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Spoofing attack against biometric systems is still an important issue. Face spoofing is a form of attack that is presenting a fake sample to the acquisition sensor with facial information of a valid user. Compared to various attacks against fingerprint, speech or iris recognition systems, the ubiquitous nature of image acquisition devices, such as cameras and smartphones, allows attackers to acquire facial images of a user easily and discretely. This paper presents a literature survey on spoof detection methods and proposes a method to detect whether the input face is spoofed or not. Edge Adaptive Hybrid Filter is used for image enhancement and Naive Bayes classifier is used for classification to detect spoofed face.
Keywords : Spoof Detection, Naive Bayes classifier, Edge Adaptive Hybrid Filter
 Tirunagari, Santosh, et al. "Detection of face spoofing using visual dynamics." IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 10.4 (2015): 762-777.  Boulkenafet, Zinelabidine, Jukka Komulainen, and Abdenour Hadid. "Face Spoofing Detection Using Colour Texture Analysis." IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 11.8 (2016): 1818-1830.  Li, Yuming, et al. "Face liveness detection and recognition using shearlet based feature descriptors." 2016 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). IEEE, 2016.  Alotaibi, Aziz, and Ausif Mahmood. "Enhancing computer vision to detect face spoofing attack utilizing a single frame from a replay video attack using deep learning." Optoelectronics and Image Processing (ICOIP), 2016 International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.  Phan, Quoc-Tin, et al. "FACE spoofing detection using LDP-TOP." Image Processing (ICIP), 2016 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.  Boulkenafet, Zinelabidine, et al. "Scale space texture analysis for face anti-spoofing." Biometrics (ICB), 2016 International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.  Diviya, M., and Susmita Mishra. "A novel approach for detecting facial image spoofing using local ternary pattern." Science Technology Engineering and Management (ICONSTEM), Second International Conference on. IEEE, 2016.
Value stream mapping is a lean tool which is used in lean manufacturing to find the flow of information and material, as a product it makes way through value stream. These envision tool helps to understand processes by using of stream lined work process. In these paper value stream maps of a process by using simulation is developed. By creating dynamic value stream maps makes it possible to analyze and optimize more complex systems than traditional VSM. Simulation can be used with value stream mapping to give it power and flexibility in order to dynamically change the state of the system. The study is conducted in milk processing plant, in particular a company who manufacture dairy based products. The aim is to identify extent of waste and how these can be reduced and/or eliminated from the value stream and consequently promoting Green Manufacturing. The benefits are visualized with the help of simulation which can reap long term yield for the manufacturers.
Keywords : Lean Manufacturing,VSM,Simulation,Dynamic Value Stream Mapping,Green Manufacturing.
I.D.Paula, G.P.Bholeb, J.R.Chaudhari,“A review on Green Manufacturing: It’s important, Methodology and its Application”. Procedia Materials Science ,pp.1644 – 1649,2014.  Lai, K.H., Lun, Y.H.V., Wong, C.W.Y., Cheng, “Green shipping practices in the shipping industry: conceputualization, adoption and implications”. Resources Conservation and Recycling,vol.55,pp.559–566,2011.  J.P.Womack, D.T Jones, “Lean thinking: banish waste and create wealth in your corporation”, Simon & Schuster, New York,1996.  M.Rother and J Shook, “Learning to see: value stream mapping to add value and eliminate MUDA”,The Lean Enterprise. Institute,Brookline, MA,1999.  Y.Monden, “Toyota Production System: An Integrated Approach to Just-in- Time”, 2nd edition, Industrial Engineering and Management Press, 1993.  D.T.Jones,P.Hines,N.Rich,“The seven value stream mapping tools”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management,vol.17,pp. 46–64,1997.  J.Narasimhan,L.Parthasarathy and P.S.Narayan,“ Increasing the effectiveness of value stream mapping using simulation tools in engine test operations”,IASTED International Conference on Modelling and Simulation,pp. 260-264,2007.  A. Melvin and D.Baglee, “Value stream mapping: A dairy industry prospective”,IEEE International, Engineering Management Conference,pp. 1 – 5, 2008.  D.Seth,N.Seth and D.Goel, “Application of value stream mapping(VSM) for minimization of wastes in the processing side of supply chain of cottonseed oil industry in Indian context”, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management,vol.19,pp. 529–550,2008.  