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Automatic web service composition is not a trivial problem, especially when the number of services is high and there are different control structures to handle the execution flow. Some approaches, treat the composition problem as a planning problem. In general, these approaches have important drawbacks such as high complexity, high computational cost and inability to maximize parallel execution of web services. Other approaches consider the problem as a search problem, where a search algorithm is applied over a graph or a tree in order to find a minimal composition. These proposals are simpler and more effective than the other approaches, and also many of them can exploit parallel execution of web services but it does not provide optimal result.
Keywords : Web Service , WSCC:p53a6307093, Ontology.xml
 Mansour H. Elfawal and T. Dillon, "Dependability and Rollback Recovery for Composite Web Services," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SERVICES COMPUTING, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 328 - 339, OCTOBER-DECEMBER 2011.  J. J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. D. Cao, Research on Transaction Web Service Selection Algorithm inWSC, Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, 7, 725-731 (2013).  Rajesh Karunamurthy, Ferhat Khendek, and Roch H. Glitho, "A novel architecture for Web service composition," Journal of Network and Computer Applications , vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 787–802, March 2012.  YU Qing-mei, WANG Lan, and HUANG Dong-mei, "Fishery Web Service Composition Method Based on Ontology," Journal of Integrative Agriculture, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 792–799, May 2012.  Rui Wang et al., "Web Service Composition using Service Suggestions," in 2011 IEEE World Congress on Services, Washington, DC, 2011, pp. 482 - 489.  D. Paulraj, S. Swamynathan, M. Madhaiyan, Process Model-based Atomic Service Discovery and Composition of Composite Semantic Web Services using Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S), Enterprise Information Systems, 6, 445-471 (2012).  Elham Paikari, Emadoddin Livani, Mohammad Moshirpour, Behrouz H Far, and Günther Ruhe, "Multi-Agent System for Semantic Web Service Composition," in Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 305-317.  Shanfeng Qi, Xinhuai Tang, and Delai Chen, “An Automated Web Services Composition System Based on Service Classification and AI Planning,” in 2012 Second International Conference on Cloud and Green Computing, Xiangtan, 2012, pp. 537 – 540.  Guisheng Fan, Huiqun Yu, Liqiong Chen, and Dongmei Liu, "Petri net based techniques for constructing reliable service composition," The Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 1089–1106, April 2013.  Furkh Zeshan and Radziah Mohamad, “Semantic Web Service Composition Approaches: Overview and Limitations,” International Journal on New Computer Architectures and Their Applications, pp. 640-651, 2011.  P. Rodriguez-Mier, A. Gonzalez-Sieira, M. Mucientes, M. Lama, and A. Bugarin, “Hipster: An Open Source Java Library for Heuristic Search,” in 9th Iberian Conf. on Information Systems and Technologies, 2014.  P. Rodriguez-Mier, M. Mucientes, J. Vidal, and M. Lama, “An Optimal and Complete Algorithm for Automatic Web Service Composition,” Int. J. of Web Services Research (IJWSR), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1–20, 2012.  D. Lee, J. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. Park and B. Hong, “Scalable and Efficient Web Services Composition Based on a Relational Database”, Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 84, (2011), pp. 2139-2155.  X. Z. Wang, Z. J. Wang, X. F. Xu and Y. Liu, “A Service Composition Method for Tradeoff Between Satisfactions of Multiple Requirements”, Journal of Computer Research and Development, vol. 48, no. 4, (2011), pp. 627-637.  W. L. Ding, Q. Wang and S. Zhao, “A User-Centric Service Composition Method Synthesizing Multiple Views”, Chinese Journal of Computers, vol. 34, no. 1, (2011), pp. 131-142.
Current trends in construction industry demands taller and lighter structures, which are also more flexible and having quite low damping value. Now-a-days several techniques are available to minimize the vibration of the structure, out of the several techniques available for vibration control; concept of using TMD is a newer one. This study was made to study the effectiveness of using TMD for controlling vibration of structure. The numerical stimulations are performed to study the structure with and without TMD. A twelve storied building with rectangular shape is considered for analysis. Analysis is done by FE software SAP2000 by using direct integration approach. TMDs with percentage masses 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% are considered. Three different recorded time histories of past EQ are used for the analysis. Namely 1940 EL-Centro EQ, Northridge EQ, and Taft EQ. comparison is done between the buildings with TMD and without TMD. From the study it was found that, TMD can be effectively used for vibration control of structure. TMD was more effective when damping ratio is less. Gradually increase in the mass ratio of the TMD result in gradually decrement in the displacement response of the structure.
Keywords : Tall Building, TMD, Soft-storey, Vibrations, Earthquake
 Umachagi, V., Venkataramana, K., Reddy, G. R. and Verma, R. (2013). Application of dampers for vibration control of structures: An overview, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology. EISSN: 2319-1163/pISSN: 2321-7308.  Thakur, V. M. and Pachpor, P. D. (2012). Seismic Analysis of Multistoried Building with TMD (Tuned Mass Damper), International Journal of Engineering Resrarch and Application. ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 2, 1, pp. 319-326.  Pandey, P., Raydu, S. and Tibude, L. (2015). Tuned Mass Dampers as an Energy Dissipater, International Journal of Innovation and Emerging Research in Engineering. eISSN: 2394-3343/pIssn:2394-5494,Vol-2,5.  Sladek, J. R. and Klinger, R. E. (1983). Effect of Tuned – Mass Dampers on Seismic Response, J. Structural Engineering. ISSN 0733-9445/83/0008-2004, Vol. 109, 8,pp. 2004-2009.  Rana, R. and Soong, T. T. (1998). Parametric study and simplified design of tuned mass dampers, Engineering Structures. PII: S0141-0296(97)00078-3, Vol. 20, 3, pp. 193-204.  Kwok, Kenny CS. "Damping increase in building with tuned mass damper, "Journal of Engineering Mechanics 110.11 (1984): 1645-1649.  Sadek, F., Mohraz, B., Taylor A. W. and Chung, R. M. (1996). A Method of Estimating the Parameters of Tuned Mass Dampers for Seismic Applications, Mtech Thesis, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaitherburg, MD 20899.  Clark, A. J. (1988). Multiple passive tuned mass dampers for reducing earthquake induced building motion, Proceedings of Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan (Vol. V)  Chen, G. and Wu, J. (2001). Optimal Placement of Multiple Tune Mass Dampers for Seismic Structures, Journal of Structural Engineering, 127.9 (2001): 1054-1062.  Agrawal, P. and Shrikhande, M. (2006). Earthquake resistant design of structures, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
The pressure on farm sector has been increasing due to multiple reasons: lower yield, fragmentation of land holdings, poor irrigation, depletion of ground water, inadequate extension services/ supply of inputs, poor post-harvest management, lack of value addition at the producer’s level and a long supply chain involving a number of intermediaries. There is a strong need to assist the farmers to increase productivity to move up the value chain in simulating the farm economy and employment demand. Interventions such as, establishing market linkages, providing access to micro planning, creation of irrigation facilities/rain water harvesting structures, efficient water use through micro-irrigation, managing natural resources efficiently etc. can generate better farm as well as non-farm sector yields and change the rural landscape in better way. The agriculture sector is the predominant consumer of water. Almost 70% of all available freshwater is used for agriculture across the world. There is long and growing list of measures that can increase agricultural water productivity. Drip irrigation ranks near the top of measures and can achieve efficiencies as high as 95 percent, compared with 50-70 percent for more conventional flood or furrow irrigation. Micro irrigation reduces the virtual water requirement of the agricultural products thus improving water use efficiency. Government of Gujarat has formed the Gujarat Green Revolution Company Limited (jointly promoted by GSFC, GNFC and GAIC) act as nodal agency and implement uniform scheme for Micro Irrigation System in the State.
