Publication for Volume-2 Issue-4, March 2017
This study presents a comparison between different workstations for physically disabled wheel chair users and their reach from wheel chairs based on anthropometric data and reach dimensions and clearance dimensions on the basis of various parameters such as stature, eye height, shoulder height, popliteal height, etc. Three workstations of VDT (Visual Display Terminal) workstations are considered to determine whether they are appropriate for use by wheelchair users. The study finds that presently available computer desks have difficulties, in terms of both design and reachability of peripheral devices, to wheelchair users. Some VDT tasks result in awkward body postures in virtual subjects. New VDT workstations are designed and recommended to solve the shortcomings found. The aim of the workstation analysis was to obtain maximum postural efficiency, bearing in mind environmental, manufacturing and marketing constraints
Keywords : VDT, Wheelchair Users, Anthropometric Data, Postural Analysis
 Jarosz, E. 1996. Determination of the workspace of wheelchair users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 17: 123-133  Kozey, J. W., and Das, B. 2004. Determination of the normal and maximum reach measures of adult wheelchair users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33: 205-213.  Ashworth, J. B., Reuben, D. B., and Benton, L. A. 1994. Functional profile of healthy older persons. Age and Aging, 23: 34-39.  Babski-Reeves, K., Stanfield, J., and Hughes, L. 2005. Assessment of video display workstation set up on risk factors associated with the development of low back and neck discomfort. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35: 593-604.  Fogleman, M., and Lewis, R. J. 2002. Factors associated with self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort in video display terminal (VDT) users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 29: 311-318.  Gerr, F., Marcus, M., and Monteilh, C 2004. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users: lesson learned from the role of posture and keyboard use. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 14: 25-31.  Leung, A. W. S., Chan, C. C. H., and He, J. 2004. Structural stability and reliability of the Swedish occupational fatigue inventory among Chinese VDT workers. Applied Ergonomics, 35: 233-241.  Murata, A., Uetake, A., and Takasawa, Y. 2005. Evaluation of mental fatigue using feature parameter extracted from event-related potential. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35: 761-770.  Park, M. Y., Kim, J. Y., and Shin, J. H. 2000. Ergonomic design and evaluation of a new VDT workstation chair with keyboard-mouse support. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 26: 537-548.  Psihogios, J. P., Sommerich, C. M., Mirka, G. A., and Moon, S. D. 2001. A field evaluation of monitor placement effects in VDT users. Applied Ergonomics, 32: 313-325.  Das, B., and Kozey, J. W. 1999. Structural anthropometric measurements for wheelchair mobile adults. Applied Ergonomics, 30: 385-390.  Gyi, D. E., Sims, R. E., Porter, J. M., Marshall, R., and Case, K. 2004, Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods. Applied Ergonomics, 35: 443-451.  Paquet, V., and Feathers, D. 2004. An anthropometric study of manual and powered wheelchair users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33: 191-204.  Reed, M. P., Van Roosmalen, L. 2005. A pilot study of a method for assessing the reach capability of wheelchair users for safety belt design. Applied Ergonomics, 36: 523-528.  Feeney, R. 2000. Approach with special reference to the needs of the disabled person. Proceedings of the IEA 2000/HFES 2000 Congress.  Tilley, A. R. 2002. “The measure of man and woman: human factors in design”. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 36-37.  Chi, C. F. 1998. The Task Redesign Manual for Handicapped People, Bureau of Employment and Vocational Training, Council of Labor Affairs, Executive Yuan. (In Chinese)  Feyen, R., Liu, Y., Chaffin, D., Jimmerson, G., and Joseph, B. 2000. Computer- aided ergonomics: a case study of incorporating ergonomics analysis into workplace design. Applied Ergonomics, 31:291-300.  Sengupta, A. K., and Das, B. 1997. Human: An autocad based three dimensional anthropometric human model for workstation design. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 19: 345-352.  Mattila, M. 1996. Computer-aided ergonomics and safety - A challenge for integrated ergonomics. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics,17: 309-314.  Porter, J. M., Case, K., Marshall, R., Gyi, D., and Oliver, R. 2004. ‘Beyond Jack and Jill’: designing for individuals using HADRIAN. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33: 249-264.  Cheng-Lung Lee *Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, No. 168, Jifong E. Rd., Wufong, Taichung, 41349, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Feature detection and matching are used in image registration, object tracking, object retrieval etc. There are number of approaches used to detect and matching of features as SIFT(Scale Invariant Feature Transform), SURF(Speeded Up Robust Feature), FAST, ORB etc. SIFT and SURF are most useful approaches to detect and matching of features because of it is invariant to scale, rotate, translation, illumination, and blur. In this paper, there is comparison between SIFT and SURF approaches are discussed. SURF is better than SIFT in rotation invariant, blur and warp transform. SIFT is better than SURF in different scale images. SURF is 3 times faster than SIFT because using of integral image and box filter. SIFT and SURF are good in illumination changes images.
Keywords : SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform), SURF (Speeded Up Robust Feature), invariant, integral image, box filter
 David L.”Distinctive Image Features from Scale-Invariant Keypoints”, International Journal of Computer Vision 60(2): 91-110, 2006.  Herbert B., Andreas E., Tinne T. and Luc Van G.: Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF), Journal of Computer vision and image understanding 110 (3): 346-359, 2008.  Herner. B., Tinee T., and Luc Van G.: “SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features”, Computer Vision- ECCV: 404-417, 2008.  Luo J. and Oubong G.: A Comparison of SIFT, PCA-SIFT, and SURF. International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP) 3(4): 143-152, 2009.  “Difference between SIFT and SURF”, https://www.quora.com/Image-Processing/Difference-between-SURF-and-SIFT-where-and-when-to-use-this-algo.23/11/2015.  Utsav S., Darshana M. and Asim B.: Image Registration of Multi-View Satellite Images Using Best Feature Points Detection and Matching Methods from SURF, SIFT and PCA-SIFT 1(1): 8-18, 2014.  HKHUST video data, “https://www.youtube.com/watch=OOUOPnLbjkI”.
Medical image processing has dramatically revolutionized the health care sector by helping clinicians towards early and accurate diagnosis of the disease. MRI is one of the most versatile and widely used imaging modality. Brain tumours are the abnormal growth of tissues and this can be benign and malign subject to the tumour location and size, which are often difficult to visually diagnose from MRI film. Therefore, several image processing techniques have been developed and in use for accurate and early detection. Image Segmentation typically applied to detect a specific region in an image and is often used in biomedical field. One of the most challenging implementation of this technique is in brain tumour recognition. This paper presents a comparative study of different segmentation techniques for extraction of tumour from MRI images.