Ana Julia Dal Forno,Fernando Augusto Pereira ,Fernando Antonio Forcellini and Liane M Kipper,“Value Stream Mapping: a study about the problems and challenges found in the literature from the past 15 years about application of Lean tools”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 72, pp. 779-790, 2014.  Bhim Singh,K Suresh Garg and K Surender. Sharma, “Value stream mapping: literature review and implications for Indian industry”. International Journal Advanced Manufacturing and Technology,vol.53,pp.799–809,2011  D.H.Taylor, “Value chain analysis: an approach to supply chain improvement in agri-food chains”,International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management ,vol.35(10),pp. 744–761,2005.  M.BragliA,G.Carmignani and F.Zammori, “A new value stream mapping approach for complex production systems”, International Journal of Production Research,vol.44(18),pp. 3929–3952,2006.  G Tamizharasi and S Kathiresan,“Optimizing Maintenance and Repair Policies by Reliability Modelling”, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 18 (12), pp. 1695-1699, 2013.  F.A,Abdulmalek and J.Rajgopal, “Analyzing the benefits of lean manufacturing and value stream mapping via simulation: A process sector case study”, International Journal of Production Economics vol.107, pp. 223–236,2007.  Vijay Dhandapani, Andrew Potter and Mohamed Naim, “Applying lean thinking: a case study of an Indian steel plant”, International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applications, Vol. 7, pp. 239-250, 2004.
This project is to design and develop a digital notice board using Arduino modem. The project is based on Arduino with VGA Shield for sending and receiving messages. It consists of two sections: the transmitting section and the receiving section. The software of this model is prepared by using the java language. This notice board is implemented in classrooms for displaying messages and as the message will arrive on the board there will be a beep sound which will be a signal that some message has been arrived on the board. Notice board is a very primary & a basic requirement for every institution. It is also used in railway station, bus stations and many more places. Because sticking notices on everyday basis is a difficult task, so this technology makes the job easier and gives us the way towards the implementation of advanced and modern board for displaying notices and messages. The three modules which is used for this project is namely, Arduino IDE, Visual Studio, Displaying monitor.
Keywords : Arduino,VGA board,Digital board, Visual basics
 http://www.pyroelectro.com/tutorials/arduino_basic_vga/  http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=150517.0  https://sourceforge.net/projects/arduino-vga/?source=directory  https://github.com/smaffer/vgax  Microsoft Visual Basic 2013 Step by Step by Michael Halvorson.  Exploring Arduino: Tools and Techniques for Engineering Wizardry Book by Jeremy Blum.
This research paper deals with a case study of Piston Rod. Rejection of Piston Rod was the main problem in company due to defects of pitting; porosity etc. DMAIC approach (Six Sigma Methodology) was used to reduce the defects and increase the productivity. Plasma Nit riding of AISI 4140 Alloy Steel was carried out at plasma nitration technology. The effect of temperature on the surface hardness and microstructure was investigated along with their corrosion resistance. The Plasma (Ion) Nit riding technology shows a clear orientation towards future developments. Hence, it ideally satisfies current and future industrial demands for economical and efficient solutions to the treatment of surfaces. It is also an answer to social demands for improved environmental protection. In the second phase the collected data was validated by collecting sampling during production hours, which helped in representing a true picture of defects, occurred after Plasma Nit riding. Finally an analysis was done using Six Sigma technique. Then, the cause and effect diagram was used to explore possible causes of defects through a brainstorming session and to determine the causes which had major effect. Some corrective measures are also suggested to overcome these defects. Six-Sigma, mainly based on customer needs & expectation with the use of facts & statistics, analysis & responsible approach to managing & improving current business, manufacturing capacity & services is applicable to such cases. Tools of six sigma methodology are used to improve the process by enhancing the quality of product. This paper draws attention towards adoption of six sigma methodology in manufacturing organization with the case study. This is successfully achieved by implementing DMAIC Methodology.
