Publication for Volume-2 Issue-11, October 2017
Heat Exchangers are one of the most important engineering systems with various applications like power plants, nuclear reactors, refrigeration and air-conditioning, heat recovery systems; chemical processing and food industries. Basic advantage of helical Coil heat exchanger is its higher heat transfer with compact size, due to secondary flow generation in coil. One of the passive methods of heat transfer enhancement is used here, by changing the design of helical coil. Few investigators have introduced Critical Reynolds number to identify the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in helical coils which is given by Schmidts Co-relation. An attempt is made to change the curvature ratio continuously throughout the coil by using a conical shaped coil in order to decrease the critical Reynolds number. Numerical results of conical coil are compared with straight helical coil by using ANSYS fluent for mass flow rate through coil 0.07kg/s and 0.05 kg/s through shell. From Numerical analysis it is observed conical coil giving 8.71% more heat transfer than straight coil. The mass flow rate range through coil is taken 0.01 kg/s, 0.02 kg/s, 0.05 kg/s, 0.07 kg/s, 0.09 kg/s, 0.1 kg/s keeping mass flow rate through shell 0.05 kg/s constant also tube inlet and shell inlet temperatures maintained same 42ºC and 27ºC respectively and for same mass flow rate heat transfer rate calculated numerically.
Keywords : Helical Coil Heat Exchanger, Curvature Ratio, Critical Reynolds, ANSYS (Fluent), CFD
 N.Ghorbani, H.Taherian, M.Gorji, H.Mirgolbabaei, “Experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer in vertical helically coiled tube heat exchangers” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 34 (2010)900–905.  Abhinav Gupta, Ravi Kumar, Akhilesh Gupta, “Condensation of R-134a inside a helically coiled tube-in-shell heat exchanger” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 54 (2014)279–289.  S.S.Pawar, VivekK.Sunnapwar, “Experimental studies on heat transfer to Newtonian and non –Newtonian fluids in helical coils with laminar and turbulent flow”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 44 (2013)792–804.  T.A.Pimenta, L.M.Campos, “T.A.Pimenta, L.M. Campos, “Friction losses of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing in laminar regime in a helical coil” “Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 36 (2012)194–204.  Armand Fopah Lelea, Thomas Ronnebecka, Christian Rohdea, Thomas Schmidta, Frederic Kuznikb, Wolfgang K.L, “Modelling of heat exchangers based on the rmo chemical material for solar heat storage systems”, The 6th International Conference on Applied Energy– ICAE2014,Energy Procedia.  M.R.Salimpour “Heat transfer coefficients of shell and coiled tube heat exchangers”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science33 (2009)203–207.  N. D. Shirgire, Amit Thakur, Sanjay Singh, “Comparative Study and Analysis between Helical Coil and Straight Tube Heat Exchanger”, Amit Thakur et al Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 8( Version 2), August 2014,pp.130-133  Pablo Coronel, K.P. Sandeep.” Heat Transfer Coefficient in Helical Heat Exchangers under Turbulent Flow Conditions”, International Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 4, Issue 1 2008 Article4.  Pramod S. Purandare, Mandar M. Lele, Rajkumar Gupta,, “Parametric Analysis of Helical Coil Heat Exchanger”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 8, October – 2012, ISSN:2278-0181.  B.Chinna Ankanna, B.Sidda Reddy, “Performance Analysis of Fabricated Helical Coil Heat Exchanger”, and International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN: 2319-6890) (online), 2347-5013(print), Volume No.3 Issue No: Special 1, pp: 33-39 22nd March2014.  HarithNooriMohammed, “Experimental Study of Free Convection in Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger with Vertical Orientation”, Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences/Vol.18/No.4/December 2011, (80-87).  S.D. Sancheti Dr.P.R.Suresh,“ Experimental and CFD estimation of heat transfer in helically coiled heat exchangers”,1st International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology, Mar-2012 Special Issue of International Journal of electronics, Communication & Soft Computing Science & Engineering, ISSN:2277-9477.  J.S.Jaykumar “Experimental and CFD estimation of heat transfer in helically coiled heat exchanger”
The main aim of this project is to check the ambient air quality in Davangere city and to determine AQI in the Resedential, Commercial, Industrial and Sensitive areas of the 13 selected locations of the Davangere city during summer season. It has been observed that concentration of suspended particulate matter is more in these stations like PB road Aruna theatre, Old bus stand, Gandhi circle, Pooja international hotel, UBDT college and Bapuji Hospital were exceeds the standard limit of National Ambient Air Quality standards(NAAQS). The concentration of Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide is within the NAAQS limit in all the stations. But Air Quality Index (AQI) values of the PB road old bus stand, Gandhi circle, Pooja international hotel, and Bapuji hospital stations were severely polluted and it is very unhealthy for the public and causes some various health problems.
