15 (Autodesk Inventor Software). Through this analysis certain range of pressure and velocity is obtained. This value helps in understanding the treatments suitable for desired stenosis condition.
Keywords : Pulmonary Artery, Stenosis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, Pressure, Velocity, Blood Flow, ANSYS
 Pulmonary artery diameters measured by multidetector-row computed tomography in healthy adults. Bozlar U, Ors F, Deniz O, Uzun M, Gumus S, Ugurel MS, Yazar F, Tayfun C.  MOLLER, T.: A caseof peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Acta paediat. 42: 390, 1953.  Franch RH, Gay BB Jr. Congenital stenosis of the pulmonary artery branches: a classiﬁcation, with postmortem ﬁndings in two cases. Am J Med 1963; 35(4):512–529  Simonneau G, Gatzoulis MA, Adatia, I, Celermajer D, Denton C, Ghofrani A, Gomez Sanchez MA, et al. Updated clinical classiﬁcation of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62(25 suppl.): D34–D41.  R.k.Raajput. Fluid mechanics and hydraluic machins. India: chand and companyJ.  Tawhai MH, Burrowes KS. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Modelling pulmonary blood flow. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 2008; 163:150–157. [PubMed: 18434260]  Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart diseaseMichele D'Alto, Vaikom S. MahadevanEuropean Respiratory Review 2012 21: 328337; DOI: 10.1183/09059180.00004712.  U.Bozlar, F.Ors, O.Deniz, M.Uzun, S.Gumus, M.S.Ugurel, F.Yazar, C.Tayfun: Pulmonary artery diameters measured by multidetector-row computed tomography in healthy adults. Acta Radiol. 2007 Dec;48(10):1086-91
Chain drives are most important systems used in industry to carry the products and to transmit the power. But limitation is the chain drive suffers premature elongation due to wear and so that the costs of production will increases and ultimately the cost of operations also increases. In case of power transmission chain, the major factor affected on failure of chain is tensile load. It will be helpful to reduce the cost and time of production related to chain assembly of above said industries. The power transmission chain is used to transmit the power which deals with different load conditions. This causes wear and tear of components of chains and hence unexpected failure and costly production. In present work the study of different failures of chain links under different loading conditions using Mild Steel will be done. It was determined that maximum amount of weight of chain drive is covered by outer link and inner link. The chain is analyzed using Hyper-mesh and ANSYS software. The static loads are applied on the chain drive and analysis is carried out. The test is carried out to check the conformance of the existing design. The chain drive is optimized by changing it to carbon fiber material. Based on these results, best feasible design solution is proposed and validated experimentally.
Keywords : Finite Element Analysis, Chain Drive, Carbon Fibre Material
Basic  Nikhil S. Pisal, V.J. Khot, Swapnil S. Kulkarni, “Design and Development of Motorcycle Chain Links by Using C.A.E. Software”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management Studies (IJSRMS) ISSN: 2349-3771 Volume 2 Issue 4, pg: 175-183.  Shrikant Annasaheb Choudhari, Prof. G. E. Kondhalkar, “Motorcycle Chain Analysis And Development by CAE Software”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing, July 2016, ISSN 2321 3361.  Amol J. Kadam, Dr. Shailesh V. Deshpande, “Design and Analysis of conveyor chain link using composite material: a Review”, Special Issue, Recent Trends In Mechanical engineering, VVPIET, Solapur, Maharashtra, India, February 2015.  Mr. Brage Prashant Ravindra, Prof. V. H. Waghmare, Mr. S.D.Chavan, “Roller Chain Link Plate Design Based on FEA”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, Volume: 2 Issue: 12, ISSN: 2321-8169.  A. J. Kadam, Dr. S. V. Deshpande, “Design & Development Of Conveyor Chain Outer Link By Using Composite Material”, International Journal Of Innovations In Engineering Research And Technology, ISSN: 2394-3696 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 12, DEC.-2015.  Tushar. S. Shahane, Prof. Ameeth. M. Umbrajkaar, “Design And Analysis Of Chain Outer Link By Using Composite Material”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), e-ISSN: 2278-1684, p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 12, Issue 1 Ver. II (Jan- Feb. 2015), PP 46-50.  Jagtap M. D, Gaikwad B. D., Pawar P. M.” Study of Roller Conveyor Chain Strip under Tensile Loading”, International journal of modern Engineering research, ISSN: 2249–6645.  Vishal Wankhade, Prof. Suman Sharma, “Design Improvement for Enhancing the Performance of drag Conveyor Chain and its Cost Reduction”, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 3, Issue 2, Part 2, March-April,2015, ISSN 2091-2730  Priyanka Nandkumar Velhal, “Experimental Stress Analysis and FEA Validation of chain link for 280 cc Drive”, International Engineering Research Journal Page No 847-855. Website References  www.sciencedirect.com Basic Format for Books  Deborah Chung, “Carbon fiber composites,” in 1994  Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Cave Books, Ltd. Page 109.