Keywords : DMAIC, Six Sigma, Plasma Nitriding, Defects, Fishbone Diagram
 Hongbo Wang (2008) “A Review of Six Sigma Approach: Methodology, Implementation and Future Research” IEEE  Alexandra Tenera, Luis Carneiro Pinto, A Lean Six Sigma (LSS) Project Management Improvement Model, Journal Of Social And Behavioral Sciences (2014)912 – 920  Miroslav Rusko, Ruzena Kralikova, Application of Six Sigma Method To Ems Design (2011)  Dr. V. D. Kodgire, “Material Science and Metallurgy”(2016)  Rahul Singh and Amit Kumar (2014) “Production Improvement through the application of Six Sigma in Small Scale Industry: A Case Study” International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology vol 4 No. 4.  Mr. Deepak Bhardwaj, Mr. Akhil (2014) “Optimization of productive management using six sigma in small scale industries” International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, ISSN: 2319-7463 Vol. 3 Issue 7, pp.158-164.
In recent years, large numbers of corporate executives, scholars, media personnel and environmentalists have been devoting significant amounts of their time in studying, theorizing, and explaining about corporate social responsibility (CSR). From the earlier researches it is reported that nearly all the companies were engaged in social responsibility work, however, the level of involvement is varied. In this paper, an attempt is made to report various aspects relating to management of social responsibility as perceived and reported by the employees working in various IT Industries, Pharmaceutical companies and Banking sectors.
Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, profitability, employees, stakeholder, environment, IT industries, pharmaceuticals companies, Banking Sectors.
 Brown K (2001), "Corporate Social Responsibility: Perceptions of Indian Business", in Mehra M (Ed.), Retrieved from www.csmworld.org/public/pdf/social_respons.pdf (Accessed February 10th 2011).  Rajeev Prabhakar and Ms.Sonam Mishra, A Study of CSR in Indian Organisation: An-Introspection, International Business Research Conference, June, 2013.  file:///H:/my%20ph.d/Evolution%20of%20corporate%20social%20responsibility%20in%20India%20-%20Wikipedia.html
Pedestrians, bicyclist and two wheelers are the vulnerable road users. The potential for problem reduction was specified for three target groups of vulnerable road users: pedestrians, cyclists, two-wheelers (i.e. motorcyclists and riders of mopeds). Walkers and cyclists has great potential to contribute to high government agendas for more sustainable development. Walking is usually the first and last mode used, providing an important link between land use and motorized travel. Bicycle is the pedal-powered two wheeler. An important subject in the study is to consider in what way safety problems of pedestrians, cyclists and two-wheelers might be related to the fact that these modes are not integrated automatically in the planning for traffic. Rajkot is the center of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat state. In addition, population dramatically increased for huge number of urban migration. But there is very lack of vulnerable road user’s facilities and which are available those are not proper. Facilities are very poor in some of the areas in Rajkot cities like Gondalchowk. Gondalchowk is the starting and ending point of the BRTS corridor. GondalChowk is connected with the national highway. Finally, On the basis of survey(Road inventory, pedestrian interview, classified volume count, pedestrian volume count),and it’s analysis measure have proposed which should be required immediately for safe, efficient and appropriate movement of huge number of pedestrian at selected intersection.
Keywords : Vulnerable Road Users, Walkers, Cyclist, Two Wheeler, BRTS
 Rahul M. Kasundara,Praful A. Shinkar (2016)“Planning of Basic Pedestrian Facilities at Selected Intersection of Rajkot City”  Hetal C. Kyada, et Al(2012) “Profile of Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Rajkot City”  JigneshC.Prajapati, Prof. N.G.Raval(2012) “Planning for Non-Motorized Transportation”  “Construction and Improvement of T.P. Schemes Road Network for Rajkot City (2008)” Rajkot Municipal Corporation.  Highway capacity manual (2000)  The Indian road congress, IRC: 103-1988
The Onion Routing (TOR) project is a network of virtual tunnels that facilitates secure, private communications on the internet. A recent statics shows that TOR bundle browser usage has increased in recent years statistics show that in January 2016 there were approximately 1,400,000 users globally and now in January 2017 that figure is estimated to have reached 2,000,000 users. The statistics also shows that in India 1,500,000 are major contributors towards the massive increase in TOR usage. This research paper will be an introduction and identifies the need for research in this area, and provides a literature review on existing research. The objective of this paper is to discuss the existing methodologies for analyzing forensic artifacts from the use of the TOR browser bundle and to propose a synthesized forensic analysis framework that can be used for analyzing TOR artifacts.