Keywords : Air Quality, Suspended Particulate Matter, SO2, NO2, NAAQS, AQI.
 Anand Kumar., Ashish Garg and Upendu Pandel., (2011), “A Study of Ambient Air Quality Status in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India using AQI”, Indian journal of Nature and Science, Vol (9), pp: 38-43.  Abam F I and Unachukukwu O., (2009), “Vehicular Emissions and Air Quality Standards in Nigeria”, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol (34), pp: 550-560.  Ankita Shukla., Rajeev Kumar Mishra and Parida M.,(2010), “ Estimation of Composite Air Quality Index for Lucknow”, Indian Journal of Institute of Town Planners, Vol (7), pp:45-56.  Akbar Ziauddin and Siddiqui N A., (2006), “Air Quality Index A tool to determine Ambient Air Quality”, International Journal of Research and Gate, Vol (25), pp: 885-887.  Avinash Chauhan., Mayanth Pawar., Rajeev Kumar and Joshi P C., (2010), “Ambient Air Quality Status in Uttarkhand, India: A Case Study of Haridwar and Dehradun using Air Quality Index”, Journal of American Science, Vol (6), pp: 565-569.  Sastri M S., Suneela M., Shashidhar Kumar N P and Hussain S K., (2004), “Air Quality Status at Selected Locations in Hyderabad City”, Indian Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol (46), pp: 86-91.  Shiva Nagendra S M., Venugopal K and Steven Jones L., (2007), “Assessment of Air Quality near Traffic Intersections in Bangalore City using Air Quality Indices”, Indian journal of Transport and Environment, Vol (12), pp:167-176.  Gunasekaran R., Kumaraswamy K., Chandrasekaran P P and Elanchizhian R., (2012), “Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality in Salem City, Tamilnadu, India”, International Journal of Current Research, Vol(4), pp:275-280.  Nair Neelima., Bamnia B R., Mahecha G S and Saini Dhavan., (2014), “Analysis of Ambient Air Pollution and Determination of Air Quality Status of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India”, International Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol (3), pp:5-10.  Rao M N and Rao H V N., (1989), “Air Pollution”, Tata McGraw Hill Publications, New Delhi.  Garg S K., (1979), “Sewage Disposal and Air pollution engineering”, Khanna Publishers.  Instrumental Manual Vayu Bodhan Upkarn Pvt Ltd.  www.cpcb.nic
The Biggest challenge in a developing country like India is to build a full network of road system with limited financial source available. Use of local materials can considerably lower down the construction cost. If the stability of local soil is not adequate for supporting wheel loads, the properties are improved by soil stabilization techniques e.g. use of geogrids, using randomly distributed fiber, or waste plastic in the subgrade soil, this can help in improving strength of subgrade. Research has been done in this area to improve engineering performance of subgrade soil by adding different types of waste plastic content. In this study different types of waste plastic were randomly mixed with the soil, then a series of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests were conducted to evaluate the strength of subgrade soil. High density polyethylene (HDPE), Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Polypropylene (PP) at various percentages were used for improving soil strength. Results from the CBR tests established that addition of these materials in subgrade soil gives efficient strength to subgrade soil. It was observed that the CBR value increases with increase in fiber content up to a certain percentage but decreases with further addition of waste plastic content. The pavement sections has been designed with the modified subgrade using HDPE, LDPE & PP and the critical strain values at the top of the subgrade and at the bottom of the bituminous layer has been analysed and compared with the allowable values as per IRC: 37-2012 for the traffic loading of 150 msa for the four lane divided state highway project. The reduction in the crust thickness and saving in the project cost has been compared for the different subgrade with different waste plastics and by varying plastic contents.