Keywords : Image processing, brain tumour, Image segmentation, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
 Yan, Pingkun, and Ashraf A. Kassim. "Medical image segmentation with minimal path deformable models." Image Processing, 2004. ICIP'04. 2004 International Conference on. Vol. 4. IEEE, 2004.  Ahirwar, Anamika, and R. S. Jadon. "Effectiveness of Soft Computing Techniques for Medical Imaging." Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), 2013 5th International Conference on. IEEE, 2013  Zülch, K. J. "Principles of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors." Neuroradiology 19.2 (1980): 59-66.  Bushberg, Jerrold T., and John M. Boone. The essential physics of medical imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011.  Roy, Vandana. "Performance Evaluation of Different Image Denoising Methods." 2012, International journal of electronics and computer science engineering 1.3 (2012): 1757-1764.  Sukhatme, Neelabh, and Shailja Shukla. "Independent Component Analysis based Denoising of Magnetic Resonance Images." 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"Automatic removal of artifacts from EEG signal based on spatially constrained ICA using daubechies wavelet." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science 6.7 (2014): 31  Zabir, Ishmam, et al. "Automatic brain tumor detection and segmentation from multi-modal MRI images based on region growing and level set evolution." Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE), 2015 IEEE International WIE Conference on. IEEE, 2015.  Wu, Ming-Ni, Chia-Chen Lin, and Chin-Chen Chang. "Brain tumor detection using color-based k-means clustering segmentation." Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, 2007. IIHMSP 2007. Third International Conference on. Vol. 2. IEEE, 2007.  Chuang, Keh-Shih, et al. "Fuzzy c-means clustering with spatial information for image segmentation." computerized medical imaging and graphics 30.1 (2006): 9-15  Benson, C. C., et al. "Brain tumor segmentation from MR brain images using improved fuzzy c-means clustering and watershed algorithm." Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI), 2016 International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.  H. Digabel and C. Lantuéjoul, “Iterative algorithms,” in Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on Quantitative Analysis of Microstructures in Materials Sciences, Biology and Medicine, pp. 85–99, Caen, France, October 1977.  K. Bhima and A. Jagan, "Analysis of MRI based brain tumor identification using segmentation technique," 2016 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Melmaruvathur, 2016, pp. 2109-2113. doi: 10.1109/ICCSP.2016.7754551  I. Maiti and M. Chakraborty, "A new method for brain tumor segmentation based on watershed and edge detection algorithms in HSV colour model," 2012 NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, Durgapur, 2012, pp.1-5. doi: 10.1109/NCCCS.2012.6413020  P. Dhage, M. R. Phegade and S. K. Shah, "Watershed segmentation brain tumor detection," 2015 International Conference on Pervasive Computing (ICPC), Pune, 2015,pp.1-5. doi: 10.1109/PERVASIVE.2015.7086967  T. Rohlfing, N. M. Zahr, E. V. Sullivan, & A. Pfefferbaum, “The SRI24 multichannel atlas of normal adult human brain structure,” Human Brain Mapp., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 798–819, May 2010.  I. Diaz and P. Boulanger, "Atlas to patient registration with brain tumor based on a mesh-free method," 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Milan, 2015, pp. 2924-2927. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319004  D. M. Joshi, N. K. Rana and V. M. Misra, "Classification of Brain Cancer using Artificial Neural Network," 2010 2nd International Conference on Electronic Computer Technology, Kuala Lumpur, 2010, pp. 112-116. doi: 10.1109/ICECTECH.2010.5479975  V. Kumar, J. Sachdeva, I. Gupta, N. Khandelwal and C. K. Ahuja, "Classification of brain tumors using PCA-ANN," 2011 World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies, Mumbai, 2011, pp. 1079-1083. doi: 10.1109/WICT.2011.6141398  Pan Lin, Yong Yang and Chong-Xun Zheng, "An efficient brain magnetic resonance image segmentation method," Proceedings of 2004 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics (IEEE Cat. No.04EX826), 2004, pp. 2757-2760 vol.5. doi: 10.1109/ICMLC.2004.1378499  H. S. Abdulbaqi, Mohd Zubir Mat, A. F. Omar, I. S. B. Mustafa and L. K. Abood, "Detecting brain tumor in Magnetic Resonance Images using Hidden Markov Random Fields and Threshold techniques," 2014 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development, Batu Ferringhi, 2014, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/SCORED.2014.7072963
As fly ash consist of more fine particles and amorphous in nature, it shows pozzolanic behavior and sometimes also self-cementitious character. Depending on the proportion of its porosity and its chemical constitutes, its density ranges between 1.3g/cm3 and 4.8g/cm3. To-date cement and concrete industry uses around half of fly ash. Concrete tiles can be another substitution to the costly traditional tiles. Traditional tiles also have low operating life. Here full size tiles for different compositions of fly ash are picked for the abrasion resistance test. The test samples were of size 70.6mm×70.6mm i.e. their surface area is 5000mm2.
Keywords : Abrasion Test, Concrete Tiles, Fly Ash, Pozollana, Thermal Power Plant
 Ravindra Kumar, (2013), “effect of partial replacement of cement by fly ash and lime sludge on strength characteristics of concrete”, pp:61-68.  IS 1237-2012, CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING TILES  Manas Kumar Sahoo, (2010-11), “Strength Characteristics study of fly ash composite material”, to Department of mining engineering National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.  Satyajeet Kumar, (2014),” Investigation of fly ash polymer composite”. Department of Metallurgical and material engineering National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, 2014.  Noolu Venkatashi , “An experimental study on effect of reinforcement on stress-stain behavior of fly ash”. Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.  Sirish V. deo, (2015), “Mix design approach for high 28 days’ strength, high-volume, low-lime fly ash concrete”.  Singh M and Garg M, “Utilization of waste lime sludge as building materials”. Journal of scientific and industrial research, February 2008.  Dean Patrick Wenzek, Mortana University, “Fly ash concrete blocks”. Thesis Paper  Sen, S. and Kumar, A. (1995): “NTPC’s experience in utilization of coal ash”, Proc. of the Workshop on fly ash Utilization, pp: 103-121.  Kumar, V. (2006): “Fly ash: A resource for sustainable development’, “Proc. of the International Coal Congress & Expo”, 191-199.  Helmath, R. (1987): “Fly Ash in Cement and Concrete”, Portland cements Association, Research and Development Laboratories, Skokie, IL.  Ambarish G. and Utpal D., “Bearing ratio of reinforced fly ash overlying soft soil and defomation modulus of fly ash,” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 313-320, 2009.  Das A., Jayashree C., and Viswanadham B.V.S., “Effect of randomly distributed geofibers on the piping behaviour of embankments constructed with fly ash as a fill material,” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 341-349, 2007.  Senol A., Edil T. B., Md.Sazzad B. S., Acosta H. A. and Benson C. H., “Soft subgrades stabilization by using various fly ashes,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 365-376, 2006.  Shafique S. B., Edil T. B., Benson C. H. and Senol A., “Incorporating a fly ash stabilized layer into pavement design,” Proceedings of the ICE - Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 239–249, 2004.  Bou E., Quereda M. F., Lever D., Boccaccini A. R., and Cheeseman C. R., “Production of pulverised fuel ash tiles using conventional ceramic production processes,” Advances in Applied Ceramics, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 44-49, 2009. .  CPCB, “Assessment of utilization of industrial solid wastes in cement manufacturing,” Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, 2007.  CPCB, “Fly ash generation at coal/lignite based thermal power stations and its utilization in the country for 1st half of the year 2011-2012,” Central Electricity Authority, 2011.  Ravikumar D., Peethamparan S., and Neithalath N., “Structure and strength of NaOH activated concretes containing fly ash or GGBFS as the sole binder,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 399-410, 2010.  A. Ghosh and C. Subbarao, “Tensile strength bearing ratio and slake durability of class F fly ash stabilized with lime and gypsum,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 18-27, 2006.  Berry E.E., Hemmings R.T., Cornelius B.J., “Mechanism of hydration reactions in high volume fly ash pastes and mortars”, Cem. Concr. Compos. 12 (1990) 253–261.  Naik, T. R., 2002. “Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete”.  Singh G. B. 1998. “Cellular Light Weight Concrete”, The Construction Journal of India, Vol. 1 issue 4.  Naik T.R., and Ramme B.W., 1987. "Low Cement Content High Strength Structural Grade Concrete with fly ash." International Journal of Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 17, pp. 283-294.
