Publication for Volume-2 Issue-10, September 2017
Nowadays, hands-free technology has been rapidly increasing in communication systems. It allows a natural form of communication, as if the communication partner was right next to you, the major problem in these systems is the addition of background noise. In this paper implemented beamforming methods for noise reduction in hands-free communication. A beamformer is an array of microphones, which can do spatial filtering. Speech data has been collected using linear microphone array and processed using delay-and-sum beamformer (DSB) and generalized side-lobe canceller (GSC) algorithms. The performance of these techniques analyzed using objective and subjective methods. It has been observed that the beamforming techniques are useful for hands-free communication.
Keywords : Speech Enhancement, Beamforming, Delay and Sum Beamformer, Generlized Sidelobe Canceller, Time Difference of Arrial
 Jacob Benesty, Jingdong Chen, Yiteng Huang, “Microphone array signal processing”  Stephen Oh, Vishu Viswanathan, Panos Papamichalis, “Hands free voice communication in an automobile with a microphone array” IEEE Trans., 281-284 vol 1, March 1992  Hidri Adel, Meddeb Souad, Abdulqadir Alaqeeli, Amiri Hamid,”Beamforming Techniques for Multichannel audio Signal Separation “  Ahmed Abdalla, Peiyu He, “A Study of a various Acoustic Beamforming Techniques Using a Microphone Array”  Ashok Kumar Tellakula, IISC Bangalore, “Acoustic Source Localization Using Time Delay Estimation”  Muhammad Asim, Akbar Ali, “Source Localization and Speech Enhancement for Speech Recognition for Real time Environment “  Smitha Paulose, Elizabeth Sebastian, Dr. Babu Paul, “Acoustic Source Localization “, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Vol. 2, Issue 2, February 2013  Sharon Gannot, David Burshtein, Ehud Weinstein, “Signal Enhancement Using Beamforming and Non-stationary with Applications to Speech “ IEEE Trans., 1614-1626, August 2001  Osamu Hoshuyama, Akihiko Sugiyama, Akihiro Hirano, “A Robust Adaptive Beamformer for Microphone Arrays with a Blocking Matrix Using Constrained Adaptive Filters “ IEEE Trans., 2677-2684, October 1999  Sukhvinder kaur, Anil garg, “An effective evaluation study of objective measures using spectral subtractive enhanced signal “International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology  KazuhiroKondo,”Subjective Quality Measurement of Speech “
Soil Aquifer Treatment System is one of method used for treating rural wastewater. SAT is used for treating various wastewaters. SAT is a geo-purification system which utilizes physical, chemical, biological processes during infiltration of wastewater effluent through soil strata to improve quality of water. A large section of people lives in villages and they are mainly engaged in agriculture. The scarcity of water which creates more problems in living organisms. Due to this problem treatment is adopted for reuse of water. SAT system provided maximum removal efficiencies for various parameters such as Total Suspended Solids 76.53%, for Total Dissolved Solids 84.97%, for Chemical Oxygen Demand 87.55%, for Biological Oxygen Demand 85.08%.
Keywords : Soil Aquifer Treatment, Rural Wastewater, Adsorbents, Soils
 Nema P., Ojha C.S.P., Kumar A., Khanna P., (2000), “Techno economic Evaluation of Soil-Aquifer Treatment using Primary Effluent At Ahmedabad, India,” International Journal of Water Research.,Vol.35, pp:2179-2190.  Mohkar G., Hideaki K., Naoyuki F., (2013), “Assessing the Removal Potential of Soil-Aquifer Treatment System”, International Journal of Environmental Science, Vol.13, pp: 1716-2230.  Alnos Easa., Ashraf Abou-Rayan., (2010), “Domestic wastewater Effect on the Pollution of the Groundwater in Rural Areas in Egypt”, Journal of International Water Technology Conference., pp: 909-923.  Wilson L.G., Amy G.L., Gerba C.P., Gordon H., Johnson B., and Miller J., (1995), “Water Quality Changes During Soil aquifer Treatment of Tertiary Effluient”, International Journal of Water Env.Research., Vol. 67, pp:371-378.  Kerem Gungor., Unlu K., (2005), “Nitrate and Nitrite Removal Efficiencies of Soil Aquifer Treatment”, Journal of Engineering Env. Science, Vol.29, pp:159-170.  Heechul Choi., Jung Kim., (2015),”Water quality dependence on the depth of the Vadose Zone in SAT-Simulated Soil Columns”, International Jounal of Water Science and Technology Water Supply,Vol.5, pp 17-24.  Motoyunki M., Hideaki K.,Tetsuo K., Hirokazu I., (2008), “Decentralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas in China”, Journal of Envi. Science, Vol.8, pp: 177-193.  Nagarajappa D.P.,Manjuntha K., Manjunath N.T., (2010), “Effects of Soil Types on Performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment System”, Journal of Indian Geotech Conference. pp: 425-428.  Uttam Singh and Rajesh Kumar Kaushal., (2013), “Treatment of Wastewater with Low Cost Adsorbents”, Journal of Technical and Non-technical Research, Vol. 4, pp: 2319-2216.  Mays L.W., Tung Y.K., (1998), “Hydrosystems Engineering and Management, McGraw-Hill”, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol.2, pp: 79-88.