Keywords : Highway
 Aggarwal P, Sharma B. September, (2010). “Application of jute fibre in the improvement of subgrade characteristics. In: Proc of int conference on advancement in civil engg, Trabzon, Turkey; 27–30.  Arvind K. , Baljit S. , Jatinder M., (2006) “Compressive strength of fibres reinforced highly compressible clay” Construction and Building Materials ;20:1063–1068  Bouhicha M, Aouissi F, Kenai S.,(2005), “Performance of composite soil reinforced with Barley straw”, Cement Concrete Compos; 27:617–21.  Choudhary K, Jha J, Gill S. (2010), “A study on CBR behaviour of waste plastic strip reinforced soil”. Emirates Journal of Engineering & Research; 15:51–57.  Consoli C, Casagrande T, Prietto M, Thome A. (2003), “ Plate load test on fibre reinforced soil”. Journal of Geotech Geoenvironment Engg ASCE; 129:951–955.  Consoli C, Montardo P, Donato M, Prietto M. (2004), “Effect of material properties on the behaviour of sand–cement–fibre composites”. Ground Improvement; 8:77–90.  Gosavi M, Patil A, Mittal S, Saran S. (2000), “Improvement of properties of black cotton soil subgrade through synthetic reinforcement”. Journal Inst. Engg. (India); 84:257–62.  Ghavami K, Filho R, Barbosa P., (1999), “Behaviour of composite soil reinforced with Natural fibres”. Cement Concrete Composite; 21: 39–48.  H C Mehndiratta, S Chandranarayana, S P Singh, (2005) “Effect of Randomly  Distributed Fibres on Flyash Embankments”. IE (I) Journal-CV Vol: 86.  IS: 2720-Part iv (2006) Grain size analysis, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India.  IS: 2720-Part v (1985) Determination of Liquid limit & Plastic limit, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India.  IS: 2720-Part viii (1995) Determination of Water content, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India.  IS: 2720-Part xvi (2002) Determination of CBR, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, India.  IRC: 37-2012 “ Guidelines for design of flexible pavement”  Khedari J, Watsanasathaporn P, Hirunlabh J., (2005), “Development of fibre-based soil-Cement block with low thermal conductivity”. Cement Concrete Composite; 27:111–116.  Kumar A, Walia B, Mohan J. 2006, “Compressive strength of fibre reinforced highly compressible clay”. Constructing Building Material; 20:1063–1068.  MORTH “Specifications for road and bridge works”  Maheshwari V. (2011), “Performance of fibre reinforced clayey soil”. EJGE; 16:1067-87  Mahipal Singh C., Satyendra M., Bijayananda M., (2008) “Performance evaluation of silty sand subgrade reinforced with fly ash and fibre” Geotextile and Geomembranes; 26:429–435.  Stabilized Subgrade Pavement Materials” , International journal of advanced engineering sciences and technologies Vol. No. 2, Issue No. 1:025 – 035  Prabakara J, Sridhar R.,(2002), “ Effect of random inclusion of sisal fibre on strength Behaviour of soil”, Construct Building Material; 16:123–31.  Park S. (2009) “Effect of fibre reinforcement and distribution on unconfined compressive strength of fibre-reinforced cemented sand”. Geotextile Geomembranes; 27:162–166.  Praveen A., Bajinder S.,(2011),“Application of Jute Fibre in the Improvement of Subgrade Characteristics”, Journal on Transportation and Urban Development, Vol. 01, Issue No. 01.  Pardeep S., K. Gill, (2012) “CBR Improvement of Clayey Soil with Geo-grid Reinforcement” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering ISSN 2250-2459, Vol. 2, Issue no. 6.  Ravishankar U, Raghavan S., (2004), “Coir stabilised lateritic soil for pavements”. In: Indian geotech conference, Ahmedabad, India.  Segetin M, Jayaraman K, Xu X. Harakeke,(2007) “ Reinforcement of soil– cement “Building materials: manufacturability and properties. Building Environment; 42:3066–79.  Srinivas R., B. and Jayalekshmi S.,(2010) “Fibre Reinforcement of Soil Sub Grade Beneath Flexible Pavements”, Indian Geotechnical Conference, Geotrendz December: 16-18.  Tang C, Shi B, Zhao L. (2010), “Interfacial shear strength of fibre reinforced soil”. Geotextile Geomembranes; 28:5