In this research I ventured to find a relation between the eccentricity of an elliptical droplet with the force it experiences on a polymer. All model of finding the force on a polymer assumed the force will be distributed equally across the polymer. However, in reality such idealistic situations are rare. Thus through this exploration a new method could be developed to first find the areas which experienced the highest force and the highest tension and thus are susceptible to break, and to find the mechanics of the water droplet and model the uneven tension as a vector diagram. I conducted experiments to conclude that there is indeed a relation with the eccentricity of an water droplet with the force it experience and also that the major axis of the ellipse points towards the line of highest tension. These results show a very successful attempt to model such phenomenon. My results concluded that the total force can be determined with an accuracy of 2%. My final result was F=e±2% which sows the obvious and very strong relation between the force experienced by the polymer and its effect on the water droplet and how these uneven forces are able to attract the droplet in a manner which depicted the force itself. Through this exploration, a new method of finding the mid-point of the ellipse with a general equation of Ax2+Bxy+Cy2+Dx+Ey+F=0 was also discovered which indeed presented substantial results and aided the whole process as it deemed to be a simpler and easy to calculate.
Keywords : Relation between the Eccentricity of an Elliptical Droplet with the Force it Experiences on a Polymer
 Thomas, George B.; Finney, Ross L. (1979), Calculus and Analytic Geometry (fifth ed.), Addison-Wesley, p. 434. ISBN 0-201-07540-7  Ayoub, Ayoub B., "The eccentricity of a conic section", The College Mathematics Journal 34(2), March 2003, 116-121.  "Classification of Linear PDEs in Two Independent Variables".  S.Chekanov, J.Proudfoot, "Searches for TeV-scale particles at the LHC using jet shapes", Phys. Rev. D 81:114038, (2010). arXiv:1002.3982  http://www.mathwarehouse.com/ellipse/eccentricity-of-ellipse.php  https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/264877/finding-eccentricity-from-the-rotating-ellipse-formula  https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/280937/finding-the-angle-of-rotation-of-an-ellipse-from-its-general-equation-and-the-ot  https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1102960/finding-eccentricity-directrix-foci-of-diagonal-ellipse-by-rotating-it  http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Ellipse.html  http://www.stewartcalculus.com/data/ESSENTIAL%20CALCULUS%20Early%20Transcendentals/upfiles/topics/ess_at_13_ra_stu.pdf
Aerated concrete is either a cement or lime mortar, classified as light weight concrete, in which air-voids are entrapped in the mortar matrix with the aid of suitable air entraining agent. Aerated concrete is relatively homogeneous when compared to normal concrete, as it does not contain coarse aggregate phase. It has many advantages when compared with conventional concrete such as reduced dead load, good sound insulation, considerable savings in material as a result of air voids with in aerated concrete. In this study aluminium powder is used as the air entraining agent. The focus of this paper is to study on the effect of properties of aerated concrete developed by partially replacing cement with flyash and fine aggregate with rubber powder. Rubber powder used for this study is made from used tyres of vehicles.
Keywords : Aerated Concrete, Air Entraining Agent, Aluminium Powder, Rubber Powder, Fly Ash
 N. Narayanan and K Ramamurthy. (2000). Structure and properties of aerated concrete: a review. Journal of Cement & Concrete Composites. 22, pp. 321- 329.  E. Muthu Kumar and K. Ramamurthy. (2015). Effect of fineness and dosage of aluminium powder on the properties of moist-cured aerated concrete. Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 95, pp. 486 – 496.  Leyla Tanacan, Halit yasa Ersoy and Omit Arpacıoglu. (2009). Effect of high temperature and cooling conditions on aerated concrete properties. Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 23, pp. 1240 – 1248.  Laukaitis and Fiks .(2006). Acoustical properties of aerated autoclaved concrete. Journal of Applied Acoustics .67, pp. 284 – 296.  Keun Hyeok Yang and Kyung Ho Lee. (2015). Tests on high-performance aerated concrete with a lower density. Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 74, pp. 109 – 117.  Rostislav Drochytka and Ester Helanovaa. (2015). Development of microstructure of the fly ash aerated concrete in time. Journal of Procedia Engineering. 108, pp. 624 - 631.  Alberto Sepulcre Aguilar, Javier Pinilla Melo and Fransisco HernandezOlivares(2013). Microstructural analysis of aerated cement pastes with fly ash, Metakaolin and Sepiolite additions. Journal of Construction and Building Material. ,47, pp. 282–292.  Shi Cong Kou,Chi Sun Poon, and Dixon Chan. (2007). Influence of Fly Ash as Cement Replacement on the Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete. Journals of material in civil engineering .19, pp. 709-717.  