Keywords : Tor Forensics, Onion Forensics, Digital Mafia, Dark Web Forensics, Digital Forensics
https://torproject.org/  https://www.torproject.org/projects/projects.html.en  http://www.tomsguide.com  www.cnbc.com  https://blog.torproject.org/blog/forensic-analysis-tor-linux
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is an advance technology. Optical fiber communication technology is used to send data in long distance. In this work to calculated the performance and analysis of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. And also evaluate the quality factor and bitrate of optical pulse. Different mode of optical fiber used to send the data. Here SMF (Single mode fiber) and DCF (dispersion compensation fibers) are used. This work focuses on the 48 channel DWDM with described looping particularly explained by the BER analyzer and the Optical Analyze. Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (OADMs) are used in wavelength-division multiplexing systems for routing fiber optic signals and multiplexing, it is used to transmit the data in long distance communication. In this method two modulation technique can be used RZ and NRZ .in this work NRZ modulation method can be used.
Keywords : BER, DWDM, DCF, EDFA
 Optical Communication, Sapna Katiyar, Katson books, edition 2014.  Senior, John. (2008). Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall  BijayanandaPatnaik, Prasant Kumar Sahu,” Long-Haul 64-Channel 10-Gbps DWDM System Design and Simulation in Presence of Optical Kerr’s Effect”,ICCCS’11, India, February-2011.  Tomlinson, W. J.; Lin, C., "Optical wavelength-division multiplexer for the 1–1.4-micron spectral region", Electronics Letters, vol. 14, May 25, 1978, p. 345–347  Keiser, Gerd. (2011). Optical fiber communications, 4th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill  Dispersion Compensating Fibers Received 25 October 1999, Available online 12 March 2002.  G.P. Agrawal, “Fibre Optic–Comm. Systems”, third edition, Academic Press, 2002.  Gerald P. Rya,” DenseWavelength Division Multiplexing”, ATG’s Communications& Networking Technology Guide Series, 1997.  Dr.Sabah Hawar Saeid Al-Bazzaz” Simulation of Single Mode Fibre Optics and Optical Communication Components Using VC++”, IJCSNS, VOL.8 No.2, February 2008.  Farah Diana Binti Mahad,” EDFA Gain Optimization for WDM System”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, VOL. 11, NO. 1, pp 34-37, 2009.  The ‘Real’ History of Real-Time Spectrum Analyzers Joe Deery, 2007, accessed 10 April 2013.
Synergy is a powerful, compact package for managing and organizing events. It simplifies the process of managing an event by combining all the essential tools required for making an event a success. Synergy makes it easier to create a meeting and manage the agendas. Managing or leading a team becomes way easier using Synergy. All the important components such as creating a team, managing a team, notifying the team about important events are included and simplified in this app. It Digitizes the experience of Event Management by using Cloud Technology. Synergy also helps to manage guest lists, hence being a one stop solution for everything.
Keywords : Java, Firebase Real Time Database, Registers, Testing, Android, Android Studio.
Website References:  Essentialforeverything.com  Manger.com App References:  Event Management, an app by: ginstr GmbH; available on the Android Platform via Google Play Store.  ISTA Event management, an app by: ISTA events; available on the Android Platform via Google Play Store.  Event Planner, an app by: mMobile; available on the Android Platform via Google Play Store.
The Home automation technology is set to revolutionize the way people perceive digital devices in our homes and office environment. Now they are no longer just the individual devices, instead, with the HA technology, they form a network in which appliances can communicate with each other. This wireless technology is especially useful in home environment, where there exists hardly any infrastructure to interconnect intelligent appliances. These days convenience and easy work environment is what everyone is looking for. Home automation is one such technology which gives us • Convenience • Safety and security • Fun and Enjoyable environment In the proposed system, the user will have a GUI application in his android phone with which he can control and monitor the home devices. A master control unit placed at home receives the control messages over the internet and sends it over to the corresponding devices over zigbee network. As the control and monitoring devices being developed are battery powered, there will not be an issue of availability of power sockets. The message transactions between the smart phone and home are through a cloud server, which will manage the users and the devices to be controlled or monitored. The user authentication is done in the cloud server.