Keywords : Water Resources, Micro irrigation, Irrigation Efficiencies, Water Stress, Sustainability
 Reddy K. Yella, “Copping with water scarcity through Micro-Irrigation”, Principal Scientist & Project Manager, AP Water Management Project Title of report,”AP, 2007.  NWRWS, Government of Gujarat Water sector with focus on conservation, Vibrant Gujarat-2011  Shah A. G. & Pandya K. P.,” Water an overview about Gujarat”, The workshop on Hydrological Data Management, M.S. Uni., Vadodara, 2011.  NWRWS, “Gulf of Khambat Development Project (WR)”, Government of Gujarat, Kalpsar as a prospective water solution, Saurashtra, 2010  Agriculture and Cooperation Department, Government of Gujarat, Gujarat Agriculture XI PLAN Outcomes & Strategies, 2009  Narayanamoorthy A., “Potential for Drip and sprinkler Irrigation”, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, 2004.  www.kalpsargujarat.gov.in  www.guj.nwrws.gujarat.gov.in  www.ggrc.co.in  www.agri.gujarat.gov.in
Material science and Engineering has experienced a tremendous growth in the field of micron and Nano composites developed with enhanced chemical, mechanical and physical properties. Aluminium based Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are appropriate material for engineering sector which are prepared by powder metallurgy and casting method. The present work described that Al-SiC composite as possible alternate materials with its unique capacity to give required properties for different engineering applications. In this paper, describe the microstructure of Al-6061-T6 (Aluminium alloy) and SiC- 1200 mesh (Silicon carbide powder) composites having 0, 5, & 15 volume percentage are produced by Stir casting method (Liquid metallurgy Route). Mechanical Tests like microstructure, Hardness, Strength etc. will be conducted. After developing MMCs compared properties with various existing material and result revealed that can use this composite material for making valves of light vehicle petrol engine.
Keywords : MMCs, Stir Casting Method, Valves, Properties
 S. B. Rayjadhav, Dr. V. R. Naik, “Characteristic of developed Al-6061-SiC metal matrix composite produced by the stir casting method”, International journal of Innovative research in science and engineering (2016), Vol. No. 2, Issue 03.  R. S. Rana, Rajesh Purhit, V. K. Soni, and S. Das. “Characterization of mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminium alloys-sic composites”, 4th international conference on materials processing and characterization, published in materials todays processing 2(2015) page 1149-1156.  R. S. Rana, Rajesh Purhit, V. K. Soni, and S. Das. “Development and wear analysis of Al –Nano Sic composite automotive cam”, 4th international conference on materials processing and characterization published in materials today: Processing 2 (2015) page 3586-3592.  Dinesh kumar koli, Geeta agnihotri and rajesh purohit. “Advanced Aluminium Matrix Composite: The Critical Need of Automotive and Aerospace Engineering Fields, Materials today: proceeding 2 (2015) 3032-3041.  P. B. Pawar and Abhay A. Utpat. “Development of Aluminium based silicon carbide particulate metal matrix composite for spur gear”, 3Rd international conference on materials and processing and characterization (ICMPC 2014) published in procedia materials science 6 (2014) page 1150-1156.
Steel I girders especially plate girders are subjected to bending, shear and patch loading, so the stability has to be considered in the design. The shear strength in the web panel can be improved by providing transverse stiffeners on both side of the web undergoing a tension field action. Shear buckling strength in the web panel has a significant effect in the shear strength of plate girder. This paper investigating elastic buckling strength of plate girder in which transverse stiffeners are provided in the web. Solution is based on finite element parametric study validated on laboratory tests. After validating the results, provide transverse stiffeners in the web by reducing its thickness and compare these results using specifications of Eurocode, AASHTO,AISC, and British code.
Keywords : Plate Girder, Transverse Stiffener, Shear Strength
 Alinia M.M. (2004), A study into Optimization of stiffeners in plates subjected to shear loading, Thin-Walled Structures, 43, 845-860.  Alinia, M.M, Maryam Shakiba, Habashi, H.R (2009) Shear failure characteristics of steel plate girders, Thin-Walled Structures, 47, 1498–1506.  Alinia, M.M, A Gheitasi, Maryam Shakiba (2010) Postbuckling and ultimate state of stresses in steel plate girders, Thin-Walled Structures, 49, 455-464.  Basler, K. (1961) Strength of plate girders in shear, Journal of the structural division, American Society of Civil Engineers.  Chacón, R. Mirambell, E. Real, E (2013) Transversally stiffened plate girders subjected to patch loading-Part 1 Preliminary study, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 80, 483–491.  Chris R Hendy, Francesco Presta (2008) Transverse web stiffeners and shear moment interaction for steel plate girder bridges, The Structural Engineer
Drying is probably one of the oldest methods of food preservation. The tray dryer is widely used in a variety of applications because of its simple design and capability to dry products at high volume. A drying system incorporating the HP (heat pump) was designed and constructed, along with necessary instrumentation to gather data on the properties of process air as well as real-time weight of the material being dried (mango slices). Drying was carried out in three different temperatures 50, 55 and 600C. The design of the system allowed for conducting drying with recirculation of air as well as use of backup electrical heaters. Comparisons of all three cases were made and it was found that drying time decreases with increase in temperature. Also drying rate increases with temperature. In terms of energy consumption, the process of HP assisted drying is more expensive, but drying time justifies its cost.
Keywords : Heat Pump, Tray Dryer, Drying Uniformity, Drying Rate, Drying Time
 S. Sokhansanj, and D.S. Jayas, Drying of Foodstuffs. In: Handbook of Industrial Drying, 3rd ed., Mujumdar, A.S. (ed), Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. , 2006, pp. 522-545.  P.K. Adapa,, G.J. Schoenau, and S. Sokhansanj, Performance Study of a Heat Pump Dryer System for Specialty Crops – Part 2: Model Verification. International Journal of Energy Research, Vol 26, 2002, pp. 1-13.  ASHRAE. 1997. ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.  U.S. Pal, and M.K. Khan, Performance Evaluation of Heat Pump Dryer, Journal Food Science Technology, Vol. 47 No. 2, 2010 pp. 230-234.  S.K. Chou, and K.J. Chua, Heat Pump Drying Systems. In: Handbook of Industrial Drying, 3rd ed., Mujumdar, A.S. (ed), Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. , 2006, pp. 1104-1130.  A. S. Mujumdar, “Drying fundamentals,” in Industrial Drying of Foods, C. G. J. Baker, Ed., pp. 7–30, Blackie Academic & Professional, London, UK, 1997.  Mujumdar, AS. and AS. Menon. 1995. Drying of solids: Principles, classification and selection of dryers. In: Handbook of Industrial Drying, Mujumdar, AS. ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp1-39.  M. R. Islam and A. S. Mujumdar, “Heat pump-assisted drying,” in Drying Technologies in Food Processing, X. D. Chen and A.S. Mujumdar, Eds., pp. 190–224, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford,UK, 2008.  S. V. Jangam and A. S. Mujumdar, “Heat pump assisted drying technology—overview with focus on energy, environment and product quality,” in Modern Drying Technology: Energy Savings, Volume 4: Energy Savings, E. Tsotsas and A. S. Mujumdar, Eds., chapter 4, pp. 121–162,Wiley-VCH, 2011.
The main problem encountered in steel reinforced concrete structures is the corrosion of the steel bars which eventually results in the failure and disintegration of the structure. Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebar has been considered as an alternative for this since corrosion is a material problem. The purpose of this research was to investigate flexural behaviour of GFRP and steel reinforced beams. The beam sections used in this research is of size 150 x 200 mm and of 1600 mm length. Flexural strength was determined and crack pattern studies were carried out.