A Benazzouk,,Douzane, K.Mezreb and M.Queneudec. (2006). Physico-mechanical properties of aerated cement compositescontaining shredded rubber waste. Journal of Cement & Concrete Composites. 28, pp. 650–657.  Chi- Jung Chen, Yu-Ming Tang, Shih-Shong Tseng and Her -Yung Wang. A study of the engineering properties on concrete with the application of pozzolanic material and waste tire rubber powder. Proceeding the 6th Civil Engineering Conference in Asia Region.  Sara Sgobba, Massimo Borsa, Marcello Molfetta and Giuseppe Carlo Marano (2015). Mechanical performance and medium- term degradation of rubberized Concrete. Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 98, pp. 820–831.  Sukontasukkul and Tiamlom. (2012). Expansion under water and drying shrinkage of rubberized concrete mixed with crumb rubber with different size. Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 29, pp. 520–526.  Tayfun,Uygunoglu and Ilker Bekir Topcu. (2010). The role of scrap rubber particles on the drying shrinkage and mechanical properties of self – consolidating mortars. Journal of Construction and Building Materials. 24, pp. 1141-1150.  Turatsinzea, Bonneta, and Granju .(2005). Mechanical characterisation of cement-based mortar incorporating rubber aggregates from recycled worn tyres. Journal of Building and Environment. 40, pp. 221–226.  Guelmine, Hadjab and Benazzouk.2016). Effect of elevated temperatures on physical and mechanical properties of recycled rubber mortar. Journal of Construction and Building Materials .126, pp. 77–85.  IS 12269:1989, Specification for ordinary Cement 53 Grade, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  IS 4031:1988, Methods of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  IS 383:1970, Specifications for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  IS 2386:1963, Methods of Tests For Aggregate of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  IS 516:1959, Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete, Bureau IS 12269:1989, Specification for ordinary Cement 53 Grade, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Now a day's, XML files are most vital facet of code trade. As a core normal, XML provides a solid foundation around that different standards could grow. Making DTD’s is possibly what the creators of XML had in mind after they known as it ex-tensile terminology. XML may be a file extension for XML file format accustomed produce common info formats and share each the format and also the information on the globe Wide internet, intranets, et al. victimization normal code text. XML provides regular thanks to describe semi-structured information. We tend to propose the propose methodology uses stemming stopping process in conjunction with tree structure. Performing stemming, stopping and parsing on that file, as per the tag file makes columns in relational database and insert tag information in the respective columns, all files saves in one folder. These embody consistency problems for mappings and schema, additionally as imposing tighter restrictions on mappings and queries to attain tractable question responsive in information exchange. The propose method can achieve better performance in decreasing of time and space complexities.
Keywords : XML, Relational Database, Time and Space Complexity, Stemming stopping process, Tree data structure
 Huchao Zhu,Huiqun Yu(Corresponding Author), “Mini XML: An efficient mapping approach, between XML and Relational Database”,2017.  M.A. Ibrahim Fakharaldien, Jasni Mohamed Zain, and Norrozila Sulaiman,” XRecursive: A Storage Method for XML Document Based on Relational Database”, 2011  Bousalem, Zakaria, and Ilias Cherti. "XMap: A Novel Approach to Store and Retrieve XML Document in Relational Databases." JSW 10.12 (2015): 1389-1401.  Masatoshi Yoshikawa and Toshiyuki Amagasa, “XRel: A Path-Based Approach to Storage and Retrieval of XML Documents using Relational Databases”, 2009  Samini Subramaniam, Su-Cheng Haw, Poo Kuan Hoong,”s-XML: An efficient mapping scheme to bridge XML and relational database”  Arenas M, Barcel P, Libkin L, et al. Foundations of Data Exchange[C]// Cambridge University Press, 2014.  Vaidya AV, Study of Optimal Indexing Schema for Xml Query Processing and Effective Storage Management 2009 to 2013, 2015  Yoshikawa M, Amagasa T, Shimura T, et al. XRel: a path-based approach to storage and retrieval of XML documents using relational databases [J]. Acm Transactions on Internet Technology, 2001, 1(1):110- 141  Jiang H, Lu H, Wang W, et al. Path materialization revisited: an efficient storage model for XML data[C]// Australasian Database Conference. Australian Computer Society, Inc. 2002:85-94.  Dweib I M. Automatic mapping of XML documents into relational database [J]. University of Hudders eld, 2010.  Arenas M, Barcel P, Libkin L, et al. Relational and XML Data Exchange [J]. 2010, 2(1):112.  Arenas M, Barcel P, Libkin L, et al. Foundations of Data Exchange[C]//Cambridge University Press, 2014.