Keywords : Cloud Based Home Automation
 'A ZigBee-Based Home Automation System' by Khusvinder Gill, Shuang-Hua Yang, Fang Yao, and Xin Lu,2009.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X10_(industry_standard)  "Java-based home automation system", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 50, no. 2.  H. Ardam and I. Coskun, "A remote controller for home and office appliances by telephone", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1291-1297, 1998.  "Bluetooth based home automation system", Microprocessors and Microsystems, Vol. 26, no. 6,pp. 281-289, 2002.  "Charade: remote control of objects using free-hand gestures", Communications of the ACM, vol. 36, no. 7  "Home Gateway Architecture And Its Implementation", IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics  IEEE Editorial - 'Home Automation as a Means of Independent Living‘  'Wireless Home Automation Networks- A Survey of Architectures and Technologies' by Carles Gomez and Josep Paradells, Technical University of Catalonia  ‘A PRESENTATION ON ZIGBEE'- Department of Electronics & Communication Jaipur Engineering College.  http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Bina-60652-ZigBee-Market-Application-Landscape-Why-Target-Markets-Technology-as-Education-ppt-powerpoint/  http://www.maxim-ic.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/4017  http://www.microchip.com/stellent/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&nodeId=2664¶m=en546143  MSP430x5xx MSP430x6xx Family users guide  MSP430F5308_DT  AN3174Application note - Implementing receivers for infrared remote control protocols using STM32F10xxx microcontrollers  Microchip 24AA00/24LC00/24C00 128-Bit I2C Bus Serial EEPROM  ETRX35x ZIGBEE MODULES PRODUCT MANUAL  ETRX2 and ETRX3 Series Zigbee Modules AT-Command Dictionary  Microchip TCP/IP Stack Help
The solute-solvent interactions of L-Cysteine and L-Methionine have been studied pH metrically in various concentrations (0.0-60.0% v/v) 1, 4-Dioxane-water mixture maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 mol L-1 at ambient conditions. The protonation constants have been calculated with the computer program MINIQUAD75 and the best fit chemical models are selected based on statistical parameters. Linear variation of step-wise protonation constants (log K) with reciprocal of dielectric constant of the solvent mixture has been attributed to the dominance of the electrostatic forces. Protonation equilibria and effect of influential parameters on the protonation constants have also been presented.
Keywords : Protonation equilibria, L-Cysteine, L-Methionine, 1, 4-Dioxane
 C. Jacob, I. Knight & P. G. Winyard “Aspects of the Biological Redox Chemistry of Cysteine: from Simple Redox Responses to Sophisticated Signaling Pathways” Biol. Chem., 387: p1385-1397, 2006.  B. Balta, G. Monard, M. F. Ruiz-Lopez, M. Antoine, A. Gand, S. Boschi-Muller & G. Branlant “Theoretical Study of the Reduction Mechanism of Sulfoxides by Thiols” J. Phys. Chem. A, 110: p7628-7636, 2006.  D. W. Martin, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Food Wells & D. W. Granner “Harper’s Review of Biochemistry” 20th Ed., Lange Medical Publishers, California, 672, 1985.  B. Regland, L. Abrahamsson, K. Blennow, B. Grenfeldt & C. G. Gotlfries “Cerebrospinal fluid-methionine is elevated in psychotic patients” J. Neural Transm, 111, p631–640, 2004.  M. Noji & K. Saito “Sulfur amino acids: Biosynthesis of Cysteine and Methionine, Sulphur in plants” A review, p135-144, 2003.  G.N. Rao, & R.S. Rao, “Characteristics of water-organic solvent mixtures” J. Teach. Res. Chem., 2: p15-27, 1995.  H. Sigel, R.B. Martin, R. Tribolet, U. K. Haring & R. M. Balakrishnan, “An estimation of the equivalent solution dielectric constant in the active-site cavity of metalloenzymes dependence of carboxylate metal ion complex stabilities on the polarity of mixed aqueous/organic solvents” Eur. J. Biochem. 152: p187-194, 1985.  S.Herbert Harned & M. Clair Birdsall, ‘’ The Acidic Ionization Constant of Glycine in Dioxane-Water Solutions’’ J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65: p54-57, 1943,  A. Sharma, K. D. Gupta & K. K Sexsena, ‘’The stability constants of Cu (II) complexes’’J Indian Council Chem., 19: p43-50, 2002.  V. S. Rao, P. S. Rao, B. Srikanth, C. Kamala Sastry & G. N. Rao, ‘’Speciation of binary complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with L-aspartic acid in anionic, cationic and neutral micellar medium’’ Chem. Speciat. Bioavail. 21: p71-80, 2009.  J. Hens, ‘’Structural effects on equilibria in organic chemistry’’ Wiley, New York, 1975.  