Keywords : GFRP, RC, Steel Rebar, Flexural Behaviour
 Alan Richardson and Paula Drew “ Fibre reinforced polymer and steel rebar comparative performance”, Polymer and steel rebar performance, Structural Survey, Vol. 29 Iss 1 pp. 63 – 74, 2011  D. H. Tavares, J. S. Giongo and P. Paultre. “Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars” . flexural behavior of GFRP bars, Volume 1, Number 3 (September, 2008) p. 285 - 295 • ISSN 1983-41, 2008  Biswarup Saikia, Phanindra Kumar, Job Thomas, K.S. Nanjunda Rao, and Ananth Ramaswamy, “Strength and serviceability performance of beams reinforced with GFRP bars in flexure”, Construction and Building Materials 21, 1709–1719, 2007  Sadek, A., El-Hawary, M. & El-Deeb, A. “Fire Resistance Testing of Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRP Rebars”. European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.15, No.2, (2006), pp. 190-200 ,2006  Huanzi Wang and Abdeldjelil Belarbi “Flexural durability of FRP bars embedded in fiber-reinforced-concrete”. Construction and Building Materials 44 ,541–550, 2013  Aly M. SAID and Moncef L. NEHDI “Performance of structural concrete frames Reinforced with GFRP grid,” 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 1679, 2004  Ha Lix, Daewon Seo, Byumseok Han, and Sukhyeong Yoo “Life Cycle Costs of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Rebars.” Sustainable Building Research Center, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea, 426-791, 2008  ACI440.1R. 2006. “Guide for the design and construction of structural concrete reinforced with FRP bars”, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 44p,2006  Cripps, A. “Fibre – Reinforced Polymers Composites in Construction”, CIRIA, Pontypool, 2002
The use of fiber reinforced polymer in the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete members is currently being discussed worldwide. Fiber reinforced polymer application (FRP) is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become weak due to life span and design defects. FRP repair systems provide an economically viable alternative to traditional material and repair system. Experimental investigations on the flexural behavior of RC beams strengthened using continuous fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets were carried out. Externally reinforced concrete beam epoxy-bonded GFRP (Glass fiber reinforced polymer) sheets are tested to failure using symmetrical two point concentrated static loading system. Three sets of beams were casted for this experimental test program and tests were carried out by varying the number of fiber layers.
Keywords : Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer, U wrap, Control Beams, Strengthened Beams
 Tara Sen, H.N. Jagannatha, Reddy “Strengthening of RC beams in flexure using natural jute fibre textile reinforced composite system and its comparative study with CFRP and GFRP strengthening systems” National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Barjala, Jirania 799055, Tripura (West), India ,2013  Tom Norris,Hamid Saadatmanesh and Mohammad R. Ehsani , “shear and flexural strengthening of RC beams with carbon fiber sheets” Members of ASCE,1997  Bimal Babu Adhikary, Hiroshi Mutsuyoshi “Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using various techniques” Encotech Engineering Consultants,Bluffstone Cove, Austin, USA,2006  Yasmeen Taleb Obaidat, Susanne Heyden, Dahlblom , Ghazi Abu-Farsakh , Yahia Abdel-Jawad “Retrofitting of reinforced concrete beams using composite laminates” Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden,2010  Fakhreddine Djeddi, Youcef Ghernouti, Yazid Abdelazizand Li Alexa “ Strengthening in flexure–shear of RCbeams with hybrid FRP systems: Experiments and numerical modeling” LMS Laboratory, University of Bechar, Bechar, Algeria,2016
With modernization and increase in the number of automobiles worldwide, the consumption of diesel and gasoline has enormously increased. As petroleum is nonrenewable source of energy and the petroleum reserves are scarce nowadays, there is a need to search for alternative fuels for automobiles. Turpentine oil has been used in direct injection CI engine as an alternate fuel has similar properties as that of diesel. Acetylene is also a very good alternate fuel. In the present work, blend of different proportion of turpentine and diesel use in the diesel engine in which Acetylene was also introduced through intake manifold at a point closer to the intake valve by a non-return valve arrangement through a flame trap. The flow of acetylene was controlled 3 liters per minute by needle valve and was measured by a calibrated gas flow meter. The experiment run set was prepared by design of experiment in which L9 orthogonal array used for the experiment where different blend proportion, injection pressure and the load are the variable parameters and FC, SFC.
Keywords : Diesel Engine, L9 Orthogonal Array, Tri Fuel
 B.premanand, C.G.saravanan. Performance and exhaust emission of turpentine oil powered direct injection diesel engine. Elsevier ltd., oct.2009.  Karthikeyan, N. Nallysamy. Optimization of engine operating parameters for turpentine mixed diesel fuelledD.I.diesel engine using Taguchi method.dec.2010  T. Laxmanan, G. Nagarjun. Study on using acetylene in dual fuel mode with exhaust gas recirculation. Elsevier ltd. April 2011.  T. Laxmanan, G. Nagarjun. Experimental investigation of port injection of acetylene in DI diesel engine in dual fuel mode. Elsevier ltd. April 2010.  R. vallinayagam, S. Vedharaj. Combustion performance and emission characteristics study of pine oil in a diesel engine. Elsevier ltd. July 2013.  S.Brusca, R.Lanzafame. On the possibility to run an internal combustion engine on acetylene and alchohol. Elsevier ltd. Dec 2013.  Shaik Khader Basha, P Srinivasa Rao and K Rajagopal, Experimental Investigation Performance of Acetylene Fuel Based Diesel Engine 2016.
Gas tungsten arc welding is a fusion welding process having broad application in industry. In this experiment selected three process parameters like current, groove angle and welding speed and range was decide for each parameters by trial and error method and distortion was the output parameters. To perform the experiment on TIG welding L27 orthogonal array has been used and based on that according to each run set experiment has performed and optimization run set was found. by Taguchi analysis and also find the regression equation for same experiment.
Keywords : TIG Welding Distortion, L27 Orthogonal Array, Taguchi
 Rakesh B. Prajapati , Dharmesh K. Patel , Mayank I. Patel, Shyam bilash Pandey “Artificial Neural Network Modeling of weld joint strength of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process” International Journal of Advanced Scientific and Technical Research, ISSN 2249-9954, Issue 4 volume 3, May-June 2014.  Rakesh B Prajapati, Disha B Patel, Tushar M Patel “Experimental Investigation of GMAW for AISI 1045 Material using Taguchi Method” international Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, ISSN 2229-5518,Volume 5, Issue 4, April-2014 15  Asifa Khurram and Khurram Shehzad, “FE Simulation of Welding Distortion and Residual Stresses in Butt Joint Using Inherent Strain” , International Journal of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Vol. 2, No. 6, November 2012.  V. J. Papazoglou And K. Masubuchi, “Analysis and Control of Distortion in Welded Aluminum Structures” Supplement To The Weldin G Journal, September 1978.  Ramani.S, Velmurugan.V, “EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON ANGULAR DISTORTION OF MIG WELDED AI6061 PLATES” 5 th International & 26th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference (AIMTDR 2014) December 12th–14th, 2014, IIT Guwahati, Assam, India. Books  O.P.Khanna “A Textbook Of Welding Technology”  Dr.R.S.Parmar “Welding process and Technology”, Khanna Publishers, Second editions. Websites  http://www.sciencedirect.com/
In this paper, Microstrip patch Antenna with five different shapes i.e. Circular, triangular, corner truncated, T shape & H shape are designed using Ansoft HFSS software. These antennas are designed on Rogers RO 4003 substrate material at dielectric constant 3.5. This material is suitable at high frequency range after analysis in last paper .The different performance parameter such as return losss, VSWR, gain & bandwidth of these antennas are compared. The operating frequency is taken as 6 GHz. It is found that H-shaped patch antenna has a better result as compared to other shapes.
Keywords : Microstrip Antenna, Different Shapes of Patch, HFSS, Dielectric Substrate, Gain, Return Loss, VSWR
 Amba Srivastava, Dr. Nandita Pradhan, “Analysis of Different Substrate Material & Frequency on Microstrip Patch Antenna”, IJEECS-21017, ISSN 2348-117X, vol.6 Issue 2.  Sumanpreet Kaur,Jagtar Singh, “Comparison of Different types of Microstrip Patch Antenna”, ICAET-2015,0975-8887.  Ms.Rakhi,Ms.Sonam Thakur, “Performance Analysis of Different Shapes Patch Antenna at 2.45GHz” , IJERT-2014, vol.3, ISSN:2278-0181.  Shivani Chaurasia, Pooja Gupta, “Comparative Study & Designing of Different Radiating Patch in Microstrip Antenna”, IJSRD-2014, Issue 2321-0613.  Harsha Sharma, Suman Wadkar, “Comparative Study of Rectangular, Circular & Corner Truncated Patch at 4 GHz”, IJERT ISSN: 2278-0181.