Titanium alloys are used extensively in aerospace applications such as components in aero- engines and space shuttles, mainly due to their superior strength to weight ratio. The need to weld the alloy for certain engine components can expose the alloy locally to non-optimum thermal cycles and it is therefore of important to study the effect of process parameters on weld quality. To improve the welding quality of Titanium (Ti) plate an automated TIG welding system has been developed, by which welding speed can be control during welding process. Welding of Titanium has been performed in 9 phases with different set of parameters using L9 orthogonal array. Effect of welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate on hardness of welded portion has been investigated. Taguchi Orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the welding characteristics of titanium, optimize the welding parameters and calculate contribution of each parameter. Optical microscopic analysis has been done on the weld zone to evaluate the effect of welding parameters on welding quality.Effect of welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate on hardness of welded portion has been investigated. Taguchi Orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the welding characteristics of titanium, optimize the welding parameters and calculate contribution of each parameter. Optical microscopic analysis has been done on the weld zone to evaluate the effect of welding parameters on welding quality.
Keywords : Automated TIG Welding System, Orthogonal Array, Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio, ANOVA.
 Ravinder, Jarial, S.K. (2015). Parametric Optimization of TIG Welding on Stainless Steel (202) & Mild Steel by using Taguchi Method. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, ISSN: 2319-7463.  Yassin Mustafa Ahmed, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari, Basim A. Khidhir &Mahadzir, I. (2015). Study of Mechanical Properties on Thick Titanium] Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Multi-Passes Weld. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), ISSN: 3159-0040.  Karpagaraj, A., Shiva Shanmugam, N., &Sankaranaraya Swamy, K. (2014). The Effect of Process Parameters on TIG Welding Of Thin TI-6AL-4V Sheets International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering, ISS: 2320-2092.  Blake Gasper. (2012). Microstructural Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V and its Relationship to Sample Geometry. Materials Engineering Department, Cal Poly – San Luis Obispo.  5.Ivanov, M.B., Manokhin S.S., Kolobov Y.R., Nechayenko D.A. (2010).Phase Composition and Microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy after Hydrogen-Plastic Working. Materials Physics and Mechanics 10 (2010) 62-71.
Most of the conveyor applications are run at constant speed or at variable speed. It can be achieved by three various methods. They are pulse control, velocity control and network control. The position of a belt will be change when it is rotated in dangerous speed. To prevent from these certain parameters are should be followed. They are side of flow direction, motor position and motor terminal box. The input voltage given to the conveyor may be a DC/AC supply. In industries they are mostly preferred AC voltage motors. In case of single direction rotating the motor, it consumes maximum 1W to 200 W. By the depending on motors connected its power consumption will be varied.
Keywords : AC Motor, Arduino, Loadcell, Encoder and Alarming Unit
 L. A. Morley J. L. Kohler H. M. Smolnikar "A Model for Predicting Motor Load for an Armored Face-Conveyor Drive" IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications vol. 24 no.4July/August1988.  A. R. Broad foot R. E. Beta "Prediction of the Power Requirements for Long wall Armored Face Conveyors" Proceedings IEEE IAS Annual Meeting 1995-Oct.  The Assessment of Heavy Duty Conveyors in Relation to Modem Mining Systems England Burton-on-Trent: Mining Research and Development Establishment National Coal Board1980.  A. R. Broad foot R. E. Betz "Control Strategies for Armored Face Conveyors" Proceedings of the IEEE IAS Annual Meeting1996-Oct.  D O'Kelly S. Simmons Introduction to Generalized Electrical Machine Theory McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 1968.
The Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) [1, 2] may be used to remove the unused bit in the image for image compression. In this paper we compare the compressed image for 1 and 3 bit/pixel using DPCM and also compare the estimation error. We decrease the compressed image distortion and the estimation error. The PMSE in 3bit/pixel DPCM less 9-10 dB compare to 1bit/pixel DPCM.
Keywords : Nyquist Sampling, Quantization, Pridiction Error, DPCM, PMSE
 A. Habbi, “Comparison of Nth-order DPCM encoder with linear transformation and block quantization techniques,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-19, pp. 948-956, Dec. 1971.  R. R. S. Tomar; K. Jain, “Lossless Image Compression Using Differential Pulse Code Modulation and its Application” IEEE Conference Publications on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), 2015 Fifth International Conference, Pages: 543 – 545, Year: 2015 DOI: 10.1109/CSNT.2015.192.  B. P. Lathi and Zhi ding “Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems” International Fourth Edition. New York Oxford University Press-2010, pp.292.  J. E. Modestino, and D. G. Daut, “Source-channel coding of images,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-27, pp. 1644-1659, Nov. 1979.  W. K. Pratt, “Digital Image Processing,” New York: Wiley, 1978.  B. P. Lathi and Zhi ding “Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems” International Fourth Edition. New York Oxford University Press-2010, pp.292
Medical images like X-ray, CT or MRI produces visual representation of inner body structure. To recognize and name the exact character of a disease or a problem of human health condition, medical imaging is best method for them. For storage & transmission purpose there exist a need for compression of these images. Current compression schemes provide a very high compression rate with a considerable loss of quality. In medical imaging, it is a prime requirement to maintain high image quality in region of interest i.e diagnostically important regions. This work analyse a hybrid model of lossless compression in region of interest with high compression rate and lossy compression in other region. In this paper medical image is separated into two region, one is called NROI and other is called ROI. Region of interest part is compressed with ASPIHT algorithm and NROI part is compressed with the help of Block Truncation Coding algorithm. Our algorithm provide better PSNR and CR for medical images.