WiFi Signal analysis is a project which involved analyzing the WiFi traffic in and around Vishwakarma Institute of Technology. We present the details of the analysis and the results of our experiment on the WiFi using analyzer tool called InSSIDer .We have collected information about the WiFi in the form of packets and we have analyzed the captured packets to understand the nature and performance of the WiFi at Vishwakarma Institute of Technology. As WiFi is used all over the world for connecting the devices and for data sharing. But the spectrum provided for its transmission is less. So sometimes channels are overlapped getting less signal strength.
Keywords : WIFI, IEEE 802.11, Inssider, Acrylic and othe tools
 IEEE. 802.15.4., Standard 2006, Part 15.4: “Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal area Networks (LR WPANs)”, IEEE –SA Standards Board 2006W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems (Book style). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123– 135.  D. Tang and M. Baker. Analysis of a metropolitan-area wireless network. Wireless Networks, 8(2–3):107–120, Mar.-May 2002.  A. Balachandran, G. M. Voelker, P. Bahl, and P. V. Rangan. Characterizing user behavior and network performance in a public wireless LAN. In Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGMETRICS Conference, pages 195–205, Marina Del Rey, CA, June 2002.  D. Kotz and K. Essien. Analysis of a campus-wide wireless network. Wireless Networks, 11:115–133, 2005.  T. Henderson, D. Kotz, and I. Abyzov. The changing usage of a mature campus-wide wireless network. In Proceedings of MobiCom 2004, pages 187–201, Philadelphia, PA, Sept. 2004.  D. Schwab and R. Bunt. Characterising the use of a campus wireless network. In Proceedings of INFOCOM 2004, pages 862– 870, Hong Kong, China, Mar. 2004  Analysis of a Mixed-Use Urban WiFi Network: When Metropolitan becomes Neapolitan Mikhail Afanasyev, Tsuwei Chen, Geoffrey M. Voelker, and Alex C. Snoeren University of California, San Diego and Google Inc.  M. Balazinska and P. Castro. Characterizing Mobility and Network Usage in a Corporate Wireless Local-Area Network. In Proceedings of MobiSys 2003, pages 303–316, San Francisco, CA, May 2003.  Acrylic WiFi available at https://www.acrylicwifi.com/en/wlan-software/wlan-scanner-acrylic-wifi-free/as viewed on 18-08-2017  InSSider available at http://www.metageek.com/products/inssider/index-2.html?utm_expid=190328-201.4XejJZ2dQ8iamcsyRUlN3Q.1viewed on 18-08-2017  Xirrus available at https://www.xirrus.com/ viewed on 18-08-2017  Homedale available at http://www.thesz.com/products/homedale/ viewed on 18-08-2017  Netstumbler available at http://www.netstumbler.com/viewed on 18-08-2017  Wireshark available at https://www.wireshark.org,viewed on 18-08-2017  Kismet available at https://www.kismetwireless.net/download.shtml viewed on 18-08-2017  WiFi Radar avilable https://wifiradarpro.com/ viewed on 18-08-2017  Rios, P. (2008). Creating "the smart city". Available from http://dspace.udmercy.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/1042 9/20/1/2008_rios_smart.pdf.  Germany  Multi-SSID WLAN Access Point, Hirschman. Available from ftp://ftp.hirschmann-usa.com/INET-Industrial Networking/TechnologyPapers/White%20Papers/WP_Multi_SSID_01_0610_en.pdf