Ethernet for Data transfer in Computer Networks is ubiquitous. However some recent advancements in DC Powering have enabled transporting power and data simultaneously, over the same Ethernet cables. This technique is known as Power over Ethernet (PoE). However there are few challenges though, the first and the foremost being that of operational safety of the devices which are not PoE compliant. It needs to be noted that IEEE 802.3af standard specifies a 15W of PoE power at 48Volts DC which if connected to an incompatible device, may end up damaging it, permanently. Hence it is important that a PoE Equipment is tested and confirmed that it allows for safe and reliable operation of non-compliant devices. Failure to confirm this may have a catastrophic impact on the network that could range from a network crash to an imminent fire hazard. This paper discusses important tests which need be performed to ascertain that the PoE equipment being connected in the network will allow for safe and reliable operation of incompatible or legacy network devices. A LTSPICE simulated PoE network has been considered to carry out these various tests as well as for the verification of the safety features incorporated in the PSE-PD combination and its compliance to IEEE 802.3af standard. The observations and results are tabulated and conclusions are drawn.
Keywords : POE- Power Over Ethernet, MIDSPAN, ENDSPAN, Power Source Equipment, Powered Device, UN-shielded Twisted Pair, Keystone, structured Cabling System
 IEEE Std 802.3-2015 IEEE Standard for Ethernet- (Approved 3rd Sep, 2015 by IEEE SA Standard Board) Section TWO, Subsection 33 – Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) Power via Media Dependent Interface (MDI)  Linear Technology LTC 4274 A/C Single PoE/PSE Controller, LT 0715 Rev D 2011  Linear Technology LTC 4265 IEEE 802.3 at High Power PD Interface Controller With 2-event classification Recognition LT0714 Rev B  Linear Technology LTSPICE IV User Guide – 2011  WP_Shieldadv Advantages of using Shielded Cabling Systems to Power Remote Network Devices Rev B 6/13.  ISO/IEC 11801, “Information Technology” Generic Cabling for Customer Premises – 2002.  Valerie Maguire WP-DeMystifying Cable De-Mystifying Cabling Specifications From 5e to 7a – Rev F 5/11  ISO/IEC TR 29125 “Information technology – Telecommunication Cabling Requirements for Remote Powering of terminal Equipment “2010.  Siemon White Paper - Zone Cabling and Coverage Area Planning Guide-2015  Cisco White Paper – Cisco Digital Building Solution  Design Lights Consortium White Paper – PoE Lighting Systems
Incorporation of HVDC transmission subsystems in AC transmission networks has been a major change in power transmission during the last few years. This change required modifications in the performance evaluation procedures notably for load flow and stability analysis. The methodologies used for AC/DC system’s load flow calculation and transient stability analysis are presented in this chapter In this thesis, the investigations are carried out on the improvement of power system stability by utilizing auxiliary controls for controlling HVDC power flow. AC/DC load flow using eliminated variable method is utilized in the transient stability analysis. Transient stability analysis is done on single machine system and multi-machine system, using different control signals derived from the AC system.
Keywords : Ac Power System, Dc Power System, HVDC Transmission Line, Load Flow Analysis, Transient Stability Analysis, Power System Stability
 P. Kundur, “Power System Stability and Control”, McGraw- Hill, Inc., 1994.  Prabha Kundur, John Paserba, “Definition and Classification of Power System Stability”, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems., Vol. 19, No. 2, pp 1387- 1401, May 2004.  A. Panosyan, B. R. Oswald, “Modified Newton- Raphson Load Flow Analysis for Integrated AC/DC Power Systems”.  T. Smed, G. Anderson, “A New Approach to AC/DC Power Flow”, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems., Vol. 6, No. 3, pp 1238- 1244, Aug. 1991.  Stagg and El- Abiad, “Computer Methods in Power System Analysis”, International Student Edition, McGraw- Hill, Book Company, 1968.  Jos Arrillaga and Bruce Smith, “AC- DC Power System Analysis”, The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1998.  K. R. Padiyar, “HVDC Power Transmission Systems”, New Age International (P) Ltd., 2004.  “IEEE Guide for Planning DC Links Terminating at AC Locations Having Low Short-Circuit Capacities”, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1997.  Garng M. Huang, Vikram Krishnaswamy, “HVDC Controls for Power System Stability”, IEEE Power Engineering Society, pp 597- 602, 2002.  Sharad Chandra Rajpoot, Prashant Singh Rajpoot and Durga Sharma,” Power system Stability Improvement using Fact Devices”,International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology research ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03, Issue. 11,June-2014,Pages:2374-2379.  Sharad Chandra Rajpoot, Prashant singh Rajpoot and Durga Sharma,“Summarization of Loss Minimization Using FACTS in Deregulated Power System”, International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology research ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03, Issue.05,April & May-2014,Pages:0774-0778.  Sharad Chandra Rajpoot, Prashant Singh Rajpoot and Durga Sharma, “Voltage Sag Mitigation in Distribution Line using DSTATCOM” International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology research ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03, Issue.11, April June-2014, Pages: 2351-2354.  Prashant Singh Rajpoot, Sharad Chandra Rajpoot and Durga Sharma, “Review and utility of FACTS controller for traction system”, International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology research ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03, Issue.08, May-2014, Pages: 1343-1348.  Sharad Chandra Rajpoot, Prashant Singh Rajpoot and Durga Sharma, “A typical PLC Application in Automation”, International Journal of Engineering research and TechnologyISSN 2278-0181 Vol.03, Issue.6, June-2014.  Iba K. (1994) ‘Reactive power optimization by genetic algorithms’, IEEE Trans on power systems, May, Vol.9, No.2, pp.685-692.  Sharad Chandra Rajpoot, Prashant Singh Rajpoot and Durga Sharma,“21st century modern technology of reliable billing system by using smart card based energy meter”,International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology research,ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03,Issue.05 ,April & May-2014,Pages:0840-0844.  Prashant singh Rajpoot , Sharad Chandra Rajpoot and Durga Sharma,“wireless power transfer due to strongly coupled magnetic resonance”, international Journal of Science Engineering and Technology research ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03,.05,April & May-2014,Pages:0764-0768.  Sharad Chandra Rajpoot, Prashant Singh Rajpoot and Durga Sharma,” Power system Stability Improvement using Fact Devices”,International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology research ISSN 2319-8885 Vol.03,Issue.11,June-2014,Pages:2374-2379.  Choo Min Lim, Takashi Hiyama, “Application of A Rule-Based Control Scheme for Stability Enhancement of Power Systems”, pp 1347- 1357, IEEE 1995.
DMAIC is a Data-driven quality strategy used to improve processes. It is an integral part of a Six Sigma initiative, but in general can be implemented as a standalone quality improvement procedure or as part of other process improvement initiatives such as lean Technology. The present paper deals with application of six sigma for gear box system for dent minimization purpose. The various problems which lead to Gear box rejections such as Noise, Leakage, Damages, Assembly jam were studied in details for period of 2013-2016. All the parameter of DMAIC technology such as Define, Measure, Analyze, improve & Control were applied to above stated problem. The given study found that the Dent Minimization has been successfully carried out and has a satisfactory effect and can be a promising factor to improve future quality issues.
