Publication for Volume-2 Issue-8, July 2017
The increase of population in world has led to the generation of large amount of waste products such as waste plastic. These waste plastic will remain in the environment for hundreds of years, this has become inevitable problem in the present world. There is an immediate need for solution for such problem. To bring down the waste products many methods has been proposed and one of them is usage of these waste plastic in concrete which may reduce the environmental problems up to certain extent. This work aims to study possibility of disposing waste plastic as fine aggregate in concrete. In this study waste plastic mix concrete is also reinforced with steel fiber to get advantages of fiber reinforced concrete. For this an experimental study was carried out with M25 grade of concrete to evaluate the workability and mechanical property of waste plastic mix concrete with and without the addition of steel fiber. Sand is substituted with plastic waste at a dosage up to 15% by mass and we found that 5% dosage is an optimum percentage without considerable reduction in strength. Results show that adding steel fiber we can improve the quality of waste plastic mix concrete. Thus it can be concluded that replacement of sand by waste plastic up to 5% can be utilized so that disposal of used plastic can be done and hence deficiency of natural aggregate can be managed effectively.
Keywords : Waste Plastic, Steel Fiber, Workability and Mechanical Property
 M. Kumaran1, M. Nidhi, Bini P. R;”Evaluation of strength and durability of waste plastic mix concrete”, Vol 10-11 June 2015 International journal of research in advent technology PP.34-39.  A.S.Balaji & D.MohanKumar;”Laboratory Investigation of Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate by Plastic Chips and Cement”, Vol. 4, Issue 4(Version 9), April 2014, pp.94-98, Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications.  M.Muzzaffar.Ahmed, Dr.S.SiddiRaju: "Use of waste plastic in production of light weight concrete”, Vol no.2 (2015), issue no: 04(April) International journal and magazine of Engineering, technology, management and research.  PromodS.patil, J.R.Mali, GaneshV.tapakire, and H.R.Kumavat;”Innovative techniques of waste plastic used in concrete mixture”, Vol: 03 special Issue: 09 International journal of research in Engineering and technology.  Raghatate Atul M.;”Use of plastic in a concrete to improve its properties” Vol: 01/Issue 3/April-June, 2012/ pp.109-111, International journal of advanced engineering research and studies.  Nabajyoti Saikia, Jorge de Brito: “Use of plastic waste as aggregate in cement mortar and concrete”, Feb 2012 Construction and Building Materials by elvier page 386-400  Safi, B.; Saidi, M and Aboutaleb: “The use of plastic waste as fine aggregate in the self-compacting mortars: Effect on physical and mechanical properties”, Construction and Building Materials, ELSEVIER, 43, pp. 436-442  IS 10262: 2009- “Guideline for concrete mix proportioning”.  IS 516: 1959- “Method of test for strength of concrete”.  IS 456-2000 “Plain and reinforced concrete – code of practice”.
Solar pond is a device which entraps the impinging solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy in its salty layers. Simple salt gradient solar pond consists of three basic layers: lower convective zone, non-convective zone and last is upper convective zone. In present study a simple working experimental setup of salt gradient solar pond was fabricated equipped with thermo siphon heat exchanger of capacity of 20 l in Sobhasaria Group of Institutions, Sikar (Rajasthan) with locally available materials. Different salt concentration layers were made and Salinity gradient was established successfully. Three day field experiment was conducted by considering a 1m3 solar pond. Three different combinations of salt concentrations were considered to perform the study. Model equations are developed for density and temperature variation in solar pond by MATLAB and validated with MOGA optimization technique
Keywords : Salt Gradient Solar Pond, Thermo Siphon, MATLAB, MOGA