Keywords : Image compression, WT (wavelet transform), db(Daubechies wavelet), BTC(Block Truncation Coding) SPIHT(Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree), ASPIHT(SPIHT using adaptive coding order), PSNR (Peak signal to noise ratio), Compression Ratio(CR), MSE(mean squ
 Sure. Srikanth, Sukadev Meher, “Compression Efficiency for Combining Different Embedded Image Compression Techniques with Huffman Encoding”, International conference on Communication and Signal Processing, April 3-5, 2013, India,IEEE  Salija.P , Manimekalai.M.A.P, N.A Vasanthi, PhD. “ROI and Seam SPIHT based Efficient Image Compression for Mobile Multimedia and Medical Applications”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 64– No.12, February 2013.  Yamsang N. and S. Udomhunsakul, “ Image Quality Scale (IQS) for compressed images quality measurement” Proceedings of the International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, vol. 1, pp. 789- 794, 2009.  Kartik Sau, Ratan Kumar Basak, Amitabha Chanda, “Image Compression based on Block Truncation Coding using Clifford Algebra “International Conference on Computational Intelligence: Modeling Techniques and Applications (CIMTA) , 699 – 706,2013  Dipalee Gupta, Siddhartha Choubey, “Discrete Wavelet Transform for Image Processing” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (598-602) vol-4, March 2015  Somasundaram K. and MS.S.Vimala, Efficient Block Truncation Coding: (IJCSE) International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering. Vol. 02, No. 06, 2010, 2163-2166.  P. Vasanthi Kumari, Dr.K.Thanushkodi ,A Secure Fast 2D - Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform Based Medical Image Compression Using Hybrid Encoding Technique, International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Technology, ICCTET’13 1© IEEE 2013  HUANG KE-KUN, “Improved Set Partitioning in hierarchical trees algorithms based on adaptive coding order” journal of computer applications, 2012, 32(3):732-735  SENAPATI R K, PATIL U C, MAHAPATRA K.K. “A novel hybrid HVC based embedded image coding algorithm using DTT and SPIHT[C]”//IEEE International conference on devices and communication. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE press, 2011: 1-5  Ms. Sonam Malik and Mr. Vikram Verma , 2012, ―Comparative analysis of DCT, Haar and Daubechies Wavelet for Image Compression‖ Published in International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol.7-No.11.  S.Bhavani - “A Survey On Coding Algorithms In Medical Image Compression (IJCSE) International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol. 02, No. 05, 2010, 14  S.Padmashree , Dr.Rohini Nagapadma, “Analysis of Fractal Image Compression for Medical Images using Embedded Block Coding optimization Truncation(EBCOT)” IEEE International Advance Computing Conference (IACC) 1087-1092.
Nowadays Robots are playing a vital role in all the activities in human life including industrial needs. In modern industrial manufacturing process consists of precise and fastest proceedings. Human operations are needed to perform a various tasks in a robotic system such as set-up, programming, trouble shooting, maintenance and error handling activities. Hazardous conditions exist when human operators interfere into the robotic work zones. Human perception, decision making, and action strategies need to be studied to prevent robot-related accidents. System designers and technology managers they are required to consider the limitations of operator perceptual process in design and layout of robotic system. The ultimate object is to save human lives to increasing productivity and quality of high technology work environments. Effective safety training programs for work with industrial robots should be developed. One of the major areas of Research & Development (R&D) that has made a radical improvement in Computer Science and electronics is “Automation” and “Artificial Intelligence”. Autonomous Systems are self-governed and does not require any manual interventions. The objective of the paper is to study the all types of robots and sate its properties, advantages disadvantages and applications.
Keywords : Types of Robots, DOF, Properties, End effector, Configuration;
 International federation of robotics (IFR), “World Robotics”, Switzerland: United Nation, 2005.  Khatib, S., “Springer Handbook of Robotics”, USA: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008.  Gieras, F. J., Piech, J. Z., Tomczuk, I. “Linear Synchronous Motors: Transportation and Automation Systems, Second Edition” USA: Taylor and Francis Group,LLC, pp.407-413, 2012.  Kuttan, A., “Robotics”, India: I.K. International publishing house, 2007.  Sanchez, S. P., Cortes, R. F., “Cartesian Control for Robot Manipulators, Robot Manipulators Trends and Development”, 2010.  Saha, S. K., “Introduction to Robotics”, India: Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company Ltd., 2008.  Mathia, K., “Robotics for Electronics Manufacturing: Principles and Applications in Cleanroom Automation”, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.  Tsai, L. W., “Robot Analysis: The Mechanics of Serial and Parallel Manipulators” Canada: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.  Merlet, J. P., “Parallel Robots: Second Edition”, Netherlands: Springer, 2006.  Zhang, D., “Parallel Robotic Machine Tools”, Canada: University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), pp.1-5, 2010.  Gogu, G., “Structural Synthesis of Parallel Robots: Part 4: Other Topologies with Two or three degree of freedom”, France: France Institute of advanced mechanism, pp.1-10, 2012.  Nof, Y. S., “Handbook of industrial robotics, volume 1”, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.  Bagad, V. S., “Mechatronics” India: Technical Publication Pune, 2008.  Roa, P. N., “CAD/CAM Principles and Applications 3rd Edition”, India: Tata McGraw Hill Education private Ltd., 2010.
The primary aim of the present study was to find out the cause of failure of concrete pan mixer shaft. This shaft under various loading may failed like, overloading, bending, fatigue, vibration, etc. By this study, the main cause of Failure of shaft is fatigue. “Fatigue failure is defined as the tendency of material to fracture by means of progressive brittle cracking under repeated altering or cyclic stresses”. This paper only describes the investigation of fatigue failure of pan mixer shaft on the basis of literature survey and extensive study of the existing pan mixer. In this paper we will see the cause of failure of shaft by using various methodologies and various literature papers which are added in this review paper.