one of the most possible vulnerabilities to data available over network can be a botnet attack which can cause significant amount of data loss. A botnet attack is a type of malicious attack that utilizes a series of connected computers to attack or take down a network, network device, website or an IT environment. The attack can slow down the network/server, making it busy enough that other legitimate users are unable to access it or temporarily freeze the server. Distributed denial of service (DDOS) is common example of a botnet attack that utilizes a number of botnet devices to send a large number of simultaneous requests/packets to the targeted system. Thus in this paper we collected data sets (i.e. packets travelling in a network) from various sources and merged it to obtain a larger set comprising of benign and malicious traffic. The packets are then analysed to obtain TCP/UDP based flows. Features are then computed for all the flows identified and listed in a feature vector table. We further tried to parallelize the feature computation work using Hadoop map reduce framework. The feature vector table can be further used to train the classifier for segregating the malicious traffic from the benign traffic.
Keywords : Bot, Bot-master, Botnet, P2P, Flows, Feature Vector
 S. Saad and W. Lu, "Detecting P2P botnets through network behavior analysis and machine learning," in Proceedings of 9th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST), IEEE, 2011.  D. Zhao and W. Lu, "Peer to Peer Botnet Detection Based on Flow Intervals," in Information Security and Privacy Research. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, pp. 87-102  P.Narang, J.M. Reddy and C. Hota, "Feature selection for detection of peer-to-peer botnet traffic", In Proceedings of the 6th ACM India Computing Convention ACM, 2013  Gregory Fedynyshyn, Mooi Choo Chuah, and Gang Tan,” Detection and Classification of Different Botnet C&C Channels” www.cse.psu.edu/~gxt29/paper  Sherif Saad, Issa Traore, Ali Ghorbani, Bassam Sayed, David Zhao, Wei Lu, John Felix, Payman Hakimian,” Detecting P2P botnets through network behavior analysis and machine learning” Website References  http://resources.infosecinstitute.com/botnets-and-cybercrime-introduction/  http://in.norton.com/botnet  http://ilookbothways.com/page/4/  http://mac-internet-security-software-review.toptenreviews.com/how-do-i-know-if-my-computer-is-a-botnet-zombie-.html  http://www.chmag.in/ro/node/420  http://www.uvic.ca/engineering/ece/isot/assets/docs/isot-datase.pdf
The responsibility of structural engineer is to produce safe and economical designs. The primary responsibility of producing safe design is achieved easily because of Codes have standardizes and plenty of design software are available to carry out analysis and design without committing any numerical mistakes. Design refers not only to safe but economical design also. However to give more emphasis on the economy aspect in the design over normal design, the term optimum design has to be designed has to be coined. Application of optimization for civil engineering is for various designs of structures like beams, slab,columns, foundation, frame, trusses etc. Optimization algorithms became popular in engineering design activities, as a designer or decision maker can derive the best way for maximum benefits from available sources. In many software optimization techniques have been developed such as MATLAB, NAG, MOSEK, NMATH etc. In this paper, study had been carried out for performance of linear programming and pattern search optimization technique using MATLAB optimization tool box for structural optimization of one-way slab. Result is compared for both techniques.