 Suáreza, Scott W. Tylerb, Amy E. Childressc, “A fully coupled, transient double-diffusive convective model for salt-Gradient solar ponds”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53, 1718–1730, 2010.  Celestino Angeli, Erminia Leonardi, Luca Maciocco, “A computational study of salt diffusion and heat extraction in solar pond plants”, Solar Energy, 80, 1498–1508, 2006.  M.M. Ould Dah, M. Ouni, A. Guizani, A. Belghith “The influence of the heat extraction mode on the performance and stability of a mini solar pond”, Applied Energy, 87, 3005–3010, 2010.  Alireza Abbassi Monjezi, A.N. Campbell, “A comprehensive transient model for the prediction of the temperature distribution in a solar pond under mediterranean conditions”, Solar energy, 135, 297-307, 2016.  Z. S. Abdel Rehim, M. A. Ziada “Thermal Behavior Study of Salt-gradient Solar Pond Located in Cairo”, Energy Sources, Part A, 30,349–360, 2008.  A.A. Abdullah, K.A. Lindsay, A.F. AbdelGawad, “Construction of sustainable heat extraction system and a new scheme of temperature measurement in an experimental solar pond for performance enhancement”, Solar energy, 130, 10-24, 2016.  A. Alcaraz, C. Valderrama, J.L. Cortina, A. Akbarzadeh, A. Farran, “Enhancing the efficiency of solar pond heat extraction by using both lateral and bottom heat exchangers”, Solar energy, 134, 82-94, 2016.  Mohammad Reza Assari, Hassan Basirat Tabrizi, Alireza Jafar Gholi Beik, “Experimental studies on the effect of using phase change material in salinity-gradient solar pond”, Solar energy, 122, 204-214, 2015.  Hua Wang, Xiaolei Yu, Feiling Shen, Liugang Zhang, “A Laboratory experimental study on effect of porous medium on salt diffusion of salt gradient solar pond”, Solar energy, 122, 630-639, 2015.  Hua Wang, Jianing Zou, J.L. Cortina, J. Kizito, “Experimental and theoretical study on temperature distribution of adding coal cinder to bottom of salt gradient solar pond”, Solar energy, 110, 756-767, 2014.  Ali A. Dehghan, Alireza Movahedi, Mohsen Mazidi, “Experimental investigation of energy and exergy performance of square and circular solar ponds”, Solar energy, 97, 273-284, 2013.  Mohamad Aramesha, Alibakhsh Kasaeian , Fathollah Pourfayaza, Dongsheng Wen, “Energy analysis and shadow modeling of a rectangular type salt gradient solar pond”, Solar Energy, 146, 161–171, 2017.  Morteza Khalilian “Experimental investigation and theoretical modelling of heat transfer in circular solar ponds by lumped capacitance model”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 121, 737–749, 2017.  Alireza Abbassi Monjezi, A.N. Campbell “A comparative study of the performance of solar ponds under Middle Eastern and Mediterranean conditions with batch and continuous heat extraction”, Applied Thermal Engineering, (2017).  Mohammad Reza Assari, Hassan Basirat Tabrizi , Mohsen Parvar , Ali Kavoosi Nejad, Alireza Jafar Gholi Beik, “Experiment and optimization of mixed medium effect on small-scale salt gradient solar pond”, Solar Energy, 151, 102–109, 2017.  A.A. Abdullah , H.M. Fallatah, K.A. Lindsay, M.M. Oreijah “Measurements of the performance of the experimental salt-gradient solar pond at Makkah one year after commissioning”, Solar Energy, 150, 212–219, 2017.  Mostafa H. Sharqawy, John H. Lienhard V, Syed M. Zubair “Thermophysical properties of seawater: a review of existing correlations and data”, Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 354–380, 2010.
Thiruvanathapuram is the capital city of Kerala state. As the city is completely effected by flood, but within in the local bodies there are few low-lying areas which are susceptible to flash flood. The urban expansion which due to the increase in population are affected by the lack of proper drainage system and also due to the uncontrolled increase in concrete space,which leads to the encroachment happening near the canal area,decrease in land such as paddy field,ponds etc.Landsat 5 and 8 images are used in the analysis to detect land use changes in the city, which gives the idea of conversion of vegetation land to built up.Digital elevation model is used in the preparation of contour maps.The result of this study shows use of landsat images in detecting the land use changes, the blue green network which has been mentioned in the master plan of Thiruvanathapuram are also discussed and the various measures which to be adopted to make the city stable to urban flash flood.