Keywords : Concrete Pan Mixer, Shaft, Fatigue Failure
 S.K. Bhaumik, R. Rangaraju, M.A. Parameswara, M.A. Venkataswamy,T.A. Bhaskaran, R.V. Krishnan, Fatigue failure of a hollow power transmission shaft, Failure Analysis Group, Materials Science Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017, IndiaReceived 10 August 2001; accepted 22 August 2001.  Yong Liang, Zongwen An, Bo Liu, Fatigue Life Prediction for Wind TurbineMain Shaft Bearings, School of Mechatronics Engineering Lanzhou University of Technology Lanzhou, China email@example.com  D. N. Walker, S. L. Adams, and R. J. Placek, Torsional Vibration and Fatigue ofTurbine-Generator Shafts, General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY.  Gautam Das, Ashok Kumar Ray, SabitaGhosh, Swapan Kumar Das, Dipak. Kumar Bhattacharya, Fatigue failure of a boiler feed pump rotor shaft, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur-831007, IndiaReceived 22 October 2002; accepted 1 February 2003.  Y.A. Khalid, S.A. Mutasher, B.B. Sahari, A.M.S. Hamouda, Bending fatigue behavior of hybrid aluminum/composite drive shaftsDepartment of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400 Selango, MalaysiaReceived 17 December 2004; accepted 22 May 2005.  A.A. Mohamed!. R. Neilson, P. MacConnell, N. C. Renton and W. Deans, Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Stages in a High Carbon Steel Rotating Shaft Using Vibration, University of Aberdeen AB24 3UE Aberdeen, UK.  Xinjie Shao, Lijun Cao, Jinhua Liu, Guangsheng Liu, Guibo Yu, GuangTian, A New Kind of Reliability Analysis Method in Coupled Case of High-Cycle Fatigue and Low-Cycle Fatigue, Shijiazhuang Mechanical Engineering CollegeShijiazhuang, Hebei, China, firstname.lastname@example.org  M. da Fonte, L. Reis, M. de Freitas, Fatigue crack growth under rotating bending loading on aluminium alloy 7075-T6 and the effect of a steady torsion, IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. RoviscoPais, Portugal Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nautical School, Av. Bonneville Franco, Paço de Arcos, Portugal  Gustavo De-Deus, DDS, MS, PhD,Victor Talarico Leal Vieira, PhD,EmmanuelJo~aoNogueira da Silva, PhD,Helio Lopes, PhD,Carlos Nelson Elias, PhD,and Edson Jorge Moreira, PhD, Bending Resistance and Dynamic and Static Cyclic Fatigue Life of Reciproc and WaveOne Large Instruments.  R. Li, T.H. Hyde, W. Sun, E.J. Williams, Fatigue crack growth testing of the Super CMV hollow shafts under combined torsional and axial loading, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK Tiandi Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100013, China.  Vahid Mortezavi, Ali Haghshenas, M. M. Khonsari, and Bart Bollen, Fatigue analysis of metals using damping parameter, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2058 Patrick Taylor HallLouisiana State UniversityBaton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.  A. Tjernberg, Fatigue lives for induction hardened shafts with subsurface crack initiation, Volvo construction Equipment components AB, department TUB, 63185 Eskilstuna, Sweden.  Jafar Albinmousa, Investigation on multiaxial fatigue crack path using polar stress–strain representation, Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia  J. Bris, H. Maury, A. Pacheco, J. Torres, J. Wilches High temperature corrosion fatigue of duplex stainless steel shaft Research Group in Materials, Processes, and Design (GIMYP), Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia  Sumit P.Raut, Laukik P.Raut A Review of Various Techniques Used for Shaft Failure Analysis, Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering,G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India  R.W. Fuller a1, J.Q. Ehrgott, Jr.b, W.F. Heardb, S.D. Robertb, R.D. Stinsonb, K. Solankic, and M.F. Horstemeyerc, Failure Analysis of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Shaft, Entergy Operations, Design Engineering-Mechanical Systems, Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Bald Hill Road,Port Gibson, MS 39150  Chiara F. Ferraris Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 391–399 (2001)] Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8621.
Solar Power Optimizer(SPO) for DC Distribution System comprises of a high step-up solar power optimizer (SPO) which efficiently harvests maximum energy from a photovoltaic (PV) panel, energy is output to a dc-micro grid. It integrates coupled inductor and switched capacitor technologies to realize high step-up voltage gain. The leakage inductance energy of the coupled inductor can be recycled to reduce power losses and voltage stress. A low low-conduction resistance and voltage rating switch improves system efficiency by employing the fuzzy logic method for the (MPPT) maximum power point tracking algorithm. It has high tracking accuracy, hence the method is widely used to harvest energy of PV systems. The reduction in power caused by the existing shadow effect on PV panels is an unavoidable problem in a centralized PV system. The use of a micro inverter or ac module has recently been proposed for individual PV panels.
Keywords : PV, SPO, BOOST
 A. Ch. Kyritsis, E. C. Tatakis, and N. P. Papanikolaou, “Optimum design of the current-source flyback inverter for decentralized grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 281–293, 2008.  Y. Fang and X. Ma, “A novel PV micro inverter with coupled inductors and double-boost topology,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3139–3147, 2010.  P. Tsao, “Simulation of PV systems with power optimizers and distributed power electronics,” in Proc. IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf., pp. 389– 393, 2010.  D. D.-C. Lu and V. G. Agelidis, “Photovoltaic-battery-powered DC bus system for common portable electronic devices,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 849–855, 2009.  A. Pratt, P. Kumar, and T. V. Aldridge, “Evaluation of 400 V DC distribution in telco and data centers to improve energy efficiency,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Telecommun. Energy Conf., pp. 32–39, 2007.  L. Zhang, K. Sun,Y. Xing, L. Feng, and H.Ge, “A modular grid-connected photovoltaic generation system based on DC bus,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 523–531, 2011.  S.M. Chen, T. J. Liang, L. S. Yang, and J. F. Chen, “A boost converter with capacitor multiplier and coupled inductor for AC module applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Early Access Articles, vol.60, no. 4, pp. 1503-1511, 2013HUANG KE-KUN, “Improved Set Partitioning in hierarchical trees algorithms based on adaptive coding order” journal of computer applications, 2012, 32(3):732-735.  A. C. Nanakos, E. C. Tatakis, and N. P. Papanikolaou, “A weighted efficiency- oriented design methodology of flyback inverter for AC photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 3221–3233, 2012.  S. Zengin, F. Deveci, and M. Boztepe, “Decoupling capacitor selection in DCM fly-back PV micro-inverters considering harmonic distortion,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Early Access Articles, vol.28, no. 2, pp.816-825, 2013.  B. Axelrod, Y. Berkovich, and A. Ioinovici, “Switched-capacitor/switched-inductor structures for getting transformerless hybrid DC-DC PWM converters,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 687–696, 2008.  O. Abutbul, A. Gherlitz, Y. Berkovich, and A. Ioinovici, “Step-up Switching mode converter with high voltage gain using a switched-capacitor circuit,” IEEE Trans. Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1098–1102, 2003.  S. C. Tan, S. Bronstein, M. Nur, Y. M. Lai, A. Ioinovici, and C. K. Tse, “Variable structure modeling and design of switched-capacitor converters,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 2132– 2142, 2009.  G. Zhu and A. Ioinovici, “Switched-capacitor power supplies: DC voltage ratio, efficiency, ripple, regulation,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits syst., pp. 553–556, 1996.  F. L. Luo, “Switched-capacitorized DC/DC converters,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl., May 2009, pp. 1074–1079.  L. S.Yang, T. J. Liang, and J. F.Chen, “Transformerless DC-DC converters with high step-up voltage gain,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 3144–3152, 2009.  B. Axelrod, Y. Berkovich, and A. Ioinovici, “Transformerless DC-DC converters with a very high DC line-to-load voltage ratio,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits syst., vol. 3, pp. 435–438, 2003.  F. L. Luo and H. Ye, “Positive output multiple-lift push-pull switched capacitor Luo-converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 594–602, 2004.  M. Zhu and F. L. Luo, “Enhanced self-lift cˆuk converter for negative-to positive voltage conversion,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 2227–2233, 2010.  Y. Jiao, F. L. Luo, and M. Zhu, “Voltage-lift-type switched-inductor cells for enhancing DC-DC boost ability: Principles and integrations in Luo converter,” IET Trans. Power Electron., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 131–142, 2011.  J. W. Baek, M. H. Ryoo, T. J. Kim, D. W. Yoo, and J. S. Kim, “High boost converter using voltage multiplier,” in Proc. Annu. IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Soc., pp. 567–572, 2005.  R. J.Wai and R. Y. Duan, “High step-up converter with coupled-inductor,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1025–1035, 2005.  S. K. Changchien, T. J. Liang, J. F. Chen, and L. S. Yang, “Novel high step-up DC–DC converter for fuel cell energy conversion system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2007–2017, 2010.  S. M. Chen, T. J. Liang, L. S. Yang, and J. F. Chen, “A safety enhanced, high step-up DC-DC converter for AC photovoltaic module application,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1809–1817, 2012.