S. H. Herbert & M. Clair Birdsall, ‘’The Acidic Ionization Constant of Glycine in Dioxane-Water Solutions’’ J. Am. Chem. Soc., 65: p54–57, 1943.  G. Gran, “Determination of the equivalence points in potentiometric titrations-Part-II” Analyst, 77: p661-671, 1952.  G. Gran, “Equivalence volumes in potentiometric titrations” Anal. Chim. Acta, 206: p111-123, 1988.  K. V. Santhe Devi, B. Rama Raju & G.N. Rao, “Efect of Dielectric Constant on protonation Equlibria of L-Dopa and 1, 10-Phenanthroline in Dioxan-Water Mixtures” Acta Chim. Slov., 57: p398-404, 2010.  M. P. Latha, V. M. Rao, T.S Rao & G.N. Rao, “Determination of protonation constants of L-glutamic acid and L-methionine in 1, 2-propanediol-water mixtures” Acta Chim. Slov, 54: p160-165, 2007.  G. N. Rao, (1989) “Complex equilibria of some biologically important metal ions in aquo-organic media” Ph. D. Thesis. Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.  P. Gans, A. Sabatini & A. Vacca, “An improved computer program for the computation of formation constants from potentiometric data” Inorg. Chim. Acta, 18: p237-239, 1976.  M. Born, “Volumes and hydratation-swarme der ionen” Z. Phys., 1: p45-48, 1920.
The design of an electromagnetic disc brake requires a multidisciplinary approach. Its performance is an outcome of usage of concepts from various fields viz. mechanical, electrical, magnetic and material engineering. This paper describes a new type of electromagnetic disc brake for retarding the motion of a vehicle. In this study, a comprehensive design procedure for electromagnetic disc brake is presented to ensure maximum efficiency along with effective braking. Varied magnetic materials are discussed in terms of minimizing the cost while meeting electromagnetic performance characteristics. An analytical model is developed to optimize braking effort with combination of input current and voltage using sensors and voltage regulator, wear and tear of brakes, maintenance. Calibration between spring expansion(output) and source voltage(input) is derived for prompt operation of the brakes. Also, structural analysis of nodal forces on the cross-structure and brake disc is also carried out to ensure reliability. The analytical results so obtained are within the acceptable range for braking.
Keywords : Electromagnetic brakes, Solenoidal force, Cross-structure, Brake disc, Structural analysis, EMDB
Basic  Yusuf Yasa, Eyyup Sincarb, Baris Tugrul Ertugrulb, Erkan Mesec published -A multidisciplinary design approach for electromagnetic brakes- published on 21st July 2016.  Ali Belhocine, Mostefa Bouchetara published- Investigation of temperature and thermal stress in ventilated disc brake based on 3D thermo-mechanical coupling model- published on 17 August 2012. Book References  Swapnil R. Abhang, D.P. Bhaskar-Design and Analysis of Disc Brake published on Feb 2014.  V.B. Bhandari – Design of machine elements.  Ramaruthan – Strength of materials.  G Lakshmi Narasaiah – Finite Element Analysis  Wayne Goddard, Stuart Melville – Research methodology.  Yogesh Kumar Singh – Fundamentals of research methodology & statistics. Website References  http://www.nhai.gov.in  http://www.daycounter.com/Calculators/Magnets/Solenoid-Force-Calculator.phtml
In today’s world due to Modern development and economical progression there is increase in number of cars on roads. Because of increase in number of cars, car parking is the major problem faced in most parts of the country. In a typical front wheel steering system the rear wheel do not turn in the direction of the curve . In situations like low speed cornering, vehicle parking and driving in city conditions with heavy traffic in tight spaces, high speed lane changing would be very difficult due to vehicle’s larger wheelbase and track width which brings high inertia and traction into consideration. Due to this the efficiency of two wheel steering reduces. Hence there is a requirement of a mechanism which result in less turning radius and increase stability and it can be achieved by implementing four wheel steering mechanism instead of regular two wheel steering. Implementing 4WS allows the vehicle to turn in a significantly smaller radius, sometimes judgmental for large trucks or vehicles with trailers. 4-wheel steering is a system employed by some vehicles to improve steering response, increase vehicle stability while steering at high speed and to decrease turning radius at low speed. It also helpful in avoiding skidding as well as parking problems occurs in metro cities, highways and in rural areas.