Keywords : land use, GIS and RS,SUDS,Urban flash flood,Urbanisation
 Al-sharif, A.A.A. et al., 2013. Spatio-temporal analysis of urban and population growths in tripoli using remotely sensed data and GIS. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 6(8), pp.5134–5142.  Basumatary, N. & Choudhury, P., 2013. Urban growth and its impact on land use in Jorhat Town, Assam, India. The Clarion International Multidisciplinary Journal, 2(1), pp.87–98.  Belal, a. a. & Moghanm, F.S., 2011. Detecting urban growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques in Al Gharbiya governorate, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 14(2), pp.73–79.  Dasgupta, S. et al., 2012. A megacity in a changing climate: The case of Kolkata. Springer.  Dash, P.P. et al., 2015. Quantification of Urban Expansion Using Geospatial Technology — A Case Study in Bangalore. Scientific Research Publishing, (December), pp.330–342.  Dawod, G.M., Mirza, M.N. & Al-Ghamdi, K.A., 2011. GIS-Based Spatial Mapping of Flash Flood Hazard in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Geographic Information System, 03(03), pp.225–231.  Dey, H.S. & Greeshma, M.A., 2014. Built up area analysis of the green belt of master plan of Delhi (MPD) - 2021 in GIS Platform 15th Esri india user conference 2014. pp. 1–10.  Fazal, S. & Amin, A., 2011. Impact of Urban Land Transformation on Water Bodies in Srinagar City, India. Journal of Environmental Protection, 02(02), pp.142–153.  Gupta, A.K. & Nair, S.S., 2010. Flood risk and context of land-uses : Chennai city case. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 3(12), pp.365–372.  Rai, P. & Kumra, V., 2011. Role of Geoinformatics in Urban Planning. Journal of Scientific Research, 55, pp.11–24.  Scholz, M., 2015. Sustainable Drainage Systems. Water, 7, pp.2272–2274.  Sharma, D., 2008. Sustainable Drainage System (SuDs) for Stormwater Management : A Technological and Policy Intervention to Combat Diffuse Pollution. 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008, pp.1–10.  Vich, A.I.J. et al., 2014. Proposals for Flashflood Management in Western Argentina. Case Study : The Metropolitan Area of Greater Mendoza, Current Urban Studies, 2(March), pp.37–48.  Weizhong, S. et al., 2014. Urban land pattern impacts on floods in a new district of China. Sustainability, 6(10), pp.6488–6508.  Zhou, Q., 2014. A Review of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Considering the Climate Change and Urbanization Impacts. Water, 6(4), pp.976–992. Reports  Thiruvanathapuram Master Plan (Draft),2012  Trivandrum Urbanisation Report,2011 Website Reference  www.censusindia.gov.in  www.corporationoftrivandrum.in  www.susdrain.org
"Big Data" refers to data sets that are huge in size and/or complex. They may be evaluated computationally to reveal trends, associations and patterns, particularly connecting to human behavior and interactions wherein outdated data processing application software’s are inadequate to deal with them. There are various security challenges linked in this area and if any security breach occurs then it would result in great loss in data and reputation, as the massive volume of data is involved. In addition, traditional security mechanisms and tailored mechanisms for big data would not be sufficient. In this paper, we highlight the data security and privacy challenges proposed by various sources and proposed encryption technique in our future research. For making big data secure, techniques such as encryption must be necessary
Keywords : Big data, Challenges, Security, Privacy, Cloud Computing
 CSA,”Top Ten Big Data Security and Privacy Challenges”,November 2012  CSA,”Big Data Analytics for Security Intelligence”,September 2013 Satoshi Tsuchiya,Yoshinori Sakamoto,Yuichi Tsuchimoto & Vivian Lee,"Big Data Processing in Cloud Environments"  Sophia Yakoubov, Vijay Gadepally, Nabil Schear, Emily Shen, Arkady Yerukhimovich, “A Survey of Cryptographic Approaches to Securing Big-Data Analytics in the Cloud”, MIT Lincoln Laboratory  B. Hari Krishna, Dr.S. Kiran, G. Muralia,R. Pradeep Kumar Reddy,  “Security Issues In Service Model Of Cloud Computing Environment”, 2016 International Conference on Computational Science  Marcos D. Assunção, Rodrigo N. Calheiros, Silvia Bianchi, Marco A.S. Netto,Rajkumar Buyya,“Big Data computing