Electrical Isolators have been used primarily before circuit breakers in a power transmission substation. Circuit Breakers are used to isolate the circuit. The break points cannot be viewed externally as they lie within the circuit breaker. Electrical Isolators are therefore physical switches that are in place to ensure that the complete connection or disconnection to the whole circuit is made. It is very essential safety switch. These Electrical Isolators used in substations are manually handled, to open or close the Electrical Isolator/ Disconnector switch. This process is hazardous for the person operating the Isolators/ Disconnectors. Therefore, to automate the operation an electric motor can be used. This motor can be used to operate the Electrical Isolator/Disconnector switch remotely. A gear box needs to be designed to give necessary output speed needed to operate the electrical Isolator/Disconnector switch mechanism. Hence, in this project a speed reducer gearbox has been designed for two electrical motors with powers: 0.5 HP and 1 HP. The gearbox uses spur gear pair and worm gear pair to get the necessary output speed.
Keywords : Electrical Isolator/Disconnector, Switch, Automation, Gearbox, Electric Motor
 Design, simulation of meshing, and contact stresses for an improved worm gear drive, Faydor L. Litvin, Ignacio Gonzalez-Perez, Kenji Yukishima, Alfonso Fuentes, Kenichi Hayasaka in Mechanism and Machine Theory 42 (2007) 940–959.  Modeling and robust control of worm-gear driven systems,T.-J. Yeh *, Feng-Kung Wu in Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 17 (2009) 767–777  Study on interactions between tooth backlash and journal bearing clearance nonlinearity in spur gear pair system Zhenxing Liu, Zhansheng Liu, Jingming Zhao, Guanghui Zhang in Mechanism and Machine Theory 107 (2017) 229–245  Study of the efficiency of spur gears made of powder metallurgy materials – ground versus super-finished surfaces Xinmin Li n, Mario Sosa, Martin Andersson, Ulf Olofsson  Clauser, H. R., Industrial and Engineering Materials, McGraw Hill, 1975  Dieter, G. E., Engineering Design- A Materials and Processing Approach, McGraw Hill, 1987  V. B. Bhandari, “Engineering Materials” in Design of Machine Elements, 4th ed. McGraw Hill Education.  V. B. Bhandari, “Shafts, Keys and Couplings” in Design of Machine Elements, 4th ed. McGraw Hill Education.  Buckingham, E., Manual on Gear Design, A.G.M.A and Industrial Press, 1959  S.S Wadhawa, S.S Jolly., Machine Design- A Basic Approach, 4th ed. Dhanpat Rai and Co. Pvt. Ltd  Design Data book of Engineers, Kalaikathir Achchagam, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India  V. B. Bhandari, Machine Design Data Book, McGraw Hill Education  Dr. P.C Sharma, Dr. D.K Aggarwal, A Text Book of Machine Design, S.K. Kataria And Sons
Free or natural convection heat transfer is predominant in many engineering applications such as cooling of electronic equipment, pollution, materials processing, energy systems, and safety in thermal processes and geophysical flows. The present work discusses about the result of a computational fluid dynamics study of Steady, Laminar, Free convection heat transfer in a horizontal plate facing upwards in which two walls are adiabatic and other two ends are open to the ambient .The aim is to simulate the flow using appropriate CFD tools and compare the results with available experimental data. The CFD tool used here is ANSYS-FLUENT
Keywords : ANSYS Fluent, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Heat Transfer, Natural Convection, Plate
Basic  Y. Kitamura, M. Ishizuka, “Chimney Effect On Natural Air Cooling Of Electronic Equipment Under Inclination”, IEEE, pp. 77-83.  A. Bar-Cohen, A. D. Kraus, S. F. Davidson, “Thermal Frontier in the Design and Packaging of Micro Electronic Equipments,” Journal of mechanical Engineering, vol. 105, no. 6, pp.53-59, 1983  L. T. Yeh,”Review of Heat transfer Technologies in Electronic Equipments” ASME J. Electron. Packaging, vol.117, pp. 333-339, 1995.  W. Elenbaas, “Heat Dissipation of Parallel Plates by Free Convection”, Physica, vol.9, pp. 1-28, 1942.  R.A. Wirtz, R.J.Stutzman, “Experiments On Free Convection Between Vertical Plates With Symmetric Heating," ASME, Journal of heat transfer, vol. 104, pp. 501-507, 1982.  Chen Linhui, Tian Huaizhang, Li Yanzhong,Zhang Dongbin, “Experimental Study On Natural Convective Heat Transfer From A Vertical Plate With Discrete Heat Sources Mounted On The Back” ,Energy conservation and management, vol. 47, pp.3447-3455, 2006.  Osterle, “The Development Of Free Convection Between Heated Vertical Plates”, ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, vol.84, pp. 40–44, 1962.  W.W.Yousef, J.D.Tarasuk, W.J.P McKeen, “Free Convection Heat Transfer From Upward Facing Isothermal Horizontal Surfaces”, Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 104, pp. 493-500, 1982.  P. Anu Nair, K. Karuppasamy, B. Benziger, P. Balkrishnan, “Natural Convective Heat Transfer From Horizontal Heated Plate Facing Upward in aVertical Channel – A Review,” International Journal Mechanical Engineering and Research,vol. 5, no. 1,pp. 27-38, 2015.  Y. Liu, N. Phan-Thein, C. W. Leung, T. L. K, “An Optimum Spacing Problem For Five Chips On A Horizontal Substrate in a Vertically Insulated Enclosure,” Comput. Mech., vol. 24 pp. 310-317, 1999.  M. D. Landon, A. Campo, “Optimal Shape For Laminar Natural Convective Cavities Containing Air And Heated From The Side,” International Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 26, pp. 389-398, 1999.  I. Sezai, A. A. Mohamad, “Natural Convection From A Discrete Heat Sourse On The Bottom Of A Horizontal Enclosure,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 43, pp. 2257-2266, 2000.  H. Y. Wang, F. Penot, J. B Saulnier, “Numerical study of a buoyancy – induced flow along a vertical plate with discretely heated integrated circuit packages,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 40, pp. 1509-1520, 1997.  Y. Liu, N. Phan-Thien, “An Optimum Spacing Problem for Three Chips Mounted On A Vertical Substrate In An Enclosure,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, vol. 37, pp. 613-630, and 2000.  S. Chen, Y. Liu, "An Optimum Spacing Problem For Three-By-Three Heated Element Mounted On A Substrate," Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 39, pp. 830-842, 2000.  A. K. da Silva, S. Lorente, A. Bejan, "Optimal distribution of discreteheat source on a wall with natural convection," International Journal for Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 47, pp. 203-214, 2004.  M. Corcione, “Heat Transfer Correlations For Free Convections From Upward Facing Horizontal Rectangular Surface”, 5 th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 2, pp. 48-60, 2007.  K. Stewartson, “On Free Convection from A Horizontal Plate”, ZAMP, vol. 9, pp. 276-282, 1958.  Hassan, K. E. Mohamed, "Natural convection from iso thermal flat surfaces," Int. Jou. Of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 13, pp. 1873-1886, 1970.  P. Anu Nair, K. Karuppasamy, "Comparative Study Of Bayesian Approach And Laast Sqare Residual Optimization Method In Horizontal Heated Plate Facing Upward – An Experimental Approach," International Journal of Research in Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering, vol.3, no. 4, pp. 7-18,2015  ANSYS Inc, Fluent, 2014, Computational Fluid Dynamics Software, Canonsburg, USA Book References  Yunus A. Cengel - Heat and Mass Transfer Fundamentals and Applications 5th Edition, 2015