Keywords : Six Sigma, DMAIC, Gear Box, Dent, Quality Improvement
 Dalgobind Mahto ;Anjani Kumar “Application of root cause analysis in improvement of product quality and productivity”, Journal of Industrial engineering and management – 01, National Institute of Technology (INDIA) dec2008  S. Kombogiannis, A. Antoniadis, N. Vidakis “Gear Hobbing Cutting Process Simulation and Tool Wear Prediction Models”, Aristoteles University, Thessaloniki 54006,Greece Aug 2002  John P. Dugas, “Gear Finishing by Shaving, Rolling & Honing - Part I”, Dudley’s Gear Handbook, 2nded.,Dennis P. Townsend ,ed.,1991 published by McGraw-hill  Riddhish Thakore, Rajat Dave, Tejas Parsana, Amit Solanki “Six Sigma Implementation Practice in Manufacturing Industries”, Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Vol. 4, Issue 11(Version - 4), November 2014  Celep Oguz , Yong-Woo Kim, John Hutchison , and Seungheon Han “Implementing Lean Six Sigma: A Case Study In Concrete Panel Production”, Proceedings for the 20th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, August 2003  Saad A.Shaikh , Javed Kazi “A Review on Six Sigma (DMAIC) Methodology”, International OPEN ACCESS Journal Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol. 5 Iss.2 Feb. 2015  Tushar N. Desai and Dr. R. L. Shrivastava “Six Sigma – A New Direction to Quality and Productivity Management”, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2008 WCECS 2008, October 22 - 24, 2008, San Francisco, USA
Sun powered power is utilized as just the wellspring of energy to control the general framework. Sensors are set on the paddy field and these sensors constantly sense the water substance and give the message to the agriculturist. Without going to the paddy fields, ranchers can get the data about the Moisture substance and agriculturist can control the pump set by communicating something specific from his PDA even from a remote place where system is accessible. Be that as it may, if the Moisture level scopes to the low level the engine will naturally begin without insinuation to agriculturist and to guarantee the correct water level in the site. Toward the finish of this paper, a total equipment usage of this proposed robotized water system framework will be introduced.
Keywords : Automated Irrigation, GSM Mobile, Moisture Sensor, Microcontroller, Water Level Sensor
 Pavithra D. S, M. S. Srinath “GSM based Automatic Irrigation Control System for Efficient Use of Resources and Crop Planning by Using an Android Mobile” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 11, Issue 4 Ver. I (Jul- Aug. 2014), PP 49-55.  Fangmeier, D. D., Garrote, D. J.,Mancino, C.F and Husman, S. H., “Automated irrigation systems using plant and soil sensors”, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, ASAE Publication, 1990, pp. 533-537.  Benzedrine, A., Meghriche, K., and Refoufi, L., PC-based automation of a multi-mode control for an irrigation system Proceedings of International symposium on industrial embedded systems, Lisbon, July  Shinghal, K., Noor, A., Srivastava, N., and Singh, R., Wireless sensor networks in agriculture for potato farming International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 8, 2010, pp. 3955-3963.  Gautam, I., and Reddy, S. R. N., Innovative GSM-Bluetooth based remote controlled embedded system for irrigation, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2012, pp. 1.  Zhang, F., Yang, M., and Ying, H., The application of GSM communication in agricultural automation, Journal of Technology for Agriculture, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004, pp. 39-41.
Cooling of heated plates finds applications in various fields like cooling of electronic devices. Commonly used method for cooling of electronic devices such as computers is by using fan. With the advent of electronic industry cooling requirements from compact surfaces become the primary focus of research. Jet impingement cooling mechanism with pulsating impinging jet array has proved to be one of the most efficient heat transfer mechanism for cooling applications. The idea of impingement heat transfer is to obtain the higher heat transfer coefficients from a given surface with limited area by means of the high velocity of the jets. Thus, a study is required to optimize the different aspects of the mechanism so as to achieve maximum heat transfer. In this project combined steady and pulsating jet array is used for heat transfer. Various arrangements of jets are considered. Also analysis of different frequencies of jets is done. The best combination for maximum and uniform heat transfer is to be found out. The study is being conducted with the help of CFD simulation package Ansys Fluent.
Keywords : CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), Jet Impingement Cooling, Pulsating Jet, Array of Jets, Steady Jet
 Freidman, S.J., and Mueller, A.C., "Heat Transfer to Flat Surfaces," Proc. Gen. Disc.on Heat Transfer, Institution of Mech. Engineers, London, pp. 138-142, 1951.  Kezios, S.P., "Heat Transfer in the Flow of a Cylindrical Air Jet Normal to an Infinite Plane," Ph.D.Thesis, Illinois 'istitute of Technology, 1956.  Vickers, J.M.F., "Heat Transfer Coefficients between Fluid Jets and Normal Surfaces," Ind. and Eng. Chemistry, 51:8: 967-972, 1959.  McNaughton, K.J., and Sinclair, C.G., "Jets in Cylindrical Flow Vessels," J1. Fl. Mech., Vol. 25, p. 371, 1966.  Hrycak, P., Lee, D.T., Gauntner, W.J., and Livingood, J.N.B., "Experimental Flow Characteristics of a Single Turbulent Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate," NASA TN D-5690, 1970.  Cederwall, K., "The Initial Mixing on Jet Disposal into a Recipient," Laboratory Investigations, Div. of Hydraulics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden, 1953.  Gardon, R., and Cobonpue, J.A., "Heat Transfer between a Flat Plate and Jets of Air Impinging on It," International Developments in Heat Transfer, ASME, pp. 454-460, T19T.  Science 49 (7) (2010) 1247–1252.  D.A. Zumbrunnen, M. Aziz, Convective heat transfer enhancement due to intermittency in an impinging jet, Journal of Heat Transfer 115 (1) (1993) 91–98.  D.A. Zumbrunnen, M. Balasubramanian, Convective heat transfer enhancement due to gas injection into an impinging liquid jet, Journal of Heat Transfer 117(4) (1995) 1011–1017.  E.C. Mladin, D.A. Zumbrunnen, Local convective heat transfer to submerged pulsating jets, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 40 (14) (1997)3305–3321.  D.J. Sailor, D.J. Rohli, Q.L. Fu, Effect of variable duty cycle flow pulsations on heat transfer enhancement for an impinging air jet, International Journal of Heat andFluid Flow 20 (6) (1999) 574–580.  H.S. Sheriff, D.A. Zumbrunnen, Effect of flow pulsations on the cooling effectiveness of an impinging jet, Journal of Heat Transfer 116 (4) (1994) 886–895.  L.F.A. Azevedo, B.W. Webb, M. Queiroz, Pulsed air-jet impingement heat-transfer, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 8 (3) (1994) 206–213.  E.C. Mladin, D.A. Zumbrunnen, Alterations to coherent flow structures and heat transfer due to pulsations in an impinging air-jet, International Journal of ThermalScience 39 (2) (2000) 236–248.
In the present era where energy demands are growing everyday it has become very important to capture every available energy from the hot source and utilize it for the process with minimum wastage. With this view, the combined serial two shell pass shell and tube heat exchanger (CSTSP) concept had been put forward and simulated using Fluent. Though the novel model of the heat exchanger has a higher heat transfer rate than the conventionally used segmental baffle heat exchanger but it poses a limitation with a higher pressure drop. This paper analyses the CSTSP model by incorporating certain changes in the geometry to try out two test cases namely CSTSP-B & CSTSP-C. Numerical analysis is performed on these models and their performance is compared with the original model. This study aims to put forward more insight on the performance of the CSTSP model heat exchanger to help researchers in future to optimize the geometric model and obtain a balance between heat transfer and pressure drop.