and clouds: Trends and future directions”, J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 79–80 (2015) 3–15  Venkata Narasimha Inukollu, Sailaja Arsi and Srinivasa Rao Ravuri,” SECURITY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH BIG DATA IN CLOUD COMPUTING”, International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.6, No.3, May 2014  Raghav Toshniwal, Kanishka Ghosh Dastidar, Asoke Nath,"Big Data Security Issues and Challenges",International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163 Issue 2, Volume 2 (February 2015)  S. Justin Samuel, Koundinya RVP, Kotha Sashidhar and C.R. Bharathi,"A SURVEY ON BIG DATA AND ITS RESEARCH CHALLENGES",VOL. 10, NO. 8, MAY 2015 ISSN 1819-6608 ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences  Mingmin Chi, Antonio Plaza, Jon Atli Benediktsson, Zhongyi Sun, Jinsheng Shen, and Yangyong Zhu,"Big Data for Remote Sensing: Challenges and Opportunities",2015  Changqing Ji, Yu Li, Wenming Qiu, Uchechukwu Awada, Keqiu Li,"Big Data Processing in Cloud Computing Environments",2012 International Symposium on Pervasive Systems, Algorithms and Networks  Zan Mo, Yanfei Li,” Research of Big Data Based on the Views of Technology and Application”, School of Management, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China  Dr. Jangala. Sasi Kiran, M.Sravanthi, K.Preethi, M.Anusha,” Recent Issues and Challenges on Big Data in Cloud Computing”, IJCST Vol. 6, Iss ue 2, April - June 2015  Raghavendra Kune,Pramod Kumar Konugurthi1, Arun Agarwal,Raghavendra Rao Chillarige and Rajkumar Buyya ,“ The anatomy of big data computing”, Softw. Pract. Exper. 2016; 46:79–105  Bo Li,” Survey of Recent Research Progress and Issues in Big Data”  Research Trends ,“Special Issue on Big Data”  Zan Mo, Yanfei Li,"Research of Big Data Based on the Views of Technology and Application",American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 2015, 5, 192-197  Zhang Hongjun, Hao Wenning, He Dengchao1, Mao Yuxing,"Survey of Research on Information Security in Big Data",XXXIV - CSBC 2014  Elmustafa Sayed Ali Ahmed and Rashid A.Saeed,"A Survey of Big Data Cloud Computing Security",International Journal of Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJCSSE), Volume 3, Issue 1, December 2014  "An Enterprise Architect’s Guide to Big Data",ORACLE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE WHITE PAPER | MARCH 2016  Fran Howarth,"Harnessing big data for security",A White Paper by Bloor Research-February 2013  Julio Moreno, Manuel A. Serrano and Eduardo Fernández-Medina,"Main Issues in Big Data Security",Alarcos Research Group, University of Castilla-La Mancha  “Challenges and Opportunities with Big Data”, A community white paper developed by leading researchers across the United States  Kalyani Shirudkar, Dilip Motwani,"Big-Data Security,"International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering,Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015
The design project of Chemical Engineering focus on solving the problem related to a chemical or process industry. The aim of the research paper is to establish study on gaseous emission in cement industry of Sultanate of Oman. The study was concentrated on testing numerous options that may help in dropping the amount of emission from cement plants especially carbon dioxide emission. As per the investigation the suggested technology was CO2 capture and it was effective in terms of cost and maintain the production amount. According to energy and mass balance of the plant it has been found that 8700 tons/day of clinker produces and 5206.08 tons /day of CO2 was generated. The analysis includes the design aspect for cyclone separator that has an efficiency of 42.7%.In addition, according to the feasibility study of this study it has been noticed that FCI of making plant produce 3.17 million ton/year was 4.2 million OMR. Moreover, according to the present investigation it has been identified that the solution for minimizing the emission couldn’t depend not only in method of production but also some alternative substitution for the parameters, raw material and process equipment used for production of cement.
Keywords : Cement, Mass Balance, Carbon Dioxide, Cyclone Separator, Gaseous Emission and Environment
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