An AC-DC flyback converter for outdoor LED lighting is proposed. In the proposed converter is designed to be operated in the discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM) to achieve a high power factor. A DC-DC flyback module is designed to provide input-output electrical isolation. This improves safety. In addition to this, a low-voltage-rating capacitor can be used as the DC-bus. PSIM based simulations are carried out. This paper addresses a novel approach for designing and modeling of the isolated flyback converter. A detailed analysis and simulation are conferred for flyback converter in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM).
Keywords : LED (light emitting diode), interleaved flyback, PFC (power factor correction), THD (Total harmonic distortion), Design, Analysis and result
 G. S. Sandhya. K, "An Interleaved Single-Stage Fly Back AC-DC converter for outdoor LED lighting," International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1679-1683, March 2014.  S.-W. L. a. H.-L. Do, "A Single-Switch AC-DC LED Driver Based on a Boost-Flyback PFC Converter with Lossless Snubber," IEEE transaction on power electronics, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 1375-1384, 2017.  A. A. Saliva, "Design Guide for Off-line Fixed Frequeny DCM Flyback Converter," january 2013.  G.-B. K. G.-W. M. SangCheol Moon, "An Interleaved Single-Stage Flyback AC-DC Converter with Wide Output Power Range for Outdoor LED Lighting System," in Applied Power Electronics conference and exposition,2012 Twenty-seventh Annual IEEE, 2012.  www.fairchildsemi.com  C.W.T. McLyman, Tarnsformer and inductor Design Handbook.  Brian Shaffer, Interleaving Contributes Unique Benefits to Forward Converters.
Developments in cloud computing and smart phone technology have opened the door for many unique applications to be created. In a world that is interminable becoming more globalize, there are more interactions between different languages. One of such applications is the ability to allow users to use computer vision with a camera on their phone to translate foreign language into their native language. However, early adopters of this. Technologies are far from optimal when it comes to features and robustness of their apps. Exploring options for optimizing allocation of resources and maximizing features of these apps can greatly improve the technology for users and distributors alike. In this project we introduce a scalable and energy efficient computer vision protocol for the text translation using Google Vision and reduce power consumption by uploading the translation computation on server, improving the data usage, and accuracy of translation. Our proposed idea is based on a camera driven process algorithm and an energy-efficient model to improve energy efficiency and provide the scalability support for foreign language translation. To validate the proposed idea, a Java based platform is developed. Our results demonstrate that compared the existing application with our application energy efficient and scalable application showed much better performance than existing applications including Google App.
Keywords : Cloud Computing, Computer Vision, Energy Efficient, Google Vision, Mobile App, Power Consumption.
 Yasuhiko Watanabe Kazuya Sono Kazuya Yokomizo.” TRANSLATION CAMERA ON MOBILE PHONE”, Dept. of Electronics and Informatics, Ryukoku University, Seta, Otsu, Shiga, Japan, 2002.  KwangIn Kim, Keechul Jung,” Texture-Based Approach for Text Detection in Images Using Support Vector Machines and Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions On Pattern Analysis And Machine Intelligence, Vol. 25, No. 12, December 2003.  X. Chen and A. Yuille, ’’Detecting and reading text in natural scenes,” in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, 2004.  D. Ma, Q. Lin, and T. Zhang. ”Mobile camera based text detection and translation”, 2011.  Petter, M.; Fragoso, V.; Turk, M.; Baur, Charles, ”Automatic text detection for mobile augmented reality translation,” in Computer Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops), 2011 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.48-55, 6-13 Nov.2011.  Tayade, A. A.; R. V. Mante; P. N. Chatur.”Text Recognition and Translation Application for Smartphone.” Government College of Engineering, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol.2, no. 6, pp. 4376-4378, 2013  Gang Hua, Zicheng Liu, Zhengyou Zhang and Ying Wu,” Automatic Business Card Scanning with A Camera”, 2145 Sheridan Road, EECS Dept. One Microsoft Way Northwestern University Microsoft Research Evanston, IL 60208, U.S.A.2013  Miss.Poonam B. Kadam, Prof. Latika R. Desai” A Hybrid Approach To Detect And Recognize Text In Images”, IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) ISSN (e): 2250-3021, ISSN (p): 2278-8719, 2014.  KarishmaTyagi, VedantRastogi ”Character Recognition using OCR Techniques” International Journal of Engineering Research Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 3 Issue 2, February - 2014 .  Prof. Kaushal Patel 1, Prof. AmitChoksi 2 ’’Android Based Business Card Scanner: An OCR Based Approach”, Kaushal Patel et al, / (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 7 (1) , 2016, 342-348.  Richard Kolk, 2Abdul Razaque”Scalable and Energy Efficient Computer Vision for Text Translation”, and Computer Science, Cleveland State University Cleveland, Ohio 44115 email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org IEEE 2016.  N. Paragios and R. Deriche. Geodesic active regions and level set methods for supervised texture segmentation. International Journal of Computer Vision, pages 223247, 2002.  Amit Choksi, Shital Thakkar:”Recognition of Similar Appearing Gujarati Characters using FKNN Algorithm”, International Journal of Computer Application.(OCT- 2012), Vol. 55, No. 6.