Keywords : CSTSP, Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop, Numerical Analysis
 Stehlk P, Nemcansky J. Comparison of correction factors for shell and tube heat exchangers with segmental or helical baffles. Heat Transfer Eng 1994; 15:55-65  Zhang JF, Li B, Huang WJ. Experimental performance comparison of shell side heat transfer for shell and tube heat exchanger with middle overlapped helical baffles and segmental baffles. Chem Eng Sci 2009; 64:1643-53  Sandeep K Patel. Shell and tube heat exchanger thermal design with optimization of mass flow rate and baffle spacing. International Journal of advanced engineering research and studies 2012 Vol II 130-135  J Balabhaskar Rao, V Ramachandra Raju. Numerical and Heat transfer analysis of shell and tube heat exchanger with circular and elliptical tubes. International Journal of Mechanical and Material Engineering 2016 Vol 11:6  B Peng, Wang QW. An experimental study of shell and tube heat exchanger with continuous helical baffles. Journal of Heat Transfer – ASME 2007; 129:1425-31  Dilip S Patel, Ravindrasinh R Parmar. CFD Analysis of Shell and tube heat exchangers- A review. IRJET 2015; Vol 2 Iss.9  Dilip Kumar Mohanty. Gravitational Search Algorithm for economic optimization design of a shell and tube heat exchanger. Applied Thermal Engineering 2016 Vol 6.133  Jian-Feng Yang, Min Zeng, Qiu-Wang Wang. Numerical Investigation on shell side performances of combined parallel and serial two shell pass shell and tube heat exchangers with continuous helical baffles. Applied Thermal Eng. 2014 Vol 11.029
Time, safety and economy constitute the three main factors in a construction project, of which time plays a significant role in construction. Delay in any task or operation is a time overrun which influences the completion of the work. A cost overrun, also known as a cost increase, underrated or budget overrun, involves unexpected costs incurred in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting. Accident don’t just happen, they are caused by unsafe acts, unsafe conditions or both. Most accidents result from a combination of contributing causes and one or more unsafe acts and unsafe condition. This study was based on a list of construction problems, causes retrieved from literature reviews. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire was distributed to construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. A case study was analyzed and compared with the most important problems causes in the research. Recommendations was made in order to reduce the problems in constructions.
Keywords : Safety, Cost Overrun, Delay, Survey
 Huang, x. And hinze, j. (2003) analysis of construction worker fall accidents. Journal of construction engineering and management, asce, pp. 262-271  Toole, t. M. (2002) construction site safety roles. Journal of construction engineering and management, asce, 12(3), pp.203-210.  Sanvito, p., caron, f. And valentini, s., 2004. “Time impact analysis in engineering&contracting projects: an industrial case”, spanish project engineering association, aeipro, the viii international congress on project engineering.  Nasrin parsian, april 2009. Developing and validating a questionnaire to measure spirituality: a psychometric process, global journal of health science, vol 1,  Ali, A.S., Kamaruzzaman, S.N. (2010), “Cost Performance for Building Construction Projects in Klang Valley”, Journal of Building Performance, Vol. 1, No. 1, 110-110.  Doloi, Hemanta. (2012), “Cost overruns and failure in project management - understanding the roles of key stakeholders in construction projects”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Www.ascelibrary.org, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943- 7862.0000621.
Skill development is an important driving force behind the Indian economy to maximize the country’s productivity and financial growth. These training programmes are very important in skill building, tackling technological volatility and meet globalization. The present study used to describe the exposition of the skill development programme called SUITS (Schools-University-Industry-Tie-up-Scheme) provided by IECD (Institute for Entrepreneurship and Career Development) with the help of a structured questionnaire and the interrelationship between all the dependent variables are analyzed through SPSS (Statistical package for Social Sciences) showing a positive inter relationship which shows the significance and importance of the study.
Keywords : SUITS, Skill Development Programme, Information Technology
 Adams Arvil V, (2011), The Role of Skills Development in Overcoming Social Disadvantage Education For All Global Monitoring Report (EFAGMR), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, pp. 13-28.  Aswini.P.M, Parthasarathy.K, and Jayadurga.R, (2016), Skill Development: Influence of Demographic Characteristics of School Teachers in TamilNadu, International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, Vol.6, No.6, pp.273-276.  Parthasarathy K, Aswini P.M. and Jayadurga R, (2016), Exploring the Imperatives of Skill Development Training through School Teachers of Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, International Research Journal of Management Sciences & Technology, Vol.7, No.6, pp. 49-66.  Parthasarathy, K, Shanmuga Priya, P.M, Sasiraja, S and Jayadurga. R, (2016), Impact of Skill Development Training among School Teachers, International Journal of Business and Management Invention, Vol.5, No.1, pp.65-74.  Parthasarathy.K, Shanmuga Priya.P.M and Monika.M, (2016), Effectiveness of Pre- Service Training Programme to School Teachers on Computer Science, International Journal of Research in IT and Management, Vol.6, No.11, pp.120-131.  Parthasarathy.K, Vivekanandan.K, Aswini.P.M, and Sasiraja.S, (2016), Effectiveness of the Skill Development Training to School Teachers in Information Technology, IPASJ International Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 4, No.8, pp 11-22.  Parthasarathy.K, Vivekanandan.K, Shanmuga Priya.P.M, and Sasiraja.S, (2016), A Case Study Approach for Evaluation of Skill Development Training Workshops for School Teachers, ECONSPEAK: A Journal of Advances in Management IT& Social Sciences, Vol.6, No.9, pp21-42.  Rupert Maclean, Shanti Jagannathan and Jouko Sarvi (Editor), (2013), Skills Development for Inclusive and Sustainable Growth in Developing Asia-Pacific, Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects, Published by Springer, Vol.19, Special Edition, pp.68-74, 80 & 130.  Swati Shantaram Mujumdar , (2012), A Study of Significance of Vocationalization of Education and Skill Development in India with special reference to the State of Maharashtra, Published Thesis of Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Faculty of Management) Symbiosis International University, Pune, pp.30-49.
The vortex tube, also known as the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, is a mechanical device that separates a compressed gas into hot and cold streams. The air emerging from the "hot" end can reach temperatures of 200 °C, and the air emerging from the "cold end" can reach -50 °C. It has no moving parts. This study is aimed towards presenting the CFD analysis of vortex tube carried out to gain an understanding about influence of different inlet shapes on its performance are compared and analyzed while other geometrical parameters are held constant. The energy separation has been observed for five different inlet shapes and air as working fluid.
Keywords : Vortex Tube, Inlet Configurations, Temperature Separation
 R. Manimaran, Computational analysis of energy separation in a counter-flow vortex tube based on inlet shape and aspect ratio, Energy 107 (2016) 17-28  Aljuwayhel NF, Nellis GF, Klein SA (2005) Parametric and internal study of the vortex tube using a CFD model. Int J Refrig 28(3):442–450  Behera U, Paul PJ, Kasthurirengan S, Karunanithi R, Ram SN, Dinesh K, Jacob S (2005) CFD analysis and experimental investigations towards optimizing the parameters of Ranque– Hilsch vortex tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf 48(10):1961–1973  Bej N, Sinhamahapatra KP (2014) Exergy analysis of a hot cascade type Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube using turbulence model. Int J Refrig 45:13–24  Bruun HH (1969) Experimental investigation of the energy separation in vortex tubes. J Mech Eng Sci 11(6):567–582  Thakare HR, Parekh AD (2015) Computational analysis of energy separation in counter: flow vortex tube. Energy 85:62–77  Dutta T, Sinhamahapatra KP, Bandyopdhyay SS (2010) Comparison of different turbulence models in predicting the temperature separation in a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Int J Refrig 33(4):783–792  Eiamsa-ard S, Promvonge P (2007) Numerical investigation of the thermal separation in a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf 50(5):821–832  Farouk T, Farouk B, Gutsol A (2009) Simulation of gas species and temperature separation in the counter-flow Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube using the large eddy simulation technique. Int J Heat Mass Transf 52(13):3320–3333  Fro¨hlingsdorf W, Unger H (1999) Numerical investigations of the compressible flow and the energy separation in the Ranque– Hilsch vortex tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf 42(3):415–422  Hartnett JP, Eckert ERG (1957) Experimental study of the velocity and temperature distribution in a high-velocity vortextype flow. Trans ASME 79(4):751–758  Kandil HA, Abdelghany ST (2015) Computational investigation of different effects on the performance of the Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Energy 84:207–218  Khait AV, Noskov AS, Lovtsov AV, Alekhin VN (2014) Semiempirical turbulence model for numerical simulation of swirled compressible flows observed in Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube. Int J Refrig 48:132–141  Skye HM, Nellis GF, Klein SA (2006) Comparison of CFD analysis to empirical data in a commercial vortex tube. Int J Refrig 29(1):71–80
The drying or dehydration is the controlled heating of food products to evaporate quantified amount of moisture that is originally present in it. Drying of food products is essential to enhance the shelf life of the product without quality losses over an extended period of time. It is an energy intensive process. The fluidized bed dryer with heat pump is one of the efficient method to reduce the energy. This project presents the design of fluidized bed dryer with heat pump. Drying was carried out in three different temperatures 50, 55 and 60°C. Comparisons of all three cases were made and it was found that inlet air temperature is the main parameter that affect the drying time. The drying time is decreases as the inlet temperature increases.