Keywords : Optimization, Linear Programming, Pattern Search, One Way Slab
 A. Faramarzi, M.H. Afshar (2012). “Application of cellular automata to size and topology optimization of truss structures”, Scientia Iranica A (2012) 19 (3), 373–380.  A. K, “Reinforced concrete”, 6th Edition, New chand & brothers.  A. Kaveha,b, A.F. Behnamb (2012). “Cost optimization of a composite floor system, one-way waffle slab, and concrete slab formwork using a charged system search algorithm” (Sciencedirect), Scientia Iranica Vol:19 (3), 410–416.  Devashree U. Sawant, N.G.Gore, P.J.Salunke, V.G.Sayagavi (Feb 2014). “Cost optimization of post-tensioned i- girder”, International Journal of Students’ Research in Technology & Management Vol : 2 (01), pg 14-15.  Global Optimization Tool Box 3 (2010). “User’s Guide”, The MathWorks Inc.  IS: 456-2000, “Plain and reinforced concrete – code of practice”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi  SP: 16 (1980), “Design aids for reinforced concrete to IS: 456-1978”, Indian Standard Institution, New Delhi.  R. Bhowmik, (2008). “Building design optimization using sequential linear programming”, Journal of computers, Vol: 3, No 4, pp: 58- 64.  R. Najem, (2010). “Optimum cost design of r. c. one way slabs”, Al- Rafidain Engineering, Vol: 18, No-6, pp: 15-27.  Rajesh F. Kale, N.G.Gore, P.J.Salunke (may 2014). “ Applications of matlab in optimization of bridge superstructures” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology Volume: 03  Razvan Cazacu, Lucian Grama (2013). “Steel truss optimization using genetic algorithms and FEA”, pp: 339 – 346.  S.S. Bhavikatti “Fundamentals of optimum design in engineering”, 2nd Edition, New Academic Science limited.  S.S. Rao “Engineering Optimization”, 4th Edition , John Wiley and Sons Inc  Yaoyao Peia, Yuanyou Xia, (2012). “Design of Reinforced Cantilever Retaining Walls using Heuristic Optimization Algorithms”, pp: 32 – 36
To prevent over emission & global warming (prevent also green house generation & pollution) through vehicles with powered engine and we talk specially diesel engine with multi-cylinder system (such as more than one cylinder system) or four stroke multi-cylinder .In diesel engine high performanance than petrol engine due heavy transportation purpose and heavy league system for long distance traveling and high revenue generation on it. In diesel engine with multi-cylinder system, problems are vapour lock, knocking of fuel, proper atomization, scavange and need high performance etc. If such problems have to remove so that engine efficiency will improve that’s what vehicle powered with engine may run smoothly with low emission and high fuel efficiency and low cost. Due to that reason will search for blend for diesel fuel; so we looked for methanol, petrol and karanja oil as blend of diesel fuel as proper proportion is required engine point of view. Here main blend is Karanja oil as abstracts from vegetable oil as non-edible. The mixing of petrol and methanol is to reduce viscosity with karanja oil. So mainly karanja oil is mixing with diesel fuel but to reduce viscosity level as vegetable oil to use as fuel mixing with methanol and petrol by process of distillation or new technique of chemical process. The aim is to do experimental analysis for performance of a diesel engine fuel with blend of karanja oil ;as composition of 2.0 vol%, 6.0 vol%, 8.0 vol% and 12 vol% blends with methanol , petrol and to improve it chemical behavior so that both the agents taken as equally proportions in karanja oil make as fuel . Therefore we see improve in calorific value for high performance of methanol, petrol and karanja oil blend of diesel engine. We see in result of better engine performance as in term of Indicated power more efficient as earlier as 10% of engine performance so improved in brake power that’s what engine get excellent efficiency as in Mechanical , volumetric and thermal.