Power Quality (PQ) problems have obtained increasing attentions as they can affect lots of sensitive end-users. Studies indicate that voltage sags, transients and momentary interruptions constitute 92% of all the PQ problems occurring in the distribution power system. Typical sag can be a drop between 10% and 90% of the rated rms voltage and has the duration time of 0.5 cycles to 1 min. According to the data presented, majority of the sags recorded are of depth no less than 50%, but deeper sags with long duration time obviously cannot be ignored as they are more intolerable than shallow and short-duration sags to the sensitive electrical consumers. The most studied voltage regulator topologies can be generally categorized into two groups the inverter-based regulator and direct AC–AC converters. Series-connected Devices (SD) are voltage-source inverter-based regulators and an SD compensate for voltage sags by injecting a missing voltage in series with the grid. A new design is proposed in order to compensate the voltage levels. High operation efficiency is obtained by this method of controlling due to application of the DC link voltage adaptive control method. Additionally, the proposed active voltage quality regulator is a cost effective solution for long duration sags that are lower than 50% of the nominal voltage as it is transformer less compared with the traditional dynamic voltage restorer.
Keywords : Voltage sag, series connected device, DVR
 Y. H. Chen, C. Y. Lin, J. M. Chen, and P. T. Cheng, “An inrush mitigation technique of load transformers for the series voltage sag compensator,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 2211–2221, Aug. 2010.  M. F. McGranaghan, D. R. Mueller, and M. J. Samotyj, “Voltage sags in industrial systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 397–403, Mar./Apr. 1993.  A. Bendre, D. Divan, W. Kranz, and W. Brumsickle, “Equipment failures caused by power quality disturbances,” in Proc. IEEE IAS Conf. Record, 2004, pp. 482–489.  M. F. Alves and T. N. Ribeiro, “Voltage sag: an overview of IEC and IEEE standards and application criteria,” in Proc. IEEE Transmiss. Distrib. Conf., 1999, vol. 2, pp. 585–589.  S. Subramanian and M. K. Mishra, “Inter phase AC–AC topology for voltage sag supporter,”IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 514– 518, Feb. 2010.  M. H. J. Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems, Voltage Sags and Interruptions. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2002.  A. Sannino, M. G. Miller, and M. H. J. Bollen, “Overview of voltage sag mitigation,” in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Winter Meet., 2000, vol. 4, pp. 2872–2878.  S. M. Hietpas and M. Naden, “Automatic voltage regulator using an AC voltage-voltage converter, ”IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 33– 38, Jan./Feb. 2000.  Z. Fedyczak, R. Strzelecki, and G. Benysek, “Single-phase PWM AC/AC semiconductor transformer topologies and applications,” in Proc. 33rd Annu. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2002, pp. 1048–1053.  J. Hoyo, J. Alcala, and H. Calleja, “A high quality output AC/AC cuk converter,” in Proc. 35th Annu. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 2004, pp. 2888–2893.  J. Hoyo, H. Calleja, and J. Arau, “Three-Phase PWM AC/AC cuk converter for voltage sag compensation,” in Proc. 37th IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 2006, pp. 1–5.
Crowdsourcing is the disperse problem solving model in the domain of Data mining that has emerged in recent years. Crowdsourcing is designed to relieve the user from the burden dealing with the crowd. The Motivation of the project is the registered users or any group of audience from social media who are registered can rate the designs from Number of designs provided by the designers and filter by the admin based on different contexts and the filtered rated designs are displayed to the end users or customers. The project is mainly for the particular boutique shop. The project is based on query optimization: cost-based and latency based query optimization.
Keywords : Crowdsourcing, Data Mining, Query Optimization, Cost and Latency
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The accuracy in measurement of flow rate of liquids and gases is an essential requirement for maintaining the quality of industrial processes and the industrial control loops are used to control the rate of flow of incoming liquids or gases so as to achieve the control objective. Different types of flow measuring techniques are being used in various industries. The common types of flowmeters used in industrial applications are : (a) Obstruction type (differential pressure or variable area) (b) Inferential (turbine type), (c) Electromagnetic, (d) Positive displacement (integrating), (e) fluid dynamic (vortex shedding), (f) Anemometer, (g) ultrasonic and (h) Mass flowmeter (Coriolis). Pressure probe is one of the common instruments used to measure the stagnation pressure, the static pressure, and the flow angle within a fluid stream. When we are designing a pneumatic probe for flow measurements, the effects of blockage, frequency response, pressure hole size and geometry, the local Mach and Reynolds numbers and the relative scale of the phenomena under study must be addressed. Five-hole probes are a newer type after the development of two-hole Conrad and three-hole Cobra probes which are used to measure the pitch and yaw angles of the flow, the stagnation pressure and dynamic or static pressure. Here, five hole probe is fabricated and then calibrated by using continuous wind tunnel. It can be extensively used for three dimensional flow measurements. It is a good alternative to costly techniques of flow measurement.be volumetric or mass flow rate, the medium could be gas or liquid, the measurement could be intrusive or non intrusive, and so on. Hence, different types of flow measuring techniques are being used in various industries. The common types of flowmeters used in industrial applications are : (a) Obstruction type (differential pressure or variable area) (b) Inferential (turbine type), (c) Electromagnetic, (d) Positive displacement (integrating), (e) fluid dynamic (vortex shedding), (f) Anemometer, (g) ultrasonic and (h) Mass flow meter (Coriolis). Pressure probe is one of the common instruments used to measure the stagnation pressure, the static pressure, and the flow angle within a fluid stream. When we are designing a pneumatic probe for flow measurements, the effects of blockage, frequency response, pressure hole size and geometry, the local Mach and Reynolds numbers and the relative scale of the phenomena under study must be addressed. In general, better accuracy is obtainable if smaller probes and transducers are used though this usually means that the response times are longer and that there are greater problems with contamination in dirty environments. Five-hole probes are a newer type after the development of two-hole Conrad and three-hole Cobra probes. They are used to measure the pitch and yaw angles of the flow, the stagnation pressure and dynamic or static pressure. As a result, they provide sufficient information to fully specify the velocity components and pressure fields providing that the stagnation temperature and so, the density, is known. Here, five hole probe is fabricated and then calibrated by using continuous wind tunnel. The probe is faced with known flow velocity for calibration. The velocity of the air stream is kept at 35 m/sec and it is calibrated for different yaw and pitch angle. The graphs for the calibration are compared. From these graphs, it had been found that suitable range for yaw and pitch angle is - 30º and +30º. It can be extensively used for three dimensional flow measurements. It is a good alternative to costly techniques of flow measurement.
Keywords : Multi-Hole Pressure Probe, Five-Hole Probe, Calibration, Cp PITCH, CpYAW, Three-Dimensional Flow, Araldite Cladex Solution, Stagnation Pressure, Micro Manometer
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