Keywords : Heat Pump, Fluidized Bed Dryer, Drying Time, Relative Humidity, Drying Curve
 R.E. Bahu,”Energy consumption in dryer design”, Drying, Elsevier, 1991, pp.553-557.  K. J. Chua, S. K. Chou, J. C. Ho, M. N. A. Hawlader, “Heat Pump drying: Recent Developments and Future Trends”, Drying Technology, 2002, pp. 1579-1610.  P.K. Adapa, G.J. Schoenau, and S. Sokhansanj,” Performance Study of a Heat Pump Dryer System for Specialty Crops – Part 2: Model Verification”. International Journal of Energy Research, 2002, pp. 1-13.  ASHRAE, “ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers”, Inc., Atlanta, GA.  U.S. Pal, and M.K. Khan, “Performance Evaluation of Heat Pump Dryer”, Journal Food Science Technology, 2010, pp.230-234.  Tai K. W., Zyalla It, Devotta S., Diggory P. J., Watson F. A. and Holland F. A. “The potential for heat pump in drying and dehumidification systems II: An experimental assessment of the dehumidification characteristics of a heat pump dehumidification system using RI 14”, Energy Research, I982a,, pp.323-331.  Tai K. W., Zyalla R., Devotta S., Diggory P. J., Watson F. A. and Holland F. A., “ The potential for heat pump in drying and dehumidification systems III An experimental assessment of the dehumidification characteristics of a heat pump dehumidification system using R114”, Energy Research, 1982b, pp.333-340.  Palancz, B.,”Mathematical model for continuous fluidized bed drying”. Chem Eng. 1983, pp.1045-1059.  Thakur A. K and Gupta A. K.,” Fluidized Bed Drying of High Moisture Paddy in Two Stages”. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 2007, 44(3).  Jingsheng Ye; Qiaojun Luo; Xiaolan Li; Qing Xu; and Zhanyong Li, "Sorption Drying of Soybean Seeds with Silica Gel in a Fluidized Bed Dryer," International Journal of Food Engineering: 2008,Vol. 4: Iss. 6, Article 3. Journal of Food Science, 52(5), 1358-1363.  Murthy Z. V. P. and Joshi Dhruv, 2007. Fluidized Bed Drying of Aonla (Emblica officinalis). Drying Technology, 25, pp. 883 – 889.
EDM is an important and commercial method of machining very tough and brittle electrically conductive materials. It is broadly used in the process of making moulds and dies and sections of complex geometry and complicated shapes. The work piece material selected in this experiment is Inconel 904L taking because it’s widely usage in industrial applications. The input variables are Voltage, current and pulse on time. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is applied to optimize the processes variable. The effect of the variable parameters mentioned above upon machining characteristics such as Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) is studied and investigated. The obtained results showed that current was the most significant parameter followed by voltage and pulse on time for the Material removal rate (MRR) and, for Surface roughness (Ra) current was the most significant parameter followed by pulse on time and voltage. The selected electrode material is cupper and duty cycle is 90% during the whole experiment. Keyword: EDM, Inconel, MRR and spark current.
Keywords : EDM, Spark on Time, Inconel 904L
 Garg, R. K., et al. "Review of research work in sinking EDM and WEDM on metal matrix composite materials." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 50.5 (2010): 611-624.  Wang, Che Chung, and Biing Hwa Yan. "Blind-hole drilling of Al 2 O 3/6061Al composite using rotary electro-discharge machining." Journal of materials processing technology 102.1 (2000): 90-102.  Puertas, I., C. J. Luis, and L. Alvarez. "Analysis of the influence of EDM parameters on surface quality, MRR and EW of WC–Co." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 153 (2004): 1026-1032.  Torres, A., C. Luis, and I. Puertas. "Analysis of the influence of EDM parameters on surface finish, material removal rate, and electrode wear of an INCONEL 600 alloy." International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 80 (2015).  Asif Iqbal, A. K. M., and Ahsan Ali Khan. "Optimization of process parameters on EDM milling of stainless steel AISI 304." Advanced Materials Research. Vol. 264. Trans Tech Publications, 2011.  Liu, Kun, Bert Lauwers, and Dominiek Reynaerts. "Process capabilities of Micro-EDM and its applications." The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 47.1 (2010): 11-19.  Singh, Shankar, S. Maheshwari, and P. C. Pandey. "Some investigations into the electric discharge machining of hardened tool steel using different electrode materials." Journal of materials processing technology 149.1 (2004): 272-277.  Bhattacharyya, B., S. Gangopadhyay, and B. R. Sarkar. "Modelling and analysis of EDM ED job surface integrity." Journal of Materials Processing Technology 189.1 (2007): 169-177.  Dhar, Sushant, et al. "Mathematical modeling of electric discharge machining of cast Al–4Cu–6Si alloy–10wt.% SiC P composites." Journal of materials processing technology 194.1 (2007): 24-29.  Rao, P. Srinivasa, et al. "Parametric study of electrical discharge machining of AISI 304 stainless steel." International Journal of engineering science and technology 1.2 (2010): 3535-3550.  MM, Rahman, et al. "Experimental investigation into electrical discharge machining of stainless steel 304." Journal of Applied Sciences 11.3 (2011): 549-554.  Gao, Qing, et al. "Parameter optimization model in electrical discharge machining process." Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A 9.1 (2008): 104-108.  Tomadi SH, Hassan MA, Hamedon Z, Daud R, Khalid AG. Analysis of the influence of EDM parameters on surface quality, material removal rate and electrode wear of tungsten carbide. InProceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2009 Mar 18 (Vol. 2, pp. 18-20).  Asif Iqbal, A. K. M., and Ahsan Ali Khan. "Optimization of process parameters on EDM milling of stainless steel AISI 304." Advanced Materials Research. Vol. 264. Trans Tech Publications, 2011.  Shani Kumar and Mr. Sunil Kumar Yadav, “Influence of electrical parameters on the response parameter for EDM process: A Review” National Conference on Futuristics in Mechanical Engineering (FME – 2016), ISBN: 978-93- 84224-83- 7, pp 263-266.
A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline. Now a days, bridge deck section of Box shapes are used widely. Most of the bridges constructed are of Box girders. Method of post-tensioning in the construction of bridges is very common today. Most of the bridges are of prestressed types (mostly post-tensioned). In this work, an attempt was made to comparative study the different shapes of PSC Box Girder Multi Cell Bridge using CSI Bridge (V-2017). Loading of IRC Class-A is applied and analysis is done using IRC 112 (2011).