Keywords : Four Wheel Steering (4WS), Turning Radius, High Speed Stability
 Kirpal Singh (2011), Automobile Engineering, 12th Edition, Standard Publication Distributors.  Shibahata Y, Irie N, Itoh H and Nakamura K (1986), “The Development of an Experimental Four-Wheel–Steering Vehicle”, SAE 860623.  Arshit Vashisht, Anand Baghel, Rishi Katara, Pradeep Sharma “Implementation of Four Wheels Steering Using 3-Way Worm Gearbox In An All-Terrain Vehicle”  Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Brijesh Kumar Yadav, Lal Bahadur Singh, Badri Vishal, Raj Kumar Yadav, Mr.Ram Pratap Yadav, Mr.Rahul Srivastav “Advanced Four Wheel Steering System”  Jack Erjavee. “Automotive Technology –A System Approach”  Thomas W Birch “Automotive Suspension and steering System”.  Tim Gilles “Automotive Service-Inspection, maintenance, repair”  Tom Murphy and Brian Corbett “Quadra Steer Off Course”  P.Brabec, M.Maly “Control System of vehicle model with Four Wheel Steering”  Gustaw Tyroa, Lech Knapb, Zbigniew Zebrowskib, Jerzy Zebrowski “Influence of four wheel steering of a working machine on some of its traction properties”  Bansode S. P., Gaikwad A. A., Salgude P. S., Tiwari T. D. “Zero Turn vehicle”
Numerical study was carried out to study effect of different discrete rib arrangements on heat transfer performance. These rib arrangements include variously angled ribs, different. Spacing and also different angle combinations. Standard k-ε model is used for turbulence modelling. This study is carried out at Reynolds no. 22384 which was selected from previous studies. Different rib arrangements like inline and staggered for 30⁰, 45 and 60, discrete V’s arrangement with different spacing, diamond like discrete rib arrangement with half and complete obstruction, inline and staggered connected V’s and angle combination rib arrangements are studied numerically in this study. It is observed that 45 inline V-shape rib arrangement shows better Thermal Enhancement Factor (TEF) as compared to other arrangements and value of TEF is observed to be 1.0011. Ribs arranged in discrete V’s shape with different spacing shows comparatively less heat transfer enhancement.
Keywords : Rib Arrangement, Heat Transfer Enhancement, Rib Spacing, Rib Angle
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The future application of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) will be event driven and it will delivered different types of events to moving vehicles within a specified time. In this paper we propose publish-subscribe based communication framework for such environments in which vehicles subscribes to the service provider (SP) through Roadside units. Only a finite number of events can disseminate at a time, it has a cost associated with it. The formulations of RSUs are done to schedule the disseminations of events using two scheduling problems. The first problem aims to maximizing the number of subscriptions. The problem is to maximizing and matches the number of subscriptions, also aims to minimize the total cost of disseminating the events. The offline and online algorithms are designed for the problems that a service provider can execute to schedule event dissemination from the RSUs. Detailed simulations results are presented to show that the algorithms are able to match a high percentage of subscription with low average event dissemination cost for some realistic city traffic scenarios.
Keywords : Event Dissemination, Scheduling, Publish-Subscribe , RSUs, VANET
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