Keywords : Alternative Fuel Performance, IC Engine with Blend Fuel
 Paul Bellaby,” Uncertainties and risks in transitions to sustainable energy and the part ‘trust’ might play in managing them: a comparison with the current pension crisis”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy , (2010),pp- 3100-3107  Deepak Agarwal, Avinash kumar “ performance and emissions characteristics of jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine”, Applied Thermal Engineering, (2007),pp- 2314-2323  John Sheffield,”The role of energy efficiency and renewable energies in the future world energy” PII: S0960-148 (1996),pp- 00084-5  John Sheffield,”The role of energy efficiency and renewable energies in the future world energy”, PII: S0960-148 (1996),pp- 00084-5  D.C. Rakopoulos, C.D. Rakopoulos, E.G. Giakoumis, A.M. Dimaratos, M.A. Founti “Comparative environmental behavior of bus engine operating on blends of diesel fuel with four straight vegetable oils of Greek origin: Sunflower, cottonseed, and olive” Elsevier,vol: 90(2011),pp- 3439-3446 .  Avinash Kumar Agarwal K. Rajamanoharan, “Experimental investigations of performance and emissions of Karanja oil and its blends in a single cylinder agricultural diesel engine” Elsevier (Applied energy), vol: 86, (2009), pp- 106-112.  Ashish, R. Thakre,”As a Substitute for Diesel “ijrd, vol: 4, issue: 4, (2000).  R.Shanmugasundaram, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. “Larvicidal activity of neem and karanja oil cakes against mosquito vectors”,IJERST, 2008,vol: 29,pp- 43-45.  Jitendra Singh Dangi*, Vinay Yadav “Experimental Investigation of Comparative Performance Of 4-Stroke 4-Cylinder C.I. Engine Operating On Methanol, Petrol, IJESRT, vol: 7, 2015, ISSN-2277-9655.
A geometric change is any bijection of a set having some geometric structure to itself or another such set. Specifically, a geometric change is a capacity whose space and range are sets of focuses. In this paper to apply diverse geometric change to pictures like interpretation, turn, relative change utilizing opencv-Python is presented. Geometric changes can be grouped by the measurement of their operand sets (along these lines recognizing planar changes and those of space, for instance). They can likewise be ordered by the properties they save. Displacements preserve distances and oriented angles; Iso-metries preserve angles and distances; Similarities preserve angles and ratios between distances; affine transformations preserve parallelism; projective transformations preserve collinearity.
Keywords : Transformations, Scaling, Translations, Affine
 Viraktamath SV, Mukund Katti, Aditya Khatawkar, Pavan Kulkarni, “Face Detection and Tracking using OpenCV,” The SIJ Transaction on Computer Networks & Communication Engineering (CNCE), 2013, 1(3).  Pant A, Arora A, Kumar S, Arora RP. “Sophisticated Image Encryption Using OpenCV,” International Journal of Advances Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2012, 2(1).  Kevin Hughes – One more robot learn to see (http://kevinhughes.ca)  Belongie S, Malik J, Puzicha J. “Shape Matching and Object Recognition using shape contexts,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2002; 24(4):509-522,  Tobias OJ, Seara R. “Image Segmentation by Histogram Thresholding Using Fuzzy Sets,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2002; 11(12):1457-1465.  http://www.opencv.org
Sand is need to construction, manufacturing and industry Sand need to be filtered and separated from unneeded particles, stones, different sizes and other large particles before it is put to use. Our system puts forward a fully automated sand filtering and separator system that automatically filters sand poured on it. Here we use a motorized shaft that is mounted horizontally using stepped pulley. The shaft is connected to a filter frame with mesh below and this frame enclosed on the sides. We use a rod connected from the shaft to the filter frame in a way such as to achieve the rotary motion to reciprocating motion. We will used this reciprocating motion to vibrate a separator. The separator is vibrate then sand fall down with proper size of separator and we will gate thee different sizes of sand in separate compartment of frame.
Keywords : Sand, Motor, Pulley, Shaft, Belt, Separator
Basic  Konakalla Nagasriananth , Vaitlarakesh , Pothamsettyka Sivisweswarao , April 2013/43-49 , “Design and selecting the proper conveyor-belt” ,IJAET , Vol.IV, Issue II  Saurabhchauhan, Augest 2015, “Motor torque calculation for electric vehicle”, IJSTR, Vol.4, Issue 08.  Culp, R., Wesner, G., & Culp, G. (1978). Advanced Wastewater Treatment. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.  Sugar filtration paper of Avinash Kumar Agarwal1#, Mukesh Sharma2 and L P Tewari 3#Departments of Mechanical1 and Civil2 Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur National Sugar Institute3 Kanpur. Book References  Design of shaft concept In Design of machine element by Susmitha (K L University)  Steel Exchange India Ltd “Belt conveyor,” AP,India.  Design Data Book by PSG college of Technology.