Keywords : Box Girder, Prestressed, CSI Bridge (V-2107), Post-tensioned Bridge, IRC-112(2011), IRC Class-A Loading
 Ajith Kumar R. , Dr. J. K. Dattatreya (2015) :- "Study on the Structural Behavior and Design of a Typical Single Cell Post Tensioned Concrete Box Girder Bridge". Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology, Volume 2, Number 11; April – June, 2015  Amit Saxena, Dr. Savita Maru (2013):- "Comparative Study of the Analysis and Design of T-Beam Girder and Box Girder Superstructure". IJREAT International Journal of Research in Engineering & Advanced Technology, Volume 1, and Issue 2, April-May, 2013.  B. Paval (2015) :- "Analysis of Multi-Cell Prestressed Concrete Box-Girder Bridge". International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research IJETSR, ISSN 2394 – 3386 Volume 3,  Bhawar P.D, Wakchaure M.R, Nagare P.N (2015) :- "OPTIMIZATION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE GIRDER". IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Volume: 04 Issue: 03 | Mar-2015  Byungik Chang, Kamal Mirtalaei, Seungyeol Lee, and Kenneth Leitch (2012) :- "Optimization of Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridges with Special Reference to Use of High-Strength Concrete Using AASHTO LRFD Method". Advances in Civil Engineering, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 673821, Received 9 January 2012; Revised 17 May 2012; Accepted 24 May 2012  Chen Cheng, Kaiyin Zhang:-"Research on temperature field and temperature stress of prestressed concrete girders". I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2011, 1, 25-32, Published Online in MECS on February 2011.  Chetan T Naik , Dr.M M Achar , K Lakshmi(2015) :- "Analysis and Design of Multi Cell Post-Tensioned PSC Box Girder". IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), Volume 12, Issue 4 Ver. VII (Jul. - Aug. 2015), PP 56-64.  Durgesh C. Rai, M.ASCE, Srinaganjaneyulu Komaraneni, and Tripti Pradhan (2013) :- "Strengthening of Slab Action in Transverse Direction of Damaged Deck of Prestressed Box Girder Bridge". DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0000318. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.  Jefeena Sali, Kashif Quamar Inqualabi, Reji P Mohan (2015):- "Parametric Study of Behaviour of Box Girder Bridges Under Different Radius of Curvature". International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391.  Karthika Santhosh, Prof. P Asha Varma (2016) :- "Parametric Study on Behavior of Box Girder Bridges with Different Shape Based On Torsion". International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), Volume 4 Issue VIII, August 2016  M K Maroliya (2012):- "Comparative Study Of Flexural Behavior Of Reinforced Concrete Beam And Prestressed Concrete Beam". International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Volume 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.230-233.  Mayank Chourasia , Dr. Saleem Akhtar (2015) :- "Design and Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Box Girder by Finite Element Method (4 Cells & 1 Cell)". International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Research, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp: (413-421), Month: April 2015 - September 2015.  Natraj Singh, N.P. Devgan, A.M. Kalra, Surinder Pal (2016) :- "Effect on Economy on Successive Increase in the Span of Bridges". Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Civil, Structural and Transportation Engineering (ICCSTE’16) Ottawa, Canada – May 5 – 6, 2016.  Olivier BURDET, Marc BADOUX: - "Deflection Monitoring of Prestressed Concrete Bridges Retrofitted by External Post-Tensioning". IABSE Symposium - Rio de Janeiro - August 25-27, 1999.  P. J. Barr, M.ASCE, J. F. Stanton, M.ASCE, and M. O. Eberhard, M.ASCE:- "Effects of Temperature Variations on Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders". JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING © ASCE, MARCH/APRIL 2005.  Paul J. Barr, Marc O. Eberhard, and John F. Stanton (2001) :- "Live load distribution factors in prestressed concrete girder bridges". JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2001.  Payoshni Mali, Shilpa Kewate , Savita Lokare (2015) :- "Comparison of Rectangular and Trapezoidal sections of Post Tensioned Box Girder". International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 12, December-2015.  Phani Kumar.Ch, S.V.V.K.Babu (2016) :- "Analysis and Design of Prestressed Box Girder Bridge by IRC: 112-2011". International Journal of Constructive Research in Civil Engineering (IJCRCE) Volume 2, Issue 2, 2016  Pranathi Reddy , Karuna S. (2015) :- "COMPARATIVE STUDY ON NORMAL AND SKEW BRIDGE OF PSC BOX GIRDER". IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2015.  Punil Kumar M P, Shilpa B S(2016) :- “Dynamic analysis of box girder bridges”. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 03 Issue: 07 | July-2016.  Rajamoori Arun Kumar, B. Vamsi Krishna(2014) :- "Design of Pre-Stressed Concrete T-Beams". International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER), Volume 2 Issue 8, August2014.  Sanket Patel, Umang Parekh (2016) :- "Comparative Study of PSC. Tee Girder and PSC. Box Girder". IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 11 | May 2016.  Vikash Khatri, Pramod Kumar Singh and P.R.Maiti (2012) :- "Comparative study of prestressed steel – concrete composite bridge of different span length and girder spacing". International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol.2, Issue.5, Sep-Oct. 2012.  Vishal U. Misal , N. G. Gore , P. J. Salunke (2014) :- "Analysis and Design of Prestressed Concrete Girder". 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A case study was conducted to find out the groundwater potential zones in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India with an aerial extent of 4243.23 sq.kms. The thematic maps such as geology, geomorphology, soil hydrological group, land use / land cover and drainage map were prepared for the study area. Worldwide rapid growth of population, industries and agricultural activities brought about a steep increase in water demands which have to be met from available surface and ground water resources. Ground water has gained prime importance during the past decades. This has been mainly on account of its dependability throughout the year and in particular during the periods of scanty rainfall and drought condition. The Geospatial technology has proved very efficient in assessing the ground water potential of any area. This paper aims Delineating the groundwater potential zones of a location by utilizing the existing data obtained through geological and soil surveys. The capabilities of GIS and Remote sensing has been harnessed to map the areas with potential ground water sources which could be used to easily identify and recharge the areas for future uses. This GIS based output result was validated by conducting field survey by randomly selecting wells in different villages using GPS instruments. The coordinates of each well location were obtained by GPS and plotted in the GIS platform and it was clearly shown that the well coordinates were exactly seated with the classified zones.
Keywords : ArcGIS, Groundwater Weighted Overlay, Thematic Maps, Groundwater Recharge
 Central Ground Water Board, (CGWB), 1985, Report on hydrogeology and groundwater potential of Mirzapur district U.P.  Environmental System Research Institute (ESRI), 1997 user guide Arc / Info: The geographic Information System Software, (Redland, CA: ESRI, Inc).  Krishnamurthy, J. Venkataesa Kumar, N, Jayraman, V. and Manivel, M. 1996 : An approach to demarcate groundwater potential zones through Remote Sensing and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, No. 10, 1867-1884.  Murthy K.S.R., 2000, Groundwater potential in a semi-arid region of Andhra Pradesh: A geographical Information System approach, International journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 21 No. 9, 1867-1884.  Saraf, A.K. and Chaudhary, P.R., 1998: Integrated remote sensing and GIS for groundwater exploration and identification of artificial recharges sites, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 19, No. 10, 1825-1841.  www.gisdevelopment.net
Crumb rubber is a material produced by shredding and commutating used tires. Waste tire dumping, disposal of these materials or burning these tires cause serious health and environmental problems. On the other side the traffic intensity also increasing day by day and thus bearing capacities also increased the long term goal of the work is to find a means to dispose of the crumb rubber in concrete and still provide a final product with good engineering properties. Due to the depletion of natural sand it is required to use other material than sand being used as the fine aggregate in concrete. The innovative use of the crumb rubber in concrete formulations as a sand replacement in range of 0%, 2.5%,5%,7.5% and 10 % by weight for M-25 grade cement (OPC). It will include an experimental review on the effects of CRM on compressive test and flexure test.
Keywords : Concrete, Crumb Rubber, , Water absorption test, Compressive Test, Flexure Test
 Strength Properties of Concrete Using Crumb Rubber with Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by S.Selvakumar  Effect on compressive strength of concrete by using waste rubber as partial replacement of fine aggregate by Mr Abhishek Kumar  Literature Review on Concrete Containing Crumb Rubber as a Sustainable Material By Ankit C. Patel  A Study on Crumb Rubber: Opportunities for Development of Sustainable Concrete in byBhavik K. Daxini  Effect of Crumb Rubber Material on Concrete Mix by Mohammed Islamuddin Faraz  Rubberized Concrete: Needs of Good Environment (Overview) by Sachin Dass  Prediction of crumb rubber concrete strength by M A. ElGawady  Rubberized Concrete Made with Crumb Rubber by Yogender Antil  Recent advances in the recycling of rubber waste by Bibin M Cherian  M. S. Shetty - Concrete Technology S. Chand & company, latest 3rd addition.  M. L. Gambhir, - “Concrete Technology" McGraw-Hill Book Company, third addition.